Solar System Origin & Evolution at Imperial

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Earth Science and Engineering

Abstract

How did dust and gas produce a planet capable of supporting life? This is one of the most fundamental of questions, and engages everyone from school children to scientists. Our planet formed 4.5 billion years ago along with the Sun and the other planets and minor bodies in our Solar System, and it is the only habitable world yet discovered on which life evolved. By understanding the details of how our Solar System formed we can hope to find an answer.

We now know much about how stars and their accompanying planetary systems form in general. We know that stars form by the collapse of interstellar clouds of dust and gas. Planets are constructed in disks known as planetary nebula formed by the rotation of the collapsing gas cloud. It was in the solar nebula, surrounding the young Sun, that all the objects in our Solar System were created through a process called accretion.

There is, however, a long list of details we don't know about how our Solar System formed. Why, for example, are all the planets so different? Why is Venus an inferno with a thick carbon dioxide atmosphere, Mars a frozen rock with a thin atmosphere, and Earth a haven for life? The answer lies in events that predated the assembly of these planets, it lies in the early history of the nebula and the events that occurred as fine-dust stuck together to form larger objects known as planetesimals, and as those planetesimals changed through collisions, heating and the effects of water to become the building blocks of planets. Our research intends to follow the evolution of planetary materials from the sources of dust prior to solar system formation, through the assembly of precursor objects within the solar nebula to the alteration of these objects as they became planets.

The source of presolar dust provides a context to our solar system. From what types of star was dust derived and how did dust from these different sources mix and change in the solar nebula? These questions can be answered by analysis of isotopes of high temperature, refractory elements, within meteorites - rocks from asteroids that preserve a history of the early solar system. Meteorites, together with cosmic dust particles, also retain the fine-dust particles from the solar nebula. These dust grains are smaller than a millionth of a metre but modern microanalysis can expose their minerals and compositions. We will study the fine-grained components of meteorites and cosmic dust to investigate how fine-dust began accumulating in the solar nebula, how heating by an early hot nebula and repeated short heating events affected aggregates of dust grains, and whether magnetic fields helped control the distribution of dust in the solar nebula.

In addition to the rocky and metallic materials that make up the planets, our research will examine the fate of organic materials that were crucial to the origins of life. Through newly developed methods we can trace this history of organic matter in meteorites from their formation in interstellar space, through the solar nebula and into planetesimals. This research will examine the effect of events also recorded in rocky and metallic fine-dust on the organic components of the early planetary materials from which the first living things on Earth were constructed.

Once the planets finally formed, their materials continued to change. Our research focuses on the planet Mars, which provides a second example of a planetary body on which life could have appeared. We will trace the evolution of water and organics from planetary formation to the present day. Research on landforms on Mars will examine a crucial period in the planet's history, when global climate change transformed the planet into an arid wasteland, to evaluate the opportunity for organisms to adapt and survive. Research on the survival or organic compounds in martian soil will test whether the signature of life can still be detected on the planet.

Planned Impact

Public Sector

Widening participation in STEM subjects is a key aim of the Government's Higher Education Policy (Higher Education White Paper, 2011) due to a significant achievement gap between the public and private education sector (CBI 2010). Widening participation across social-economic groups will be achieved through engagement with our inspiring science program and benefits from its accessibility to students in the crucial "crossroads" KS3.0-4.0 group and extensive media coverage. Our outreach strategy (see Impact Plan) evolves existing relationships with the BA, the Royal Society, the Royal Institution, the Natural History Museum, and STFC Science in Society. Highlights include a series of Nature Live Lectures with the Natural History Museum and the Rock Library - an existing resource for students, lecturers, academics and industry.

Private Sector

The private sector will benefit from our technology and methodology development and widened participation in STEM. Spinout will be exploited through Imperial Innovations, the Technology Transfer Office of Imperial College. Our review of knowledge exchange potential with the TTO has identified several areas for implementation:

(a) The application of double spike methods to toxicology. Isotopic tracing methods are being exploited through PROSPECT, a private-public partnership that provides the UK contribution to the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (Project A).

(b) Extraction and analysis of organics are applicable to a wide range of environmental, forensic and petrochemical applications (Project C and H). Sephton (PI project C) has an successful track record with the TTO in KE including patents in the areas of forensics and heavy oil extraction (Sephton et al. (2008) Filed: P45622EP).

(c) The iSALE shock physics code (Project E) is an established free-to-use tool whose users include the Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermarston. Industry sponsorship collaborations are being developed.

(d) High resolution image analysis of the martian surface (Project F) and soil experiments (Project H) will provide important constraints for spacecraft design. Commercial spacecraft construction is a key UK industry, worth £7.5 billion to the UK economy (UK Space Agency, BIS, 2011).

(e) Camera Network technology (Project G) is being implemented in Australia to record flight trials of hypersonic aerial vehicles (HIFiRE program) resulting in low-cost tracking using ad hoc flexible distributed networks. Bland is working with the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (ACFR) to develop autonomous vehicle searching techniques that have a wide range of applications.

Third Sector

Third sector organisations are important in widening participation in the UK (DfE, DCSF-00699-2009). Our program already engages with the BA, The Royal Institute, Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society (see Impact Plan). We are also involved with amateur societies UK-wide giving ~12 lectures a year. During the grant we expect to contribute to the BA Festival of Science, The RS Summer exhibition and the Science Media Centre (RI).

General Public

The IC Strategy document 2010-2014 states "Imperial College London is committed to engaging with public audiences about the relevance of its research to society. This commitment builds on the skilled and creative ways that Imperial researchers and students already engage with public audiences." Our program of research has a long history of successful engagement activities. Disseminating our research to the public is an important activity and our research results in ~60 media articles a year. PIs also give 7 media interviews per year each and act as advisors on documentaries (e.g. How the Earth was Made, 2007-10). We also have a long standing relationship with the STFC Science in Society (SiS) program including constructing the Lunar Samples Package (M. Genge) on which we will build with a SiS Fellowship application.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Extraterrestrial dust and chondritic meteorites are primitive planetary materials that preserve a complex and unique record of early solar system evolution. Our research has developed new techniques for decoding the messages in these materials and advanced understanding of our star system's very beginnings.

Impact is a fundamental and ubiquitous process in the solar system. Material within every object orbiting the Sun has been processed in some form of collision. A record of these collisions is preserved in meteorites; but how do we relate this evidence to processes on their parent, multi-kilometre mini-worlds as complex and diverse as the recently imaged surfaces of asteroid Vesta and comet 67P? To bridge this gap in scales, we have developed a novel multiscale numerical framework for modeling embryonic planetary collisions and used it to show that low-velocity impacts provide a mechanism for turning primitive meteoritic aggregates into solid rock. Our work provides a new "speed limit" constraint for models of solar system formation and implies that key aspects of the solar system record preserved in chondrites may need to be re-evaluated.

Primitive planetary materials that record the formation of the solar system are also found within extraterrestrial dust recovered from the surface of the Earth. A major success of our research studying extraterrestrial dust was to develop criteria to distinguish between low temperature minerals formed on asteroids and those formed by weathering of extraterrestrial particles after they landed on Earth. The discovery allows researchers to confidently identify the original minerals present before arrival on our planet that formed in the early Solar System. This work will be an essential reference used by all studies of primitive solar system materials in extraterrestrial dust.

Primitive chondritic meteorites often contain a magnetic remanence, i.e., a recording of some previous magnetic field; but what does the magnetic signal represent? Is it a recent magnetic signal or does it represent a record of the magnetic environment during Solar System formation? Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopes we have imaged on nanometric scales the magnetisation inside the iron-nickel particles found in such primitive chondritic meteorites. Using high-temperature imaging methods and protocols developed in our research group, and supported by numerical modelling results, we have shown that these highly magnetic particles are capable of retaining magnetic field information for billions of years.

Our investigations of mass dependent and non-mass dependent isotope anomalies for the elements molybdenum (Mo) and platinum (Pt) in meteorites demonstrate that the solar system has a largely homogeneous stable isotope composition but features significant non-mass dependent isotope anomalies for both elements. The latter effects are thereby of nucleosynthetic and cosmogenic origin for Mo and Pt, respectively. Together, the data are in accord with models that call for a decoupled origin of 'light' (e.g., Mo) and 'heavy' (e.g., Pt) r-process nuclides in the solar system and support previous inferences that thermal processing played a key role in generating the nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies, which are observed in meteorite parent bodies.
Exploitation Route Our insight into impact processes on asteroids will directly inform interpretation of data from current space exploration missions to comets and asteroids (i.e., Dawn, Rosetta, Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-Rex). The effect of porosity on impact response also has application in the defence and aerospace sectors.

Our new weathering classification for extraterrestrial particles will allow researchers to confidently identify the original minerals present before arrival on our planet that formed in the early Solar System.

The high-temperature imaging techniques developed to examine the magnetic remenance of meteoritic materials also have anticipated application to the magnetic recording industry; e.g., the first heat-assisted magnetic recording hard disks are anticipated to be commercially released in 2018.

The new Mo and Pt isotope data for meteorites are of particular interest to and will be useful for (i) astrophysicists that study the origin of the elements - our results constrain the stellar sources of Mo, Pt and other elements; (ii) researchers that investigate early solar system processes - the new data provide constraints for models of the thermal and dynamical evolution of the early solar system; (iii) environmental scientists - the novel methods of isotopic analysis that were developed for the study of meteorites are also of utility in other fields, for example to trace man-made nanoparticles in environmental samples, as part of research that assesses the safety of engineered nanomaterials.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Electronics,Environment

 
Description The methods that were originally developed and applied for isotopic analyses of meteorites also provided impact beyond the immediate field of research. With support of STFC IAA (Impact Acceleration Award) funding, the Zn isotope techniques were applied in a medical context to investigate whether Zn isotope status can serve as a possible biomarker for early detection of breast cancer. This research, in collaboration with oncologists from Imperial College, is ongoing with current support from Cancer Research UK. A further STFC IAA grant was employed to develop novel techniques for stable isotope tracing of engineered ZnO and Ag nanomaterials in complex environmental samples, based on methods originally applied for meteorites. Such studies are ongoing, with a current study on the environmental impact of Ag nanoparticles funded by NERC. Finally, the Cd isotope methods for meteorites are now being employed to investigate the Cd uptake of cocoa plants. The high Cd contents of cocoa beans is a significant problem for some developing countries and the reason for this Cd enrichment is currently not well understood. This line of research is also ongoing, with funding from industry and a STFC GCRF grant.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Aurora
Amount £96,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/M003167/1 
Organisation UK Space Agency 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 10/2017
 
Title Atmospheric entry model 
Description This numerical model has been developed to simulate the atmospheric entry of micrometeorites in planetary atmospheres 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The model is currently being used as part of a collaboration to study ancient terrestrial micrometeorites. 
 
Title Imperial College Micrometeorite Database 
Description The Micrometeorite Database is an online initiative to: (1) provide a research group wide data management system, (2) disseminate research data to the wider scientific community, (2) inform the pubic on research results. Development is on going with a launch of the research group access to the facility in Dec 2013. The technology encorporates database and data analysis software development. 
Type Of Material Data Handling & Control 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The Micrometeorite Database has increased research group productivity allowing group wide data sharing and through efficient data analysis tools. The second phase of development will make data available to the wider scientific community. 
 
Title Imperial College Rock Library 
Description The Imperial College Rock Library is an online resource on the nature of rocks, both terrestrial and extraterrestrial. It's public role is to educate university students and industry, however, within the research group it is used to hold data on samples. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The Rock Library is openly available online and has resulted in samples being donated to the research group 
URL https://wwwf.imperial.ac.uk/earthscienceandengineering/rocklibrary/
 
Title MM Database 
Description This is an online database that holds all data on micrometeorites generated by the research groip 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Resulted in initiation of a new Collaboration with the university of Psa 
URL https://wwwf.imperial.ac.uk/earthscienceandengineering/rocklibrary/mmindex.php
 
Description AWE 
Organisation Atomic Weapons Establishment
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution access to software and data
Collaborator Contribution significant intellectual input into research
Impact CASE student ship and PhD studentship on software development
 
Description Lunar basin formation 
Organisation Paris Institute of Earth Physics
Department Planetary and Space Sciences
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Numerical modelling and interpretation of large lunar impact crater formation
Collaborator Contribution Access to lunar gravity and crustal thickness data from NASA's GRAIL mission and interpretation
Impact Publications listed in publication section. Multi-disciplinary: numerical modelling, geophysics
Start Year 2012
 
Description Planetesimal evolution 
Organisation Planetary Science Institute - Arizona
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution access to data, software, and significant intellectual input into your collaborator/partners research.
Collaborator Contribution Own time and computational resources data
Impact Several published papers
Start Year 2009
 
Description Planetesimal evolution 
Organisation University of Chicago
Department Department of the Geophysical Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution access to data, software, and significant intellectual input into your collaborator/partners research.
Collaborator Contribution Own time and computational resources data
Impact Several published papers
Start Year 2009
 
Description Rafal Dunin-Borkowski in DE 
Organisation Julich Research Centre
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution man power and intellectual ideas
Collaborator Contribution expertise and access to the best microscope facilities in Europe
Impact see publications
Start Year 2010
 
Description Shock Physics 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Institute of Shock Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Numerical model development; numerical simulation of shock wave propagation
Collaborator Contribution Funding of PDRA and PhD student for numerical model development
Impact Several conference abstracts and papers in preparation
Start Year 2009
 
Title iSALE shock physics code 
Description iSALE (impact-SALE) is a multi-material, multi-rheology shock physics code for simulating high speed impacts and other violent geophysical phenomena. iSALE includes constitutive and porous-compaction models specifically developed for impact simulations. The code is being continually developed, improved and maintained by research groups at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin and Imperial College London. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2006 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact iSALE has been used in pioneering studies of the formation of large impact craters on the Earth and the influence of target property variations on crater formation, the influence of a water layer on crater formation, as well as investigating the mobility of large rock avalanches.The software has been extensively validated against laboratory experiments and used to show, for the first time in numerical simulations, the important effect of friction and porosity on crater growth in granular materials. 
URL http://www.isale-code.de
 
Description ABC News article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Australian Broadcasting Corporation ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2016
 
Description Art of Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Shortlisted in the Art of Research competition and exhibition at Imperial College
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BA Scibar on Armageddon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presented a talk to the public on the hazards from Asteroids and Comets. This event is an informal Science bar where the public get to discuss issues with scientists.

An ongoing collaboration on supernovae arose from a contact met at the event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC 5 Live - Rosetta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lead to requests for further interviews.

None yet..it was only yesterday
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BBC Horizon - the truth about Meteors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The ratings for this programme were 3 million in the UK, significantly higher worldwide. Aired in March 2013. I was asked to participate as an expert in the field.

Invited to give several seminars as a result of the program. Invited to participate in a BBC documentary with Richard Hammond on basis of the Horizon programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC How to Make a Planet Documentary Science Advisor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Acted as the main scientific consultant on a documentary entitled "How to make a Planet" with Richard Hammond. Expected viewers 2 million in the UK.

BBC paid for visit to Barringer Crater in Arizona during which sampling was undertaken for research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC Richard Hammond Makes a Planet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Contributor to program, interview with Richard Hammond at Barringer Crater, Arizona.

As a consequence of the program I was invited to write a regular column in the commercial science magazine "Science Uncovered".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC World News - Mining the Moon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited to give a studio interview on the possibilities of mining the moon on the basis of expertise. BBC World News has 74 million viewers worldwide per week.

Available online via iplayer
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC World Service - Rosetta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lead to invite to participate in TV panel discussion

None yet...
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Bergen University Public Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited public lecture on micrometeorites at Bergen University, Norway
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Daily Mail article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Daily Mail ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Economist article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The economist ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Geological Society, London Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited to give a prestigious London Lecture by the Geological Society of London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Huffington Post article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Huffington Post ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Il Giornale (Italy) article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The magazone Il Giornale (Italy) ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Impact: Earth! 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of this Fellowship and in collaboration with international colleagues I updated my very successful, interactive web program for estimating the consequences of impacts on Earth [http://impact.ese.ic.ac.uk]; from the size of the crater and the probability of such an event occurring, to the speed of the winds from the blast wave and thermal radiation from the hot vapour plume. Users of the site include the general public and scientific community, from primary and secondary school children, through university undergraduates, to professional scientists and journalists. Recent improvements include a new, more visual interface, additional features (such as predictions of tsnumai wave heights) and projection of damage contours onto Google Earth.

The release of our updated web program was front-page news on the BBC website and received widespread media attention, e.g.:



BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11685803

USA Today http://content.usatoday.com/communities/sciencefair/post/2010/11/asteroid-impact-calculator/1

Time http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2029288,00.html

Science http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/11/scienceshot-destroy-earth-from.html?ref=hp
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2007,2008,
URL http://impact.ese.ic.ac.uk
 
Description Imperial College Micrometeorite Database 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Imperial College Micrometeorite Database is an online resource on cosmic dust. The aim of this initiative is to disseminate research data to the science community and communicate results to the public.

Has resulted in a new collaboration on Antarctic Micrometeorites with Dr Luigi Folco of the University of Pisa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www2.imperial.ac.uk/earthscienceandengineering/rocklibrary/mmindex.php
 
Description Imperial Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in the Imperial Science Festival with a presentation on micrometeorites
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Irish Examiner article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Irish Examiner ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Irish News article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Irish News (a national newspaper) ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meteoritical Society Meeting, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact 300 researchers attended paper presentation on micrometeorites

Abstract published.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Meteoritical Society, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presented a paper on the metallic micrometeorites

A paper is currently in preparation on the subject of the abstract
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Mirror article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Mirror newspaper ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description NASA's Unexplained Files 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Provided interviews to 8 episodes of "NASA's unexplained files" by WAG TV for the Discovery Channel
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description NHM Science Uncovered 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hundreds of people visited the booth of the NHM Meteoritics group, which I supported for this event. I had discussions about meteorites, the formation of the Earth with dozens of interested members of the public.

The event was extremely successful and wil be repeated next year. Numerous media covered the event and also reported on the work of the meteorics group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012
 
Description Natural History Museum Events 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in the Science Uncovered Events at the Natural History Museum in London where the public are able to meet and discuss science issues with scientists.

Obtained a donation to purchase new samples for the Imperial College Rock Library
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description New Scientist article on GRL paper on vesicular parachutes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact New scientist ran an article on my paper in Geophysical Research Letters
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description New Scientist article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact New Scientist ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description New Scientist article on my Nature paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact New Scientist publish an article on my Nature paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg23030741-900-shooting-stars-show-earth-had-oxygen-eons-before...
 
Description Olso Natural History Museum Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited lecture on micrometeorites at the Natural History Museum of Olso, Norway
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Physics in Action 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give invited lectures to A level students for Physics in Action at the Institute of Education, London. I presented the physics of atmospheric entry.

Resulted in an increase in applicants for the MSci in Geophysics at Imperial College London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Physics in Action Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presented a lecture entitled "The physics of Natural Disaster" for Physics in Action at the Institute for Education
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Quo magazine ran an article on my geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Quo magazine (Spain) ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Rock Library 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact http://www.imperial2.ac.uk/earthscienceandengineering/rocklibrary

The Rock Library is currently discussing sponsorship with industry. The Rock Library resulted in a request for a series of articles for Geology Today published in 2010,11. The Rock Library has 4,200,000 unique users each year (2013) of which 30% use academic networks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Science Uncovered Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I write a regular column for the commercial magazine "Science Uncovered"

Three A level students have requested work experience at Imperial College as a result of this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Science Uncovered NHM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Informing the public about planetary science work at Imperial College

None yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Science Uncovered, Natural History Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in the Natural History Museum's "Science Uncovered Event"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seeker article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Seeker magazine ran an article on my Geology paper on Cosmic Dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Singapore Strait Times article on Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Strait Times (Singapore) ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Sky News - Philae Lander 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Gave interview for Sky News on the reawakening of the Philae Lander
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sky News - Rosetta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Gave interview on latest results of the Rosetta mission
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sky News - Scotland Fireball 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Gave an interview on Sky News on a fireball observation in Scotland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Sky News Comet Ison Coverage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact An interview with Sky News ahead of comet Ison's close pass to the Sun

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Sky and Telescope article on my Geology paper on Cosmic Dust 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sky and Telescope Magazine ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SkyNews - Rosetta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lead to further media enquiries

None yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Telegraph article on my Geology paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Telegraph ran an article on my Geology paper on cosmic dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Telegraph article on my Nature paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Telegraph article on my Nature paper on Cosmic Dust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2016/05/11/fossilised-stardust-could-hold-secret-to-origins-of-li...
 
Description Tim Peake Launch Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in the Science Museum's Tim Peake launch event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015