Upgrades of the Tracker and Trigger of the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC

Lead Research Organisation: Brunel University
Department Name: Electronic and Computer Engineering

Abstract

To allow deeper investigations of the physics of discoveries expected at the LHC, and the challenges presented by the very successful performance of the accelerator, upgrades to some key CMS sub-systems are required in the next few years. In addition, LHC operation is expected to continue for at least a decade longer than the experiments were designed for. Inevitable radiation damage to the tracking detector will require its replacement in 2022 and the new detector must be more granular and radiation hard. It must also perform better in an even harsher environment, with higher pileup of events in each beam crossing, to meet the required physics goals.
The LHC, which is the highest energy machine in the world, is the only accelerator capable of investigating some of the highest priority fundamental physics topics for the foreseeable future. In addition to the hoped for completion of the Standard Model by the discovery of the Higgs boson, it allows us to shed light on many other key questions in particle physics including the nature of dark matter, unification of forces, the existence of fundamental particles and their roles in the origin of the universe. The investment in the LHC programme has been significant and upgrades to the experiments will extend its working lifetime considerably, and improve their performance by taking advantage of technological progress in the last decade.
The most crucial sub-detectors to be modified are the tracker and trigger, in which UK groups have played significant roles and have undertaken successful R&D in recent years. We propose to build on this by delivering a significant part of the new calorimeter trigger system and continuing R&D to incorporate tracking data into the future Level 1 trigger. We will deliver a new data acquisition system for the new pixel detector, and contribute to construction of detector modules for the future tracker by providing major parts of the front end electronics. In each case, the UK will be providing hardware, firmware and software with substantial intellectual input and leadership roles.
These represent substantial contributions to the overall CMS upgrade plan consistent with proportionate sharing of construction responsibilities. We request appropriate resources to allow us to undertake these projects.

Planned Impact

The deeper understanding of phenomena to be studied at the LHC will have repercussions for the commercial manufacturers, the general public, and policy makers.
Substantial procurements will be necessary during the course of this project, in the form of advanced digital electronic processing boards and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). These offer opportunities to commercial suppliers, mostly likely UK-based, as prototypes manufactured during the R&D phase preceding this proposal have successfully been manufactured to a high standard by UK companies. Future boards have even more demanding specifications so will push the limits of manufacturing technology.
Electronic components of a substantial value will be purchased during this project, offering opportunities for international producers and local suppliers.
The ASIC designs will be carried out in collaboration with UK engineering designers, based in RAL. Their expertise will increase as a consequence and there will be training opportunities and turnover of staff, with further benefits to industry.
Trained postgraduate students will reach doctoral standards in this project and they will provide additional expert researchers whose skills will be of high commercial value. Some of them are expected to migrate to the commercial world following graduation.
There is wide interest in the physics and technology of the LHC. This project will contribute to maintaining and enhancing that interest by producing world-class science opportunities and advanced technological by-products in the form of CMS instrumentation.
Finally, the scientific results from the LHC will shed deep light on the mysteries of nature by improving our understanding of the 5% of the world explained by the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The results are also likely to begin to allow us to probe the mystery of dark matter, which appears to make up about 25% of the universe, about whose composition we know almost nothing. Given past progress in science, it is unlikely that an improved understanding of nature at this level will not eventually lead to benefits to humankind, although it is impossible to predict in what way. The situation is analogous to that in the nineteenth century before the impact of classical electromagnetism, quantum theory, and relativity, all of which have had a profound effect on modern life and technology.
 
Description Contributed to the development of an fast ultra-high bandwidth processor system that is potentially capable of reconstructing particle tracks in near real-time for the CMS experiment at CERN. This will allow us to select a higher fraction of events that are likely to be of interest in subsequent analysis. WE have contributed primarily to the use of a track finding technique based on the Hough Transform.
Exploitation Route This work may have quite broad applications in image processing, tomographic reconstruction etc.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Healthcare

 
Description CMS 
Organisation European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Department Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Construction, comissioning and operation of the CMS experiment. Data analysis in top-quark physics studies. Provision (via GridPP London Tier-2) of computing resources.
Collaborator Contribution Data acquistion, computing resources (Tier 0), co-authorship of publications, access to data, scientific leadership and support
Impact Over 200 refereed journal publications in experimental particle physics. Along with LHC data analysed by the ATLAS collaboration CMS determined the existence of the Higgs boson which was the subject of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics. Several STFC funded doctoral students have been trained in data analysis, computer programming and large-scale distributed Grid computing techniques.
 
Description CMS 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Construction, comissioning and operation of the CMS experiment. Data analysis in top-quark physics studies. Provision (via GridPP London Tier-2) of computing resources.
Collaborator Contribution Data acquistion, computing resources (Tier 0), co-authorship of publications, access to data, scientific leadership and support
Impact Over 200 refereed journal publications in experimental particle physics. Along with LHC data analysed by the ATLAS collaboration CMS determined the existence of the Higgs boson which was the subject of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics. Several STFC funded doctoral students have been trained in data analysis, computer programming and large-scale distributed Grid computing techniques.
 
Description CMS 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Particle Physics Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Construction, comissioning and operation of the CMS experiment. Data analysis in top-quark physics studies. Provision (via GridPP London Tier-2) of computing resources.
Collaborator Contribution Data acquistion, computing resources (Tier 0), co-authorship of publications, access to data, scientific leadership and support
Impact Over 200 refereed journal publications in experimental particle physics. Along with LHC data analysed by the ATLAS collaboration CMS determined the existence of the Higgs boson which was the subject of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics. Several STFC funded doctoral students have been trained in data analysis, computer programming and large-scale distributed Grid computing techniques.
 
Description CMS 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department School of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Construction, comissioning and operation of the CMS experiment. Data analysis in top-quark physics studies. Provision (via GridPP London Tier-2) of computing resources.
Collaborator Contribution Data acquistion, computing resources (Tier 0), co-authorship of publications, access to data, scientific leadership and support
Impact Over 200 refereed journal publications in experimental particle physics. Along with LHC data analysed by the ATLAS collaboration CMS determined the existence of the Higgs boson which was the subject of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics. Several STFC funded doctoral students have been trained in data analysis, computer programming and large-scale distributed Grid computing techniques.
 
Description Big Bang Fair NEC 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This exhibit showed the ideas behind the Higgs boson, and guided visitors through the physics, engineering and computing developments that have led to its discovery. Activities included: mass generation using magnets; operation of a table-top accelerator; handling of components from LHC detectors; and dice games that simulate particle-physics experiments.

From badges given away to individual visitors we estimate about 5000 people (pre-booked school groups and 7-18 year-old children with parents/carers) came to the stand.

Not yet known, activity took place last week.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.thebigbangfair.co.uk/View/?con_id=3108
 
Description Royal Society Summer Exhibition 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Exhibition is the Society's main public event of the year and is open to members of the general public as well as students and teachers, scientists, policymakers and the media. The "Higgs Boson" stand was one of the most visited during the exhibition. Over 2300 students and 260 teachers visited the exhibition, most of whom will have visited the Higgs Boson stand. Over 11000 visitors in total attended and we estimate well over half of these visited our stand (judged by number of items given away to visitors).

A large number of visitors from the general public were enthused about the LHC, ATLAS & CMS experiments and the UK role in discovering the Higgs Boson.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013/exhibits/higgs-boson/