Galaxy feedback throughout the cosmic epochs: An extensive observational investigation

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

Feedback, associated with both star formation and black hole accretion, is
invoked by any theoretical model of galaxy evolution to suppress star formation
in galaxies across the cosmic epochs. The energy injected into the
interstellar, or intracluster medium, by supernovae or by Active Galactic
Nuclei is expected to expel or heat the gas, therefore reducing the efficiency
of star formation and, in the most extreme cases, abruptly quenching star
formation. This process is thought to account for the very small fraction (5%)
of baryons converted into stars in the local Universe, as well as for several
of the fundamental properties of local galaxies (e.g. stellar populations, gas
content, mass function). Observational evidence for prominent outflows driven
by starbursts and quasars has been obtained in the past, and the PI of this
proposal has contributed to some of the most recent seminal discoveries in this
field.
However, these observations are still far from proving the numerous theoretical
models invoking feedback. So far, the observational investigation, both in
local and high-z galaxies, has been limited to a handful of objects and to a
few feedback tracers, which are generally unable to capture the complexity of
this mechanism and its impact on galaxy evolution. We propose to exploit
extensive (new and archival) multi-wavelength observational data to investigate
the impact of star formation and AGN feedback on galaxy evolution and, in
particular, test cosmological models invoking feedback to explain the
properties of galaxies over the cosmic epochs. By using some of the major
observing facilities and extensive data sets, this project will allow a detailed
characterization of galactic outflows, will identify the different feedback
mechanisms in different classes of sources at different redshifts, and will
reveal whether these processes are actually suppressing star formation in
galaxies, with the efficiency and timescales expected by models, or not.

Planned Impact

This project will allow us to identify the key diagnostics of galaxy
feedback and the optimal observing strategies to trace them.
This will have a crucial impact on the
science requirements for the next generation instruments and
facilities, for which galaxy feedback, and galaxy evolution in general,
is one of the main science cases. In the following we list some of the
future observing facilities whose scientific requirements,
design, operations, observing modes
and observing strategies will be affected by the outcome of the current project:
- JWST, with emphasis on the spectroscopic instrument, NIRSpec (the JWST-European
instrument, for which Maiolino is member of the Instrument Science Team)
and MIRI (which has a major European participation and for which UK hosts
the European PI);
- E-ELT, in relation to its spectroscopic
instruments, and in particular HARMONI (which has heavy UK involvement,
with a British PI) and SIMPLE (for which Maiolino is Project Scientist);
- SPICA, with emphasis on the SAFARI imaging-spectrometer (the European
instrument for SPICA, which has a strong involvement of the Cavendish Laboratory
through the development of the detectors);
- SKA, with emphasis on observing modes associated with
the investigation of the HI kinematics at high
redshift (which as a strong UK involvement, by hosting the Project Office,
including a strong contribution by the Cavendish Laboratory).

We also plan to exploit the results of this programme for a strong outreach
programme. The topic of galaxy outflows is quite suited to attract and stimulate
the interest of the general public, as demonstrated by previous press
releases already issued by ESO and ESA on some of our discoveries, and which have
been broadly broadcasted worldwide.
Within this context we plan to heavily
exploit the excellent Outreach Offices of the Caendish
Laboratory and of the Institute of Astronomy to advertise our results to
the general public.

Publications

10 25 50
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Aravena M (2013) Large gas reservoirs and free-free emission in two lensed star-forming galaxies at z = 2.7 in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Aravena M (2016) A survey of the cold molecular gas in gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at z > 2 in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Arribas S (2015) Ionized gas outflows and global kinematics of low-z luminous star-forming galaxies in Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union

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Bongiorno A (2014) The MBH-M* relation for X-ray-obscured, red QSOs at 1.2 < z < 2.6 in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Bothwell M (2016) Molecular gas as the driver of fundamental galactic relations in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

 
Description We have discovered and characterised some of the key mechanisms responsible for regulating star formation in galaxies (massive outflows driven by supermassive black hole accretion and by supernovae) in representative samples of local and distant galaxies. We have extended these studies to distant galaxies and by investigating the different gas phases (ionized, neutral, molecular) in galactic outflows. We have also shown that alternative mechanisms are responsible for the quenching of star formation in galaxies and, in particular, "starvation", i.e. the lack of gas supply from the intergalactic medium.
Exploitation Route Additional observations at millimetre, infrared and optical wavelengths are required to further characterise these phenomena and to improve the statistics.
Sectors Other

 
Description The findings of this grant have been used by models of galaxy evolution and to plan new observing campaign and new observing facilities. However, they are not having a direct economic or societal impact, except for outreach activities.
Sector Other
 
Description QUENCH
Amount € 2,484,531 (EUR)
Funding ID 340442 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 09/2016 
End 09/2021
 
Description JWST-NIRSpec Instrument Science Team 
Organisation European Space Agency
Department European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Coordination and planning of the NIRSpec GTO survey trough simulations and tradeoff analysis Identification of the primary science cases and of their requirements Coordinator of the JADES and WIDE Multi-Object surveys Co-leadership of the IFS survey Development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Membership of the JWST Science Working Group Contribution to the laboratory testing
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Simulations and development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Development of the commissioning plans, tools for data processing, simulations Definition of science readiness criteria Laboratory testing and performance verification of the instrument
Impact NIRSpec instrument design and definition of its observing modes Characterisation of the instrument and laboratory tests GTO surveys plan and submission for scheduling End-to-end simulations of the various observing modes and various observing strategies Tools for the data processing and data analysis
 
Description JWST-NIRSpec Instrument Science Team 
Organisation Leiden University
Department Leiden Observatory
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Coordination and planning of the NIRSpec GTO survey trough simulations and tradeoff analysis Identification of the primary science cases and of their requirements Coordinator of the JADES and WIDE Multi-Object surveys Co-leadership of the IFS survey Development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Membership of the JWST Science Working Group Contribution to the laboratory testing
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Simulations and development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Development of the commissioning plans, tools for data processing, simulations Definition of science readiness criteria Laboratory testing and performance verification of the instrument
Impact NIRSpec instrument design and definition of its observing modes Characterisation of the instrument and laboratory tests GTO surveys plan and submission for scheduling End-to-end simulations of the various observing modes and various observing strategies Tools for the data processing and data analysis
 
Description JWST-NIRSpec Instrument Science Team 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Coordination and planning of the NIRSpec GTO survey trough simulations and tradeoff analysis Identification of the primary science cases and of their requirements Coordinator of the JADES and WIDE Multi-Object surveys Co-leadership of the IFS survey Development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Membership of the JWST Science Working Group Contribution to the laboratory testing
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Simulations and development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Development of the commissioning plans, tools for data processing, simulations Definition of science readiness criteria Laboratory testing and performance verification of the instrument
Impact NIRSpec instrument design and definition of its observing modes Characterisation of the instrument and laboratory tests GTO surveys plan and submission for scheduling End-to-end simulations of the various observing modes and various observing strategies Tools for the data processing and data analysis
 
Description JWST-NIRSpec Instrument Science Team 
Organisation National Research Council of Canada
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Coordination and planning of the NIRSpec GTO survey trough simulations and tradeoff analysis Identification of the primary science cases and of their requirements Coordinator of the JADES and WIDE Multi-Object surveys Co-leadership of the IFS survey Development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Membership of the JWST Science Working Group Contribution to the laboratory testing
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Simulations and development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Development of the commissioning plans, tools for data processing, simulations Definition of science readiness criteria Laboratory testing and performance verification of the instrument
Impact NIRSpec instrument design and definition of its observing modes Characterisation of the instrument and laboratory tests GTO surveys plan and submission for scheduling End-to-end simulations of the various observing modes and various observing strategies Tools for the data processing and data analysis
 
Description JWST-NIRSpec Instrument Science Team 
Organisation Paris Institute of Astrophysics
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Coordination and planning of the NIRSpec GTO survey trough simulations and tradeoff analysis Identification of the primary science cases and of their requirements Coordinator of the JADES and WIDE Multi-Object surveys Co-leadership of the IFS survey Development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Membership of the JWST Science Working Group Contribution to the laboratory testing
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Simulations and development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Development of the commissioning plans, tools for data processing, simulations Definition of science readiness criteria Laboratory testing and performance verification of the instrument
Impact NIRSpec instrument design and definition of its observing modes Characterisation of the instrument and laboratory tests GTO surveys plan and submission for scheduling End-to-end simulations of the various observing modes and various observing strategies Tools for the data processing and data analysis
 
Description JWST-NIRSpec Instrument Science Team 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Coordination and planning of the NIRSpec GTO survey trough simulations and tradeoff analysis Identification of the primary science cases and of their requirements Coordinator of the JADES and WIDE Multi-Object surveys Co-leadership of the IFS survey Development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Membership of the JWST Science Working Group Contribution to the laboratory testing
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Simulations and development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Development of the commissioning plans, tools for data processing, simulations Definition of science readiness criteria Laboratory testing and performance verification of the instrument
Impact NIRSpec instrument design and definition of its observing modes Characterisation of the instrument and laboratory tests GTO surveys plan and submission for scheduling End-to-end simulations of the various observing modes and various observing strategies Tools for the data processing and data analysis
 
Description JWST-NIRSpec Instrument Science Team 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Coordination and planning of the NIRSpec GTO survey trough simulations and tradeoff analysis Identification of the primary science cases and of their requirements Coordinator of the JADES and WIDE Multi-Object surveys Co-leadership of the IFS survey Development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Membership of the JWST Science Working Group Contribution to the laboratory testing
Collaborator Contribution Contribution to the design and observing strategies of the instrument Simulations and development of tools for the processing and analysis of the data Development of the commissioning plans, tools for data processing, simulations Definition of science readiness criteria Laboratory testing and performance verification of the instrument
Impact NIRSpec instrument design and definition of its observing modes Characterisation of the instrument and laboratory tests GTO surveys plan and submission for scheduling End-to-end simulations of the various observing modes and various observing strategies Tools for the data processing and data analysis