Development of a Handheld Field-Deployable Mineral Analyser

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leicester
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

X-ray powder diffractometry is a well-established materials analysis technique which produces results directly linked to the microcrystalline structure of the sample material. It is the definitive method for the identification and quantification of the mineral content of rocks. Many materials are crystalline in nature at the micron-scale (one micron equals a thousandth of a millimetre) - rocks, soils, many raw materials and building materials, metals - and so the technique has very wide applicability both in research and industrial contexts. Standard methods generally require careful preparation of the sample. For example, rocks must be ground to a fine powder and loaded into a sample well. The sample surface must be flat, and positioned accurately within the x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument.

A novel XRD technique which exhibits almost complete insensitivity to the shape and form of the sample is being developed at the University of Leicester. This unique characteristic enables the analysis of, for example, rock samples with no requirement for any preparation of the rock. Furthermore, the principles underlying this technique favour an especially compact and lightweight instrument design. The method is also inherently fast, aided by the lack of any sample preparation requirement.

The characteristics of this technique enable, for the first time, the development of a handheld XRD device for the rapid identification and quantification of minerals in the field. The key commercial application is in mining and quarrying, and this application will serve as the focus of the project. The project objectives are two-fold. Firstly, the technique and methodology will be developed using samples which are fully representative of problems encountered in mining. For example, in iron ore mining it is important to know the relative amounts of the iron oxide minerals hematite, magnetite and goethite. A handheld device would bring numerous advantages in mining operations, such as the rapid delineation of ore boundaries and assessment of ore grades for the efficient management of blasting, excavation and haulage operations. Secondly, a prototype handheld device will be developed for field testing. This device will be adapted from an existing handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument. XRF is a related technique to XRD, but yields the elemental composition of the sample only, not the mineralogical composition. The new prototype will combine both XRD and XRF information about the sample.

This project is a partnership between the University of Leicester and Bruker Elemental, a division of Bruker which manufactures scientific instruments for elemental analysis, including handheld XRF instruments, and has global presence in the relevant markets.

Publications

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Hansford G (2017) High-resolution X-ray diffraction with no sample preparation in Acta Crystallographica Section A Foundations and Advances

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Hansford G (2014) The suppression of fluorescence peaks in energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction in Journal of Applied Crystallography

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Hansford G (2018) A prototype handheld X-ray diffraction instrument. in Journal of applied crystallography

 
Title Royal Institution Crystallography Film 
Description A short film which describes the role of X-ray diffraction in the exploration of Mars, part of a series celebrating 100 years of X-ray crystallography. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact This film is available on the Ri YouTube channel, and has been viewed over 10,000 times (as of Nov 2014). 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lr_PDXyNu1E
 
Description The overarching aim of this research project was the development of a prototype handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument for mining applications, and demonstration of its efficacy. The instrument is based on an X-ray diffraction technique called back-reflection energy-dispersive XRD. This XRD method was invented by the project PI, and allows the mineralogical analysis of mining samples (and other types of samples) without any sample preparation, a feature which is essentially unique in the field of XRD.
The prototype instrument was successfully developed by adaptation of a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The instrument was tested with a range of representative iron ore and limestone rock and powder samples. It was shown that the relative amounts of the key minerals within each sample can be extracted from the measurements e.g. the amounts of magnetite, hematite, goethite and quartz (an impurity) can be derived for iron ore samples. The amount of each mineral determines, for example, the subsequent processing which is required for any given sample. Mineral quantification such as this currently requires more cumbersome and slower instrumentation and also requires sample preparation. Usually, samples are sent away to remote laboratories and the results are not returned for several weeks.
The results of this project show that the development of a commercial handheld XRD device for mining applications is entirely feasible.
Exploitation Route The primary way in which the findings can be taken forward is the licencing of the associated technology to a commercial partner. Bruker was the industrial partner for this project, but they have withdrawn from the project and will not licence the technology. The PI and the University of Leicester are pursuing other licencing opportunities and are currently negotiating with a US instrument manufacturer. Instrumentation based on the back-reflection EDXRD technique have potential application in areas other than mining, such as metallurgy (e.g. steel manufacture) and analysis of cultural heritage objects. Within the academic arena, other researchers may benefit from the publication of these research findings through the identification of additional possible applications of the back-reflection technique and the associated technology.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other

URL http://www.dxcicdd.com/15/abstracts/D11.pdf
 
Description The key intended impact of this award is the licencing of the relevant technology (protected by patents) to the industrial partner, Bruker Elemental. As of June 2016, Bruker has withdrawn from the project and will not licence the technology. The PI and the University of Leicester are pursuing other possible licencees. Discussions are currently taking place with a US company which has identified a specific application area. They are currently constructing an experimental mock-up in order to perform their own testing. The PI holds a Royal Society Industry Fellowship to work with Rolls-Royce plc and Tata Steel UK Ltd to transfer this technology into the metallurgy sector. These activities are expected to improve the likelihood of licencing the technology by demonstrating real-world applications. Cultural heritage applications of the technology are also being pursued.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Follow-on Funding
Amount £107,186 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/N000218/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 06/2016
 
Description Geo.Rep.Net travel/consumables
Amount £2,500 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2014 
End 10/2015
 
Description Global Challenge Concepts Fund
Amount £49,176 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/M007235/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description Industry Fellowship
Amount £117,551 (GBP)
Funding ID IF170021 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2022
 
Description Non-Destructive High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction for Cultural Heritage
Amount £467,165 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R024626/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description STFC Follow-on Fund
Amount £87,899 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/P001874/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 04/2017
 
Description STFC Impact Acceleration Account (University of Leicester)
Amount £6,500 (GBP)
Organisation University of Leicester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 01/2015
 
Description Analysis of Reduction Spheroids - Prof John Parnell 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Non-destructive X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of reduction spheroids for their astrobiological significance using a novel XRD technique which is insensitive to the sample morphology. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the same objects. Interpretation of the XRD/XRF data in terms of composition.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples for XRD analysis and expert interpretation of the astrobiological significance of the compositional analysis.
Impact No outcomes as yet (analyses yet to be run). Highly multidisciplinary - X-ray physics, sample analysis by XRD and XRF (mineralogical and elemental analyses), astrobiological.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Boulby Mine work 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)
Department Boulby Underground Science Facility
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research into handheld XRD and XRF measurements of relevance to Boulby Mine.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of test samples. Provision of travel funds, and of lab space and support services for the MINAR campaign in April 2014. (MINAR = Mining and Analogue Research)
Impact XRD and XRF analytical data on mine samples.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Boulby Mine work 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department UK Centre for Astrobiology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research into handheld XRD and XRF measurements of relevance to Boulby Mine.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of test samples. Provision of travel funds, and of lab space and support services for the MINAR campaign in April 2014. (MINAR = Mining and Analogue Research)
Impact XRD and XRF analytical data on mine samples.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Bruker Elemental - Handheld XRD 
Organisation Bruker Corporation
Department Bruker Elemental
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Modification of a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument to perform X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in addition i.e. development of a handheld XRD prototype. Analysis of samples relevant to mining applications e.g. iron ore samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of two handheld XRD instruments for modification, plus ancillary components such as a small vacuum pump. Provision of samples of relevance to the mining sector for testing. Bruker has also supplied the necessary information to make modifications to the handheld XRF instruments.
Impact The outputs of this collaboration are ongoing. A milestone output was achieved in September 2014 - a prototype of the handheld X-ray diffraction instrument was working for the first time. Analysis of iron ore samples using a lab-based version of the back-reflection EDXRD technique is ongoing.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Corrosion analysis of Mary Rose cannonballs using handheld XRD and synchrotron XRD 
Organisation Mary Rose Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We are investigating the capabilities of a prototype handheld XRD instrument in the analysis of the corrosion of iron-based cultural heritage artefacts, specifically applied to cannonballs from the Mary Rose. The contribution has been the provision of the prototype instrument, data acquisition and processing. In addition, we are sourcing pure mineral samples to make up representative mixtures for comparative measurements. We are also planning to conduct non-destructive synchrotron XRD measurements on the same samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples in the form of Mary Rose cannonballs (or fragments).Interpretation of the results from a cultural heritage perspective, especially relating to the conservation of iron artefacts.
Impact No outcomes as yet. Highly multidisciplinary - X-ray physics, materials analysis by XRD and XRF (mineralogical and elemental analyses), cultural heritage and conservation.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Corrosion analysis of Mary Rose cannonballs using handheld XRD and synchrotron XRD 
Organisation University College London
Department Institute of Archaeology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are investigating the capabilities of a prototype handheld XRD instrument in the analysis of the corrosion of iron-based cultural heritage artefacts, specifically applied to cannonballs from the Mary Rose. The contribution has been the provision of the prototype instrument, data acquisition and processing. In addition, we are sourcing pure mineral samples to make up representative mixtures for comparative measurements. We are also planning to conduct non-destructive synchrotron XRD measurements on the same samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples in the form of Mary Rose cannonballs (or fragments).Interpretation of the results from a cultural heritage perspective, especially relating to the conservation of iron artefacts.
Impact No outcomes as yet. Highly multidisciplinary - X-ray physics, materials analysis by XRD and XRF (mineralogical and elemental analyses), cultural heritage and conservation.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Cultural Heritage with Dr Andrew Shortland 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Non-destructive X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of archaeological objects using a novel XRD technique which is insensitive to the sample morphology. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the same objects. Interpretation of the XRD/XRF data in terms of composition.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples for XRD analysis and expert interpretation of the archaeological significance of the compositional analysis.
Impact No outcomes as yet. A paper has been published in the prestigious Advances section of Acta Crystallographica A journal. Highly multidisciplinary - X-ray physics, materials analysis by XRD and XRF (mineralogical and elemental analyses), archaeological.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Cultural Heritage with Prof Patrick Degryse 
Organisation University of Leuven
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Non-destructive X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of archaeological objects using a novel XRD technique which is insensitive to the sample morphology. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the same objects. Interpretation of the XRD/XRF data in terms of composition.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples for XRD analysis and expert interpretation of the archaeological significance of the compositional analysis. Advice and feedback for a grant application to the EPSRC.
Impact No outcomes as yet. A paper has been published in the prestigious Advances section of Acta Crystallographica A journal. Highly multidisciplinary - X-ray physics, materials analysis by XRD and XRF (mineralogical and elemental analyses), archaeological.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Discussions with NIST regarding a TES array for high-resolution back-reflection EDXRD 
Organisation National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST)
Department Quantum Sensors Group
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The collaboration centres on a short experimental campaign on the application of NIST superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays in non-destructive XRD analysis of cultural heritage objects. The campaign is currently at a planning stage.
Collaborator Contribution Information concerning the performance, operation and cost of superconducting TES arrays. Support of planning the experimental campaign.
Impact No outcomes as yet. Disciplines involved: superconducting sensors and readout electronics, x-ray diffraction, x-ray physics
Start Year 2016
 
Description Lincoln Cathedral stained glass windows 
Organisation University of Lincoln
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Non-destructive X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of 13th-century stained glass window fragments using a prototype handheld XRD instrument. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the same objects. Interpretation of the XRD/XRF data.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of the stained glass window samples for XRD analysis and expert interpretation of the historical significance of the compositional analysis. Acquisition of data.
Impact No outcomes as yet. Highly multidisciplinary - X-ray physics, materials analysis by XRD and XRF (mineralogical and elemental analyses), cultural heritage/historical.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Residual Stress - Prof Mike Fitzpatrick 
Organisation Coventry University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Non-destructive X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of residual stress in metals/alloys using a novel XRD technique which is insensitive to the sample morphology. Interpretation of the XRD data in terms of stress measurement.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples for XRD analysis and expert interpretation of the stress measurements.
Impact Test results were not promising so the work has been discontinued. Highly multidisciplinary - X-ray physics, materials analysis by XRD, metallurgy.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Tata Steel UK collaboration 
Organisation TATA Steel
Department Tata Limited UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Investigation of the utility of novel XRD methods to steel manufacture.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of relevant samples; know how concerning the production of steel and what XRD measurements would help to streamline operations.
Impact Publication: doi 10.1107/S1600576716011936 The relevant disciplines are: steel manufacture, X-ray diffraction, instrument design
Start Year 2015
 
Title METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR X-RAY DIFFRACTION 
Description Methods and apparatus are provided for performing back-reflection energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD). This exhibits extremely low sensitivity to the morphology of the sample under investigation. As a consequence of this insensitivity, unprepared samples can be analysed using this method. For example, in a geological context, whole rock samples become amenable to analysis. A composite diffraction spectrum can be produced using information from different recorded spectra in different energy sub-ranges. The composite spectrum excludes fluorescence signals that would otherwise obscure the diffraction signals. 
IP Reference US2015092921 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed No
Impact Licensing to a US company is actively being pursued. The company has identified a specific application and they are constructing an experimental mock-up.
 
Title Methods and apparatus for X-ray diffraction 
Description Methods and apparatus are provided for performing back-reflection energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD). This exhibits extremely low sensitivity to the morphology of the sample under investigation. As a consequence of this insensitivity, unprepared samples can be analyzed using this method. For example, in a geological context, whole rock samples become amenable to analysis. Modifications of the technique are described to suppress fluorescence signals that would otherwise obscure the diffraction signals. 
IP Reference AU2013250980 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2014
Licensed No
Impact • Nationals filed in Europe, USA and Australia in 2014. • Europe has published and going through examination - publication number EP2839269A. • Australia (AU2013250980) granted in August 2017 and USA (application number US14394971) has been accepted and waiting for grant number. • We have recently filed a divisional application in Australia and this is pending examination.
 
Title Working handheld XRD prototype 
Description A prototype handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument has been developed by modifying a handheld X-ray fluorescence instrument from Bruker Elemental. The prototype gave the first successful results in September 2014. Results yielded by the instrument were improved by the addition of the capability to evacuate the sensorhead in March 2015. 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The prototype instrument has been tested with iron ore and limestone rock and powder samples, and many types of metals/alloys. More recently, the instrument has been applied to the analysis of iron corrosion in archaeological artefacts, specifically Mary Rose iron shot. Successful phase analysis has been demonstrated in each case. The University of Leicester is actively pursuing a licencing deal with an instrument manufacturer. In addition, projects are underway to transfer this technology into industry (aerospace and steel production applications) and to investigate its potential in the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. 
 
Description An interview for The Engineer Magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact An article in The Engineer magazine.

Reaching an engineering audience which might not ordinarily read about this research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.theengineer.co.uk/channels/design-engineering/news/hand-held-x-rays-for-crystallography-o...
 
Description Conference Talk - A High-Resolution Non-Invasive XRD Technique for Cultural Heritage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at the Synchrotron Radiation and Neutrons in Art and Archaeology 2018 conference of a novel X-ray diffraction method which is completely non-destructive and therefore highly applicable to archaeological and artwork research. The purpose of the presentation was to advertise this research to the cultural heritage community. One possible collaboration is a direct result of this presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Diamond Science Highlights Article 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Publication of an article on the Diamond synchrotron's Science Highlight website, describing a novel method suitable for analysing valuable samples using X-ray diffraction. The article also highlights publication of the associated scientific paper in the prestigious Advances section of the journal Acta Crystallographica A.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.diamond.ac.uk/Science/Research/Highlights/2017/no-preparation.html
 
Description Geo.Rep.Net Meeting 3 Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Multi-disciplinary meeting to discuss the challenges surrounding geological repositories for storing nuclear waste and for carbon capture and storage, including the transfer of technology from high technology sectors (space, high energy physics) into this application.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.georepnet.org/news.html?news_id=28
 
Description Geo.Rep.Net Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Multi-disciplinary meeting to discuss the challenges surrounding geological repositories for storing nuclear waste and for carbon capture and storage, including the transfer of technology from high technology sectors (space, high energy physics) into this application.
John Lees and I made a successful application to the STFC's Global Challenge Concepts Fund to develop a prototype imaging XRF instrument, largely as a consequence of this meeting.

The highly interdisciplinary nature of the meeting meant that academics and engineers were able to understand the multiple challenges associated with geological repositories.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.georepnet.org/news.html?news_id=21
 
Description Industrial Photonics Magazine request 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact An article in the Industrial Photonics magazine.

Reaching a photonics audience who might not ordinarily read about this research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.photonics.com/Article.aspx?PID=20&VID=115&IID=756&AID=56082
 
Description Innovative Handheld XRD Press Release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The press release generated 4 media enquiries and interview requests for further information so that articles could be written.

In each case, an online and/or print article concerning the development of the innovative technology was or will be written. The reach of these articles is international.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/press/press-releases/2014/january/innovative-handheld-mineral-analyser-...
 
Description Innovative Research Call in Explosives and Weapons Detection Showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact My main purpose of attending the showcase was to advertise the development of a handheld XRD instrument and gauge its possible application in drugs detection/identification.

Meeting possible future collaboration partners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ircshowcase.co.uk/
 
Description International Innovation article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An article which gives an in-depth snapshot of my research, including the X-ray diffraction techniques I am developing, their applications and my collaborations. I believe this is an excellent advert for further possible collaborators.

No impacts yet - publication due in late November 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Interview on the BBCs Radio Leicester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following a press release describing a pioneering X-ray technique that can analyse cultural heritage artefacts of any shape or texture in a non-destructive way, BBC Radio Leicester got in touch to ask for a live interview. The interview was a good opportunity to communicate the research to the general public. The scope of the impact is difficult to gauge.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Press Release for Diamond XRD work Dec 1014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A press release to describe a pioneering X-ray technique that can analyse cultural heritage artefacts of any shape or texture in a non-destructive way, using X-ray diffraction. The press release was timed to coincide with publication of a scientific paper in the prestigious Advances section of the journal Acta Crystallographica A.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/press/press-releases/2017/june/university-of-leicester-develops-pionee...
 
Description Spectroscopy Magazine Handheld XRD article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact An article devoted to the description of my research was written and published in the Spectroscopy magazine. The article is entitled "Handheld X-ray Diffraction for Remote, Field-Based Applications".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.spectroscopyonline.com/handheld-x-ray-diffraction-remote-field-based-applications
 
Description Spectroscopy Magazine information request 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact An article in the Spectroscopy Magazine.


Reaching an audience which might not ordinarily read about this research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.spectroscopyonline.com/spectroscopy/Articles/Emerging-Technology-Trends-in-Atomic-Spectro...
 
Description UK Archaeological Science Conference Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the UK Archaeological Science Conference 2017 of a novel X-ray diffraction method which is completely non-destructive and therefore highly applicable to archaeological research. The purpose of the presentation was to advertise this research to the archaeological community who were unlikely to know of it otherwise. Two collaborations are a direct result of this presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/calendar/conferences/ukas2017/Podium_Presentation_Amended_Schedule...