Nottingham Astronomy Rolling Grant 2011 - 2016

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Sch of Physics & Astronomy

Abstract

Astronomical research in the School of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Nottingham is focused on studying the formation and evolution of galaxies. These gravitationally-bound collections of stars, gas, dust and dark matter are some of the most beautiful objects in the Universe, and a major theme in modern astronomy involves trying to understand how they came into existence. To tackle this complex question, we will draw on the full range of tools at our disposal, involving everything from large-scale numerical simulations to detailed observational studies of individual galaxies using ground- and space-based observatories. One key issue is how galaxies, once formed, alter their appearance over time. For example, we are studying how spiral galaxies can turn into featureless lenticular systems, seeking to understand the physical process that quenches their star formation and erases their spiral arms. Similarly, we are exploring the processes by which the spectacular bar features at the centres of many spiral systems can appear and disappear, and what effect these changes have on the surrounding galaxy. We are investigating both internal and environmental processes that can change the appearance of a galaxy, to obtain an integrated picture of how galaxy transformations occur. Our work will combine detailed studies of nearby systems, searching for archaeological clues as to how they were made, and direct observations of evolution taking place over the last seven billion years in the history of the Universe. These studies of galaxies in transformation are complemented by observations of even more distant systems, which capture galaxies in the act of initial formation. Major puzzles remain unresolved at these early stages, such as the mechanism responsible for terminating star-formation in massive galaxies. We are tackling these problems with a two-pronged approach. First, surveys of unprecedented sensitivity allow us to determine the dependence of galaxy evolution on external factors, such as the local environment or the mass of the surrounding dark matter halo. Second, studies using the new instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope and on large ground-based telescopes allow the structural properties of individual galaxies near the beginnings of their lives to be dissected in detail. However, studying only visible and near-infrared light cannot provide a complete picture. About half the energy emitted by galaxies is absorbed by interstellar dust, concealing their true structure. Studying this 'stolen starlight,' which is re-radiated in the far infrared, reveals this hidden side of galaxy evolution. To-date, it has been impossible to understand this vital element of the story, as we have not been able to obtain the far-infrared observations that would recapture this lost light over a representative area of the sky. The Herschel Space Observatory, launched in 2009, now allows us to obtain the necessary data. The ATLAS survey, in which we are playing a leading role, is the widest area survey that Herschel will conduct, and will far surpass any other ground- or space-based survey in this part of the spectrum for many years to come. It will characterise the dust content and obscured star formation for ~200,000 galaxies spread over most of cosmic history, revealing the secrets of this hidden aspect of galaxy evolution. The final aspect to this research programme involves using the University's supercomputing facilities to simulate the formation of galaxies in the full cosmological context of the surrounding Universe. By comparing the results of such simulations with the extensive observational programmes, we will be able to check our understanding of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. We will also use the observations of the earliest epochs to set the initial conditions for our simulations, to see whether we can follow galaxies' subsequent evolution to the present-day.

Publications

10 25 50

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Agius N. K. (2015) H-ATLAS/GAMA and HeViCS - dusty early-type galaxies in different environments in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Banfield J. K. (2015) Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Bauer A (2013) Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): linking star formation histories and stellar mass growth in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

 
Description We have carried out a significant body of research on the formation and evolution of galaxies. These gravitationally-bound collections of stars, gas, dust and dark matter are some of the most beautiful objects in the Universe, and a major theme in modern astronomy involves trying to understand how they came into existence. We have used large-scale numerical simulations and detailed observational studies of many individual galaxies using ground- and space-based observatories, and gained considerable insight on how galaxies, once formed, alter their appearance over time. We have learned how spiral galaxies can turn into featureless lenticular systems, understanding the physical processes that quench their star formation and erases their spiral arms.

Our work combined detailed studies of nearby systems, searching for archaeological clues as to how they were made, and direct observations of evolution taking place over the last seven billion years in the history of the Universe. We have made significant progress towards understanding the mechanism responsible for terminating star-formation in massive galaxies. We have also studied in detail the role of dust in galaxy formation and evolution.
Exploitation Route Our findings help our team and the extragalactic astronomy community in general to advance in our knowledge of how galaxies form and evolve in a cosmological framework.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other

 
Description Overview The Nottingham Astronomy Group has a strong established track record in delivering impact derived from its research, drawing on the pathways developed at Group, School and University level. This impact spans the range from public outreach to commercial knowledge exchange, although in many cases the boundaries between these categories are blurred. For example, the outreach work we have carried out through YouTube has led to contracts with STFC and Google to deliver further material using the same approach. We have a policy of embedding such work in the day-to-day activities of the Group, and of involving members at all levels from PhD student to professorial. For the period of this grant, our intention is to exploit the pathways that we have already established, while taking opportunities to develop these ideas further as well as seeking entirely new approaches to delivering the wider impact of our research. Outreach The Group delivers an extensive programme of outreach activities, which we are continuing to develop. We undertake the conventional astronomical society lectures (typically a few dozen per year), and are also major contributors to a monthly public lecture series in the University that we set up for the International Year of Astronomy, and then rolled out as an on-going programme that we have now broadened to include other areas of science. We also participate in public events such as Big Bang Science (London, Nottingham & Birmingham), the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition, University of Nottingham Mayfest, Nottingham Light Night and BBC Stargazing Live, etc. However, we recognized that some of these activities are rather restrictive in terms of both the size and the demographic profile of the audience that they reach, so we are actively developing a range of outreach delivery mechanisms that have a wider and more ambitious scope. In particular, we would highlight: Regular Engagement with Broadcast Media. As well as placing individual stories through press releases and media contacts (e.g., Grey and Aragón-Salamanca on DES first light on the BBC News Channel, Bamford on Austrian and German television discussing Galaxy Zoo), we are developing more sustainable long-term media interactions that allow us to build a larger regular audience. For example, Merrifield has a monthly hour-long slot on BBC Radio Nottingham to discuss recent developments in astronomical research. In addition, our PhD students set up "The Science Show" on the University radio station, whose podcast receives thousands of downloads per year in addition to the live audience, and the astronomy staff regularly participate in the show. The programme won a bronze award in Best Journalistic Programme category at the Student Radio Association Awards 2012. The Inflativerse. In an initiative proposed and entirely led by our postdoctoral researchers and PhD students, with senior academic staff acting only as mentors, we obtained £20k of funding from the University to purchase an inflatable planetarium. We also won knowledge transfer funding from the University to support one of our postdocs for three months to develop this initiative alongside his research. After a suitable programme of external child protection training as well as internal presentation training, our postdocs and students take the planetarium out and deliver shows, accompanied by other astronomy-related activities, to local schools, specifically targeting those that meet the University's widening participation criteria. With a weekly timetable and an on-going scheme to train new presenters, this programme continues to deliver astronomical outreach to more than 2000 disadvantaged children per year. Citizen Science. With Bamford working as the Science Director of the Citizen Science Alliance (CSA), and other members of the Group involved in producing and delivering material for their programmes, we have a strong involvement in the citizen science movement. The programmes Bamford has helped to oversee have engaged over a million people worldwide, with involvement in real scientific research ranging from discovering exoplanets to monitoring wildlife on the Serengeti (http://www.zooniverse.org). He has played a particular role in developing the Galaxy Zoo activities, which bring his work on galaxy morphology to a wide audience. He also has responsibility for overseeing the scientific impact of the range of projects under the CSA umbrella, so closes the loop on this activity by coordinating the transformation of outreach back into professional published scientific research. YouTube Engagement. In collaboration with video journalist Brady Haran, we have developed several extremely successful series of YouTube videos, which present both broader discussion of interesting topics in astronomy, but also specific explanations of our research as it is published. The approach adopted is to engage the viewer with both the science being presented and the daily life of the researchers undertaking it, so that a long-term relationship is established with the audience. The first channel that we played a major role in creating is called Sixty Symbols (http://youtube.com/sixtysymbols), which presented physics and astronomy themed around a particular symbol. This channel currently has more than 180,000 subscribers and the 200 videos have been viewed more than 16 million times. Following from the phenomenal success of this channel, Brady was approached by Google (who own YouTube) to develop new ideas, and we collaborated with him to create Deep Sky Videos (http://youtube.com/deepskyvideos) that looks at astronomical objects, concentrating initially on the Messier Catalogue, and again drawing on our research activities on these objects. This channel has also been a success, with more than 70,000 subscribers and more than two million views of the 79 videos produced to-date. We commissioned an independent study to look at the demographics of the audience for these channels, and found that they span a very wide range of ages and backgrounds. Feedback through the channels' comment sections and email also indicates the profound effect that these videos have had on some viewers' interest and even career aspirations. We have recently secured HEIF funding to support these channels for a further two years, as well as obtaining funding from ESO to make videos in Chile in 2013. Knowledge Exchange Outreach-Related Knowledge Exchange. Given the nature of our work and the breadth of the above outreach activities, it is perhaps unsurprising that part of our knowledge exchange programme involves passing on experience in this area. We have directly commercialized some outreach material through the establishment of a spin-out company, Crystal Nebulae (http://www.crystalnebulae.co.uk; see STFC Innovations Newsletter, October 2012), which sells glass sculptures of astronomical objects accompanied by educational literature, and we continue to seek analogous opportunities to commercialize our research. However, our main achievement in this area has been in transferring the skills we have developed in presenting scientific material on YouTube in an accessible manner. The funding of Deep Sky Videos by Google falls within this category, as does the Group's success in winning £70k of support from STFC competitively against commercial production companies to produce videos presenting STFC's varied facilities and their uses, in an initiative entitled Backstage Science (http://youtube.com/backstagescience). The success of this channel led STFC to fund further work to produce the current set of 45 videos. Commercial Knowledge Exchange. Where appropriate, we are also keen to seek the wider application of techniques developed here within industry. Specifically, Pearce's work running smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) cosmological simulations means that he has acquired extensive skill in setting up and managing very large fluid dynamic simulations on supercomputers, and these leading-edge skills are in much demand in an engineering context. To develop a pathway to transfer this knowledge, we have been involved in an EU Framework 7 programme, Engine Lubrication System, ELUBSYS, which is led by Rolls Royce. This programme currently employs a PDRA and a PhD student in the University Faculty of Engineering, who are working in the cross-faculty Water Modelling Group that Pearce has established for this purpose. As a further application to broaden the engineering impact, we have also developed contacts with Ambiental, a company that specializes in modelling flood management. The engineering SPH community is coordinated by a European special interest group, SPHERIC, of which the University is a member. SPHERIC has an annual meeting which attracts several hundred researchers from around the World, and produce an annual status book. We have attended several of these meetings and published associated articles in the status books as the most effective mechanism for sharing knowledge, and we will continue to pursue this route as well as seeking new commercial opportunities as they arise.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description STFC Astronomy Consolidated Grants
Amount £804,113 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/L000695/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2017
 
Title Applications of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics 
Description Pearce's work running smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) cosmological simulations means that he has acquired extensive skill in setting up and managing very large fluid dynamic simulations on supercomputers, and these leading-edge skills are in much demand in an engineering context. To develop a pathway to transfer this knowledge, we have been involved in an EU Framework 7 programme, Engine Lubrication System, ELUBSYS, which is led by Rolls-Royce. This programme currently employs a PDRA and a PhD student in the University Faculty of Engineering, who are working in the cross-faculty Water Modelling Group that Pearce has established for this purpose. As a further application to broaden the engineering impact, we have also developed contacts with Ambiental, a company that specializes in modelling flood management. The engineering SPH community is coordinated by a European special interest group, SPHERIC, of which the University is a member. SPHERIC has an annual meeting which attracts several hundred researchers from around the World, and produce an annual status book. 
Type Of Material Data Handling & Control 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Development of Engine Lubrication Systems, Flood management modelling. 
 
Description Automated Measurement of Galaxy Formation 
Organisation Carnegie Mellon University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific research collaboration Postdoctoral training
Collaborator Contribution Scientific research collaboration Postdoctoral training Financial contribution
Impact Scientific publications
Start Year 2009
 
Description CAASTRO - ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics 
Organisation University of Sydney
Department Sydney Institute for Astronomy
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description CANDELS Survey 
Organisation University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC)
Department Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description Comograil 
Organisation Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Scientific research collaboration and expertise
Collaborator Contribution Scientific research collaboration and expertise
Impact Scientific papers
Start Year 2007
 
Description CosmoComp 
Organisation Durham University
Department Institute for Computational Cosmology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration Postdoctoral training
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration Postdoctoral training Financial contribution
Impact Scientific papers Postdoctoral training PhD student training
Start Year 2009
 
Description DES - Dark Energy Survey 
Organisation Dark Energy Survey (DES)
Country Global 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration Financial Contribution
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Publications PhD Student Training
Start Year 2011
 
Description EDisCS - ESO Distant Cluster Survey 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Papers
 
Description ELUBSYS, engine lubrication systems 
Organisation Techspace Aero (TA)
Country Belgium 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Scientific and Technical Expertise
Collaborator Contribution Scientific and Technical Expertise
Impact The development of design rules in terms of housing architecture, heat management and associated external equipments that will lead to the implementation of advanced seals in aircraft engine lubrication systems. A simplified architecture for engine lubrication systems that results in fewer components and reduced mass. A set of design rules describing the way to develop more efficient bearing chambers, vent and scavenge pipes, seals and other external elements of the lubrication system; these rules will be derived from a combined effort of experimentation and advanced modelling techniques. Accurate methods and rules to predict heat transfer from the hot engine parts inside the lubrication system with a particular emphasis on bearing chambers. Accurate design rules for the design of external system (pipes, pumps) compliant with advanced housing architectures incorporating tight seals. Validated methods to predict and detect oil coking. Multidisciplinary: Physics and Engineering.
Start Year 2009
 
Description EUCLID 
Organisation European Space Agency
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Scientific exploitation of data Computational support
Collaborator Contribution Scientific exploitation of data
Impact Scientific publications Space science
Start Year 2012
 
Description GAMA - Galaxy and Mass Assembly 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Papers
Start Year 2011
 
Description Galaxy Zoo 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Astrophysics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Papers Citizens Science
Start Year 2011
 
Description HerMES - Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey 
Organisation University of Sussex
Department School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences Sussex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Papers
Start Year 2011
 
Description Herschel ATLAS - Cardiff 
Organisation University of Canterbury
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Research Collaboration
Start Year 2011
 
Description Herschel ATLAS - NZ 
Organisation Cardiff University
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Papers
Start Year 2011
 
Description IMars 
Organisation University College London
Department Mullard Space Science Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific research collaboration Scientific and technical expertise Research activity
Collaborator Contribution Scientific and technical expertise Research activity
Impact Scientific papers Multi-disciplinary: Astronomy, Geophysics, Computing
Start Year 2014
 
Description ING Co-supervision of Bruno Rodriguez 
Organisation Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (ING)
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative research and student co-supervision
Collaborator Contribution Marc Balcells, director of ING, co-supervises PhD student Bruno Rodirguez.
Impact Student attendance to the XXIII Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics, organized by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), November 2011, "The secular evolution of Galaxies"
Start Year 2011
 
Description LOFAR - Low-Frequency Array 
Organisation ASTRON Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration Financial Contribution
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Publications
Start Year 2011
 
Description Lacegal - Latin American Chinese European GALaxy Formation network. 
Organisation Durham University
Department Institute for Computational Cosmology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration Training of Researchers Financial contribution
Impact Scientific Papers Training of Researchers
Start Year 2011
 
Description Planetary Nebula Spectrograph 
Organisation European Southern Observatory (ESO)
Country Germany 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration, financial contribution
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific papers
Start Year 2011
 
Description SDSS-IV/MaNGA 
Organisation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III)
Department Astrophysical Research Council
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Financial contribution. Scientific expertise. Research activity.
Collaborator Contribution Access to observing facilities. Access to new survey data. Scientific expertise. Research activity.
Impact This is a very recent activity. No outputs so far, but the main outputs will be scientific papers.
Start Year 2013
 
Description UKIDSS 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department Institute for Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific research collaboration and expertise
Collaborator Contribution Scientific research collaboration and expertise
Impact Scientific papers
 
Description UKIRT Hemisphere Survey 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific collaboration and expertise
Collaborator Contribution Scientific collaboration and expertise
Impact Scientific papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description Virgo Consortium 
Organisation Durham University
Department Institute for Computational Cosmology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scietific Research Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Scietific Research Collaboration
Impact Scientific Papers
Start Year 2011
 
Description WFIRST - Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Goddard Space Flight Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Science definition
Collaborator Contribution Scientific Research Collaboration
Impact Space Science
Start Year 2012
 
Description Citizen Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact see http://www.zooniverse.org

Active engagement of the public in scientific activities via the Internet, Reaching hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.zooniverse.org
 
Description Outreach - Engagement with Broadcast Media 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press releases (Dark Energy Survey first light- BBC News Channel; Galaxy Zoo - German Television)

Monthly hour-long radio show (BBC Radio Nottingham)

Science Show (Nottingham University Radio Station)

PUS
Public engagement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Outreach - Large public events 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public engagement - Large Audiences

Public engagement
Youg Scientist engagement
STEM Undergraduate Recruitment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Outreach - Talks to Astronomical Societies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Multiple talks to Astronomical and other Scientific Societies

Public Engagement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Outreach - Talks to secondary schools 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talks to multiple secundary schools

Student engagement,
STEM undergraduate recruitment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Outreach - talks to primary schools 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Multiple astronomy talks to schools

Student engagement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description The Inflativerse 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Initiative proposed and run by PhD students and PDRAs to bring an Inflatable Planetarium to schools and public events, and to invite schools to the University of Nottingham and other public venues,

Funding: GBP 20000 from the University of Nottingham.



Public Engagement.

It reaches more than 2000 disadvantaged children per year (focus on Widening Participation schools) and many members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/astronomy/planetarium/The_Inflativerse/Home.html
 
Description YouTube Engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In collaboration with video journalist Brady Haran, we have developed several extremely successful series of YouTube videos, which present both broader discussion of interesting topics in astronomy but also specific explanations of our research as it is published. The approach adopted is to engage the viewer with both the science being presented and the daily life of the researchers undertaking it, so that a long-term relationship is established with the audience. The first channel that we played a major role in creating is called
Sixty Symbols (http://youtube.com/sixtysymbols), which presented physics and astronomy themed around a
particular symbol (such as OP for a discussion of Merrifield's work on measuring pattern speeds in galaxies). This channel currently has more than 180,000 subscribers and the 200 videos have been viewed more than 16 million times. Following from the phenomenal success of this channel, Brady was approached by Google (who own YouTube) to develop new ideas, and we collaborated with him to create Deep Sky Videos
(http://youtube.com/deepskyvideos) that looks at astronomical objects, concentrating initially on the Messier
Catalogue, and again drawing on our research activities on these objects. This channel has also been a success,
with more than 70,000 subscribers and more than two million views of the 79 videos produced to-date. We
commissioned an independent study to look at the demographics of the audience for these channels, and found that they span a very wide range of ages and backgrounds. Feedback through the channels' comment sections and email also indicates the profound effect that these videos have had on some viewers' interest and even
career aspirations. We have recently secured HEIFf unding to support these channels for a further two years, as well as obtaining funding from ESO to make videos in Chile later in 2013.

Reaching very large worldwide audiences.

Producing educational YouTube-based videos
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/user/sixtysymbols