Planetary auroras: a universal perspective

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leicester
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

Many different cosmic bodies, from small planets to massive stars, possess magnetic fields. The Earth's magnetic field protects us from the harmful solar wind (a stream of particles emitted from the Sun), Jupiter's is the largest object in the solar system, and those of exoplanets may offer a new detection method. They are particularly interesting to study since the analyses of these many different types of body are mutually illuminating, i.e. we can learn much about distant astrophysical bodies by studying objects much closer to home, and vice versa. This proposal is thus a holistic study of the dynamics of planetary magnetic fields in our solar system and others, through a ubiquitous phenomenon: the 'northern lights', or aurora. Auroras on other planets in the solar system can be studied with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and they act as 'TV screens' in the upper atmospheres telling us how energy flows through the space controlled by the planets' magnetic fields. There are some fundamental gaps in our knowledge about Saturn's magnetic field. Most planets' magnetic fields wobble like tilting spinning tops as the planets spin. Saturn's is unique in that it does not, and yet strangely many phenomena associated with the magnetic field, like the aurora, pulse near the spin period. This could be due to a difference in conditions in the upper atmosphere at the summer and winter poles, however HST has only ever observed the southern auroras. In addition, Saturn's upper atmosphere is much hotter than models predict. I will obtain HST images of the northern auroras, which, in conjunction with in situ Cassini measurements, will provide the data required to resolve these problems. Despite the 'spinning top' wobble in most planets' magnetic fields, the models which describe how auroras are generated by the rapid rotation of Jupiter assume no wobble at all, i.e. symmetry in longitude about the spin axis. This is a fundamental omission, since Jupiter's auroras are clearly not longitudinally symmetric, and Jupiter is the source of various pulsing emissions which must be caused by a longitudinal asymmetry. I will thus develop the models to include this asymmetry, and also determine how the shape of the magnetic field and auroral processes are interdependent. These studies of the dynamics of Jupiter's tilted magnetic field will act as stepping stones toward developing models for the highly asymmetric magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune, about which very little is known. These models will therefore make discoveries about how these enigmatic magnetic fields work. Many hundreds of planets of roughly Jupiter's mass have been discovered orbiting other stars. Most of these orbit very close to the star, since present detection methods are best at finding close planets. The buffeting of these planets by stellar winds has been suggested to generate auroral radio waves powerful enough to be detected across tens of lightyears. However, I have recently shown that rapidly-spinning planets orbiting hot stars at the equivalent of Saturn's orbital distance could equally generate such detectable radio emissions. I will thus develop this model to determine exactly what configurations of this presently-overlooked class of planet are detectable, and also search radio telescope data for detections. The possibility of detecting potentially life-friendly magnetospheres of planets orbiting other stars is particularly exciting and of significant relevance to wider society.

Publications

10 25 50
publication icon
Alexander R (2015) Magnetospheres of hot Jupiters: hydrodynamic models and ultraviolet absorption in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

publication icon
Badman S (2014) Open flux in Saturn's magnetosphere in Icarus

publication icon
Burningham B (2016) A LOFAR mini-survey for low-frequency radio emission from the nearest brown dwarfs in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

publication icon
Cowley S (2015) Downtail mass loss by plasmoids in Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres in Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics

publication icon
Dunn WR (2016) The impact of an ICME on the Jovian X-ray aurora. in Journal of geophysical research. Space physics

publication icon
Gray R (2016) Auroral evidence of radial transport at Jupiter during January 2014 in Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics

 
Description I have made significant advancements in our understanding of the behaviour of the magnetospheres and auroras of Jupiter, Saturn, exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Specifically, I have developed a new model of Jupiter's magnetodisc, discovered dynamic auroral storms on Saturn, discovered the statistics of Saturn's northern auroras, have searched for evidence of a magnetosphere in the transit of exoplanet WASP-12b, I have provided new estimations of the power expected from exoplanets along with target lists, and explained the radio emissions from brown dwarfs. I have discovered how Jupiter's auroras respond to changing conditions in the solar wind using HST and Juno data.
Exploitation Route These findings place into context upcoming observations of Juno at Jupiter and the Cassini Grand Finale at Saturn, and future HST, JWST, LOFAR and SKA observations.
Sectors Other

 
Title Leicester Magnetodisc Model 
Description An iterative vector potential model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc that includes the effects of hot plasma pressure anisotropy. The fiducial model produces results that are consistent with Galileo magnetic field and plasma data over the whole radial range of the model. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Nichols, J. D., N. Achilleos, and S. W. H. Cowley (2015), A model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc including hot plasma pressure anisotropy, J. Geophys. Res., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021807. 
 
Description Associate Member of LOFAR Transients Key Project 
Organisation Observatory of Paris
Department Laboratory for Space Science and Astrophysical Instrumentation
Country France 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I provided input to the proposal in terms of theoretical modelling and suggested targets for observation
Collaborator Contribution P. Zarka coordinated the proposal.
Impact LOFAR observing time in 2013
Start Year 2012
 
Description Co-I HST program GO 12235 
Organisation Boston University
Department Centre for Space Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-wrote the proposal and helped analyse the dat
Collaborator Contribution G.-C. Gerard coordinated the proposal
Impact G ┬┤erard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W. R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G. R. Gladstone, J. T. Clarke, and J. D. Nichols (2013), Remote sensing of the energy of auroral electrons in Saturn's atmosphere: Hubble and Cassini spectral observations, Icarus, 223(1), 211-221, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.033.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Co-I HST program GO 12235 
Organisation University of Colorado Boulder
Department Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I co-wrote the proposal and helped analyse the dat
Collaborator Contribution G.-C. Gerard coordinated the proposal
Impact G ┬┤erard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W. R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G. R. Gladstone, J. T. Clarke, and J. D. Nichols (2013), Remote sensing of the energy of auroral electrons in Saturn's atmosphere: Hubble and Cassini spectral observations, Icarus, 223(1), 211-221, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.033.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Co-I HST program GO 12883 
Organisation Boston University
Department Centre for Space Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I helped write the proposal
Collaborator Contribution D. Grodent coordinated the proposal
Impact Papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2012
 
Description Co-I HST program GO 12883 
Organisation University of Colorado Boulder
Department Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I helped write the proposal
Collaborator Contribution D. Grodent coordinated the proposal
Impact Papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2012
 
Description Co-I LOFAR proposal 
Organisation Observatory of Paris
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Theoretical expertise on exoplanet radio emissions, and target suggestion
Collaborator Contribution Lead the construction of the telescope proposal
Impact Radio telescope data and collaboration
Start Year 2013
 
Description Co-I LOFAR proposal 
Organisation University of Hertfordshire
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided expertise on brown dwarf radio emissions
Collaborator Contribution Lead construction of telescope proposal
Impact Radio telescope data
Start Year 2014
 
Description Co-I, European Ultraviolet Optical Observatory 
Organisation Complutense University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I wrote the solar system science section of the L-class mission proposal
Collaborator Contribution They provided other sections
Impact Paper presently being drafted: "Building galaxies, stars, planets and the ingredients for life between the stars. The science behind the European Ultraviolet-Visible Observatory"
Start Year 2013
 
Description Co-I, HST Program 13396 
Organisation Lancaster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contributed to the proposal writing and data analysis
Collaborator Contribution They led the proposal writing and data analysis
Impact Analysis underway
Start Year 2013
 
Description Co-I, HST program 14634 
Organisation Space Telescope Science Institute
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provided intellectual input to the proposal and data analysis
Collaborator Contribution Led the proposal
Impact HST observations
Start Year 2016
 
Description Co-I, HST program 14634 
Organisation University of Liege
Department Laboratory for Planetary and Atmospheric Physics (LPAP)
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided intellectual input to the proposal and data analysis
Collaborator Contribution Led the proposal
Impact HST observations
Start Year 2016
 
Description Co-I, Solar System Telescope, NASA Discovery class mission proposal 
Organisation Arizona State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am providing expertise on UV observations of planetary auroras and atmospheres
Collaborator Contribution They are leading the proposal and providing other sections
Impact Proposal presently being drafted
Start Year 2014
 
Description Co-convenver, AGU Fall Meeting 2013 session: "Outer Planet Aurora" 
Organisation California Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I assisted in convening the session
Collaborator Contribution They convened the session
Impact Session at AGU Fall MEeting 2013
Start Year 2013
 
Description ISSI International Team 
Organisation International Space Science Institute (ISSI)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Member of the team with expertise on magnetospheric modelling using analytic models
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration and discussion regarding magnetospheric modelling
Impact Ongoing
Start Year 2014
 
Description ISSI Workshop: Giant planets magnetodiscs and aurorae 
Organisation International Space Science Institute (ISSI)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I provided expertise regarding magneto discs and the effect of the solar wind on giant planet aurora
Collaborator Contribution They provided other sections of the book
Impact Book under review
Start Year 2012
 
Description Keck Institute for Space Studies workshop: Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability 
Organisation California Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I provided expertise regarding exoplanetary magnetospheres
Collaborator Contribution They organised the working group
Impact Final report presently being drafted
Start Year 2013
 
Description PI, HST Program GO 13328 
Organisation Boston University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the proposal and the am leading the analysis of the data
Collaborator Contribution They assisted the proposal writing and analysis of the data
Impact Analysis currently underway
Start Year 2013
 
Description PI, HST Program GO 13328 
Organisation Georgia Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the proposal and the am leading the analysis of the data
Collaborator Contribution They assisted the proposal writing and analysis of the data
Impact Analysis currently underway
Start Year 2013
 
Description PI, HST Program GO 13328 
Organisation University of Liege
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the proposal and the am leading the analysis of the data
Collaborator Contribution They assisted the proposal writing and analysis of the data
Impact Analysis currently underway
Start Year 2013
 
Description PI, HST Program GO 13329 
Organisation Boston University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the proposal and am leading the data analysis.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted the proposal writing and data analysis
Impact Analysis underway
Start Year 2013
 
Description PI, HST Program GO 13329 
Organisation Russian Academy of Sciences
Department Institute of Astronomy
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I led the proposal and am leading the data analysis.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted the proposal writing and data analysis
Impact Analysis underway
Start Year 2013
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation Boston University
Department Centre for Space Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation Central Arizona College (CAC)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Space and Atmospheric Physics Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation Johns Hopkins University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation Southwest Research Institute (SwRI)
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation University of Arizona
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation University of Colorado Boulder
Department Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST Programs GO 11566, GO 11984, GO12176 
Organisation University of Iowa
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am the PI of this HST proposal, and am taking the lead in analysing the data.
Collaborator Contribution They assisted in proposing for and analysing the data
Impact Research papers presently in preparation
Start Year 2011
 
Description PI, HST proposal 14105 
Organisation Space Telescope Science Institute
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I led the proposal
Collaborator Contribution The make the telescope work
Impact HST observations
Start Year 2015
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation Boston University
Department Centre for Space Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation Central Arizona College (CAC)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation International Space Science Institute (ISSI)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation Observatory of Paris
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation Southwest Research Institute (SwRI)
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation University College London
Department Mullard Space Science Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description Team Leader, ISSI International Team 
Organisation University of Colorado Boulder
Department Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I coordinated the Team meetings
Collaborator Contribution The Team sat for two intensive meetings, deemed to be highly productive by all participants, in which lists of key science questions and associated action items were derived. The highlights of the Team's resulting activities are the quantification of Saturn's infra-red auroras (Badman et al., 2011), the rediscovery of Uranus' UV auroras using HST (Lamy et al., 2012), the discovery of recurring periodic auroral flares on Jupiter (Bonfond et al., 2011), and the observation that Saturn's auroras and radio emissions pulse together, revealing a common source (Nichols et al., 2010).
Impact Badman, S.V., N. Achilleos, K.H. Baines, R.H. Brown, E.J. Bunce, M.K. Dougherty, H. Melin, J.D. Nichols, and T. Stallard (2011), Location of Saturn's northern infrared aurora determined from Cassini VIMS images, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2010GL046193. Bonfond, B., M. F. Vogt, J.-C. Gérard, D. Grodent, A. Radioti, and V. Coumans (2011), Quasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02104, doi:10.1029/2010GL045981. Nichols, J. D., S. W. H. Cowley, and L. Lamy (2010b). Dawn-dusk oscillation of saturn's conjugate auroral ovals. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24102. doi:10.1029/2010GL045818. Nichols, J. D., B. Cecconi, J. T. Clarke, J.-C. Gérard, A. Grocott, D. Grodent, L. Lamy, and P. Zarka (2010a). Variation of Saturn's UV aurora with SKR phase. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15102. doi:10.1029/2010GL044057. Badman, S. V., et al. (2012), Cassini observations of ion and electron beams at Saturn and their relationship to infrared auroral arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01211, doi:10.1029/2011JA017222. Nichols, J. D. (2011), Magnetosphereionosphere coupling in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: Computations including a selfconsistent current sheet magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10232, doi:10.1029/2011JA016922. Lamy, L., et al. (2012), Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07105, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312. Gérard, J.-C., J. Gustin, W.R. Pryor, D. Grodent, B. Bonfond, A. Radioti, G.R. Gladstone, J.T. Clarke and J.D. Nichols, Remote sensing of the energy of auroral
Start Year 2009
 
Description AstroConfidential article for Astronomy Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public understanding of science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BBC Stargazing Live 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 4000 attendees, significant public engagement

Outreach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description BBC Stargazing Live 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact ~3000 attendees, significant public engagement

Outreach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC Stargazing Live - presentation of planeterella 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Provided the planeterella for the BBC Stargazing Live broadcast, Jan 2014

National public engagement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Boston University Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact ~30 Attendees

Collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Brooks bank School talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation re. Juno to 6th formers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Brown dwarf aurora story 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed for news story
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Director, Space School UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Residential summer school for ~180 school children about space
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.spaceschool.co.uk
 
Description EPSC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact EPSC meeting, Nantes 2011
http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2011/EPSC-DPS2011-1348.pdf
http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2011/EPSC-DPS2011-513-2.pdf
http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2011/EPSC-DPS2011-1485.pdf
http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2011/EPSC-DPS2011-1353.pdf

Collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Europlanet meeting on outer planet aurora 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact ~30 attendees
2011/2012 ACS images of Saturn's northern auroras J.D. Nichols
http://europlanet-na1.oeaw.ac.at/fileadmin/Santorini/AGENDA_Santorini.pdf

Collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs: Mind the Gap 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Ultra-cool dwarf radio emissions: recent advancements and comparison with (extra-) solar system planets, Exoplanets and Brown dwarfs: Mind the Gap, University of Hertfordshire, UK, 4 September.


Collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description HST TAC Review Panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Hubble Space Telescope time allocation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Hubble Photorelease of Jupiter's auroras 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact NASA/ESA Hubble photo release of images from program fro which I was PI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ISSI meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 31 attendees

http://www.issibern.ch/workshops/giantplanet/



A book as part of International Space Science Reviews is in preparation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Interview for BBC 5 Live 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview re. Juno first results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for BBC Breakfast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview regarding Juno first results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for BBC East Midlands Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview re. Juno orbit insertion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for BBC News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for BBC news re. Juno orbit insertion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for BBC Newsround 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview re. Juno first results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for BBC Sky at Night 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for Sky at Night episode re. Juno orbit insertion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for Discovery Channel documentary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for the Discovery Channel, program regarding Juno orbit insertion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for France24 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview re. TRAPPIST-1 exoplanet system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description KISS Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Invited to present Blowing hot and cold: signatures of the magnetic fields of close- and far- orbiting Jupiters, KISS Workshop, Caltech, Pasadena, CA, USA, 17 February.


Collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://kiss.caltech.edu/workshops/magnetic2014/index.html
 
Description Magnetospheres of the Outer Planets 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Saturn's northern auroras as observed by HST, MOP, Athens, Greece, 11 July

Collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description NASA Solar System Workings Panel Panellist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Ranked ~20 research proposal in order of their Merit

Proposals were funded or otherwise
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://nspires.nasaprs.com/external/solicitations/summary.do?method=init&solId=%7BAE489E38-6A74-5545...
 
Description New Scientist article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An article about my research by author Sophie Hebden
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21728992.200-good-to-glow-auroras-hide-array-of-planetary-secrets.html
Press release
http://www2.le.ac.uk/news/blog/2013/january/how-extraterrestrial-auroras-can-help-us-find-other-worlds

New Scientist Article
Press release
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
 
Description Open Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Organised Physics Department program for Open Days
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at Flamsteed Astronomy Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation re. Juno
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at STFC Advanced Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation re. planetary magnetospheres
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Press release for HST-Cassini program 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release entitled NASA Spacecraft Get a 360-degree view of Saturn's Auroras

Outreach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Press release on ultracool dwarf paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/press/press-releases/2011/april/astronomers-can-tune-in-to-radio-auroras-to-find-exoplanets

Numerous articles in the media
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Press release re. RS MP pairing Scheme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/press/media-centre/online-features/2013/mp-steps-into-the-shoes-of-space-scientist

Outreach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description RS MP scientist pairing Scheme 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Week in Westminster, Shadowing Lillian Greenwood MP and reciprocal visits

Engagement with an MP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
 
Description Radio Interview East Midlands Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion with DJ re. JUICE selection

Outreach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description STFC Introductory Astrophysics Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Planetary Exploration https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=stfc-talk-nichols.pdf&site=4
~150 attendees

Education
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Saturn HST program PR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog and images posted on NASA JPL website

Outreach
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description School visit (Brooksbank) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 60 pupils attended talk on a career in space science, and an introduction to space science. Also included in school centenary book.

Centenary book
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Seminar at MSSL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterward

Further collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar at St Andrews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar re. exoplanet auroras
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar, Armargh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact ~20 Attendees

Collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Seminar, UCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact ~50 Attendees

Collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description UCAS Visit Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Organised Departmental UCAS Visit Days
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description UCAS days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Organised 6 UCAS days for prospective students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description UKSEDS conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on planetary and exoplanetary magnetospheres at UKSEDS conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016