T2K construction - bridging funds

Lead Research Organisation: Queen Mary, University of London
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

Understanding the nature of neutrinos and their role in the Universe answers questions beyond the current frontier of our knowledge. During the past few decades, particle physics has made unprecedented progress in understanding the laws of nature at the most fundamental level. Based on this understanding, a framework, the Standard Model of Particle Physics, capable of describing the whole variety of observed particles and interactions in terms of a few fundamental interactions and elementary particles, has been developed. The Standard Model was formulated in the 1960's based on the current knowledge of the existing elementary particles. The scientific value of the Standard Model rests not only on its ability to describe the fundamental properties of the elementary components of the Universe, but also on its success in describing properties of the Universe on cosmological scales, when used together with astrophysical and cosmological models based on general relativity. However, the first and most striking evidence of a shortcoming of the Standard Model comes from neutrinos. The experimental picture developed in the last ten years is consistent with three neutrino families undergoing oscillations, i.e. neutrinos created with a specific lepton flavour can later be measured to have a different flavour, which can only happen if neutrinos have masses and mix. Detecting neutrinos is very difficult as they interact very weakly with matter, so a detector with high sensitivity is required to detect them. The T2K experiment will consist of the world highest intensity muon neutrino beam produced at the 50 GeV Proton-Synchrotron at J-PARC (Tokai) being directed at a far detector, Super-Kamiokande, 295 Km away from J-PARC. A near detector, only about 280 m away from the source, is being constructed to measure the beam spectrum before the oscillations take place and the events are collected by Super-Kamiokande. The near detector has a critical role within T2K, since only with the knowledge of the composition of the neutrino flux before the oscillation takes place can we understand the results obtained at the far detector. UK has a critical role within T2K and particularly the construction of the near detector. The current grant is needed for the completion of the near detector, performing several crucial roles for the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This grant is against already approved 'bridging' funds for supporting the responsibilities taken by UK in the T2K construction.

Publications

10 25 50
publication icon
Abe K (2011) The T2K experiment in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

publication icon
Terri R (2009) Status of the T2K Experiment in Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements

 
Description The goal of this project is to establish the UK within the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment and identify items to carry forwards towards construction.
The UK leadership positions in the experiment are also testimony that the contributions of the UK are recognised by the Hyper-Kamiokande collaboration.
All the items apart from the HPTPC that will follow an independent path as a generic neutrino detector, aiming to be deployed at ND280 for T2K and Hyper-Kamiokande as well as contributing to the DUNE near detector suite will be carried forward. The HPTPC is now part of the CERN neutrino platform.

We identified the items for the Hyper-Kamiokande construction of the far detector tank and we have positioned ourselves in a leading role in all the items. The items that we will bring to construction are:
- Data Acquisition. We have developed a few framework, ToolDAQ, that we are now using for the Hyper-Kamiokande DAQ.
- Calibration. We will focus on the items we are developing and that will be tested in the Super-Kamiokande detector. We are going to deploy the LED based optical injection calibration system in Super-K in 2018. This will expand upon Super-K capabilities and demonstrate the system for Hyper-K. The fake-muon neutron source and the neutron calibrations are planned to be tested in EGADS, the 20ton tank used for testing the gadolinium doping first and then potentially deployed at Super-Kamiokande after the refurbishment.
- Outer Detector. We are working on the photosensor system that includes the PMTs and wavelength shifter plates. We aim to contribute to the full photosensor system of the OD. The design of the OD, that includes what types and sizes of PMTs and WLS plates we will be using, will be carried out during the pre-construction grant. During the R&D grant we focussed on implementing the needed software in the simulation and start to test the PMTs.
- Beam. We have irradiated and are planning to test beam window material and are designing the target and beam window necessary for Hyper-Kamiokande. Due to the continuous running of T2K up to when Hyper-Kamiokande will start to take data, we aim to install our items before the Hyper-Kamiokande detector becomes operational.
Moreover, we will continue performing further studies on radiation damage of materials ongoing, within the RADIATE collaboration.

Furthermore, our work on the intermediate Water Cherenkov detector TITUS, that led to the merging with NuPRISM and the creation of E61, is also recognised by several leadership positions in the E61 collaboration where we will focus on the DAQ and calibration. These vital contributions to E61 have strong similarities with our objectives for Super-Kamiokande, allowing us to exploit synergies and testing opportunities, and strengthening our expertise in these areas.

During the length of the current grant we also had to change our approach for the travel funds and the project management. We realized that that the usage of the JENNIFER funds provides too low funds for multiple trips, so we had to request to use the contingency (£45k) that was agreed by the OSc.
Furthermore, although we did have a project manager, we realized that a dedicated project manager is needed, especially moving towards construction. A dedicated project manager will be taking care of the project management during pre-construction.
Exploitation Route Towards the end of the R&D grant, the UK Hyper-K collaboration applied and was awarded an STFC PRD pre-construction grant from Oct 2017 to Sept 2019 that will allow to transition from the R&D phase to the construction of the detector. The work during the pre-construction phase is based on the results and outputs achieved during the R&D grant.
Sectors Other

URL http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/8/10/P10019/
 
Description In this project we both had several impact cases as well as put the seedcorn for future impact. We also worked on knowledge dissemination. Impact Super-Kamiokande: we were invited to join the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, without needing to contribute to the common funds. This will allow the UK collaboration to gain direct expertise on a system that is serving as underlying base for the Hyper-Kamiokande detector, as well as directly gain access to the data. Furthermore, we will be able to directly test our calibration prototypes in a realistic environment. Gadolinium: we have established the UK as the country in which testing of the gadolinium samples to be used in Super-Kamiokande is being performed. Our involvement in the Super-K Gadolinium testing programme at Boulby has led to the expansion of the number of Ge detectors at the Boulby mine (Canberra UK). Photosensors: we have established a working connection with EtEnterprises in the UK for the development and production of the photosensors. EtEnterprises developed a new faster 3'' PMT that we have tested as a candidate for the Outer Detector. We have also been discussing further developments as well as testing and mass production if we go ahead making the full order for the PMTs. New developed PMTs will expand the EtEnterprises catalogue and thus the company's potential market. ToolDAQ: we have written (author: Ben Richards) a new DAQ framework, currently used by Hyper-Kamiokande as well as E61 and also adopted by the ANNIE collaboration. As ANNIE is taking data and consists of a diversified set of technology solutions for the electronics and PMT and is also Gd oped, it provides an ideal testing ground for ToolDAQ and further developments to ToolDAQ. During the length of this grant, the members of the UK collaboration contributed to the knowledge dissemination in several ways: giving presentation at conferences, seminars, posters as well as offering thesis and projects to master and undergraduate students on Hyper-Kamiokande. Furthermore, several T2K PhD students are also partially working on Hyper-Kamiokande.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Other
Impact Types Economic

 
Description EU T2K Analysis Forum 
Organisation Jagiellonian University
Department Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science
Country Poland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Communication of analysis work and methods to the forum
Collaborator Contribution Providing a forum for effective communication of analysis work
Impact Workshop at queen mary college in November 2010
Start Year 2008
 
Description EU T2K Analysis Forum 
Organisation University of Barcelona
Department Faculty of Physics
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Communication of analysis work and methods to the forum
Collaborator Contribution Providing a forum for effective communication of analysis work
Impact Workshop at queen mary college in November 2010
Start Year 2008
 
Description EU T2K Analysis Forum 
Organisation University of Geneva
Department Physics Section
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Communication of analysis work and methods to the forum
Collaborator Contribution Providing a forum for effective communication of analysis work
Impact Workshop at queen mary college in November 2010
Start Year 2008
 
Description EU T2K Analysis Forum 
Organisation University of Valencia
Department Faculty of Physics
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Communication of analysis work and methods to the forum
Collaborator Contribution Providing a forum for effective communication of analysis work
Impact Workshop at queen mary college in November 2010
Start Year 2008
 
Description SK Golden Sonic Booooum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk and Demonstrations to people from the public at the Manchester Science Festival.

local press release
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010