Jefferson Lab project grant

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

Approximately 98% of the mass of nucleons, and therefore of the visible universe, emerges from the interactions among their constituents, the quarks and gluons. The Higgs mechanism, which gives mass to the bare quarks, is responsible for only a small fraction of the nucleon mass. The confinement of quarks within mesons and baryons is a direct consequence of their fundamental interactions. The field theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is now well established, and yet the phenomena described above cannot be understood from the QCD Lagrangian; they are emergent properties that arise from the unique complexity of these interactions. QCD is as yet intractable at the mass scale of nucleons and nuclei, so a clear picture of the fundamental nature of matter at these energies does not yet exist. However, this situation is set to change, and both theoretical and experimental developments in the coming decade are expected to revolutionise our understanding of nuclear matter within the context of QCD and the Standard Model.

There are several key questions that will be addressed by the work proposed here:

* What is the mechanism for confining quarks and gluons in strongly interacting particles (hadrons)?

* What is the structure of the proton and neutron and how do hadrons get their mass and spin?

* Can we understand the excitation spectra of hadrons from the quark-quark interaction?

* Do exotic hadrons (multiquark states, hybrid mesons and glueballs) exist?

* How do nuclear forces arise from QCD?

* Can nuclei be described in terms of our understanding of the underlying fundamental interactions?

The scientific vision behind the upgrade to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in Newport News, Virginia, is to address fundamental issues such as how constituent quarks acquire mass, and why they are confined. It is therefore ideally suited to tackling the pivotal questions laid out above. New insights into the fundamental structure of the nucleon will be obtained from measurements of nucleon form factors, Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs) and Transverse Momentum-dependent parton Distributions (TMDs). The fundamental nature of QCD confinement will be studied through the investigation of the light hadron spectrum, and the search for the existence of exotic states, in which the confining gluonic field provides an additional degree of freedom to the quarks. These states are a direct prediction of the QCD theory but remain unobserved experimentally.

The Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade offers an exciting opportunity for the UK Nuclear Physics community to lead and instigate world-leading hadron physics research. The central scientific motivation for undertaking this project is a continuing desire to understand QCD physics: to obtain new information on the structure of nucleons, and to investigate the mechanism of quark confinement. This proposal represents a bid by the Edinburgh and Glasgow nuclear physics groups to build on established leadership roles, and enhance their impact on JLab's future science programme for the coming decades.

Planned Impact

This proposal will develop a new piece of equipment to be used at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory in the USA. The new device, the fast-timing hodoscope, will utilise the latest technologies in light sensors (Silicon Photomultipliers) and employ fast sampling electronics (Flash Analogue to Digital Convertors). The device will be a key piece of the future decades long experimental programme in CLAS12 at the upgraded Jefferson Lab.

We have a very good track record in identifying and pursuing spin-off opportunities from our fundamental research. For example, the research and development programme for the Edinburgh nucleon polarimeter at MAMI has prompted new ideas for improving Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging. This has led to the award of STFC Follow on Funding and direct collaboration with clinicians and medical physicists. We will use our developments in Silicon Photomultiplier readout and data acquisition to develop simple, safe and cheap cosmic ray detector kits for use in schools, an initiative which is being developed with the Edinburgh University Young Researchers Association. The silcon photomultiplier technology is also being transferred to the undergraduate experimental projects at Edinburgh.

The nuclear physics research programme provides excellent training opportunities for PhD students. The size and scope of nuclear physics experiments means that PhD students must actively engage with all of the scientific and technical aspects of the experiments. Students and PDRA's obtain hands-on practical experience in the setup of the experiment, the use of modern software languages (C++) to analyse the data and also experience in advanced computer simulation methods (e.g. Geant4). Such students are in high demand from many areas of industry.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We developed a new Silicon photomultiplier light sensor array which reads the scintillation light from a segmented (240 element) fast timing detector which has the capability of operating in very high magnetic fields (5T) and a very high rate and radiation dose environment. This detector system was constructed and is now installed at Jefferson National Laboratory in the USA within the CLAS12 detector system. This is a central detector system to utilise the recently upgraded Jefferson Lab. The detector system was used with the Jefferson laboratory electron beam for the first time in 2017 and is starting production running. The detector meets all the design parameters and is fully functioning. It has been implemented as part of the experimental trigger at CLAS12.
The group has since moved to York and we provide the support for the ongoing use of the detector in the next decade long experimental programme.
Exploitation Route The detector constructed will be a central element of a physics programme to use electron scattering at small angles to illuminate the nature of strongly interacting matter. This will include searches for hybrid mesons, completely new particles in which the gluonic components of of matter have been excited (rather than the quarks). The properties of these particles will challenge our understanding of the strong force at a microscopic level and give the cleanest experimental signature of the nature of quark confinement.

The device has catalysed further new experimental programmes including searching for hybrid baryons (nucleons in which the gluonic component has been excited), searching for the photoproduction of pentaquark states (e.g. LHCb pentaquark) and also new efforts to better establish the interaction of hyperons (nucleons containing a single strange quark). The latter topic has important impact for understanding neutron stars as hyperons are predicted to form copiously in the star's interior, but the predictions based on our current understanding of hyperon-nucleon interactions appear inconsistent with astronomical data (e.g. maximum observed neutron star mass).
Sectors Electronics,Healthcare,Other

 
Description The silicon photomultiplier developments supported by the grant have found use in our in house developments of cheap particle detector readouts suitable for schools. The experience in silicon photomultipliers also enabled demonstrator medical imaging systems to be developed in Edinburgh. As well as advancing our medical physics research capabilities such systems have been used in training of MPhys students in medical imaging through project work. The students to date have a very good conversion rate in achieving competitive job appointments in hospitals and medical imaging companies using this experience. The technology has also been used in the development of a photon beam monitor for laser-plasma accelerated beams with potential future use in radiotherapy
Sector Education,Healthcare
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Forward Tagger Collaboration at CLAS12, Jefferson Lab 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Genova
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the development and construction of the fast timing hodoscope, a new particle ID system to operate close to the electron beamline at the Thomas Jefferson National Lab in the USA (JLAB). We carried out the detailed simulations necessary to establish the design and carried out the prototype testing to detail its performance. The UK contribution to the hodoscope construction funding is the only outstanding component, and is a central part of the JLab PPRP application currently under consideration. We are spokespersons for the flagship experiment using the device (MesonEx) with the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab. This will be the first experiment following the JLAB upgrade (2016) with 120 days of beamtime. The experiment has the potential to be a discovery experiment for the long sought hybrid mesons. We contributed significantly to the writing of the proposal and carried out many of the computer simulations which established the suitability of CLAS12 for meson spectroscopy. We have developed new electronic readout boards which provide amplified analogue outputs from state of the art Silicon Photomultipliers (Hamamatsu S10362-33-100C). We have designed optical fibre coupling systems to connect the particle detectors to the SiPM. Use latest technology Flash-Analogue to Digtal Convertors (ADC) negating the requirement of traditional Time to digital convertor (TDC) systems.
Collaborator Contribution JMU have collaborated on the hodoscope design - specifically the design of the optical fibre routing and supports. INFN (Genoa) played important role in the development and testing of the readout electronics (amplifier boards for SiPM light sensors). NSU and JMU succesfully won funding from the NSF to contribute to the hodoscope construction costs. University of Glasgow will develop slow control infrastructure and contribute to the gain monitoring systems for the hodoscope. Edinburgh PI, PDRA's and students have been funded by overseas visitor funds from INFN.
Impact MesonEx proposal: JLAB Exp-11-005. Approved for 120 days beamtime. Scheduled for start of operation with CLAS12. Forward Tagger Technical Design Report: http://www.jlab.org/Hall-B/clas12-web/docs/ft-tdr.2.0.pdf PPRP application for UK contribution to Forward Tagger: STFC grant No. ST/M001571/1. All collaborators applications succesful (INFN, Italy and NSF, USA) Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14
Start Year 2009
 
Description Forward Tagger Collaboration at CLAS12, Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Norfolk State University
Department Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the development and construction of the fast timing hodoscope, a new particle ID system to operate close to the electron beamline at the Thomas Jefferson National Lab in the USA (JLAB). We carried out the detailed simulations necessary to establish the design and carried out the prototype testing to detail its performance. The UK contribution to the hodoscope construction funding is the only outstanding component, and is a central part of the JLab PPRP application currently under consideration. We are spokespersons for the flagship experiment using the device (MesonEx) with the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab. This will be the first experiment following the JLAB upgrade (2016) with 120 days of beamtime. The experiment has the potential to be a discovery experiment for the long sought hybrid mesons. We contributed significantly to the writing of the proposal and carried out many of the computer simulations which established the suitability of CLAS12 for meson spectroscopy. We have developed new electronic readout boards which provide amplified analogue outputs from state of the art Silicon Photomultipliers (Hamamatsu S10362-33-100C). We have designed optical fibre coupling systems to connect the particle detectors to the SiPM. Use latest technology Flash-Analogue to Digtal Convertors (ADC) negating the requirement of traditional Time to digital convertor (TDC) systems.
Collaborator Contribution JMU have collaborated on the hodoscope design - specifically the design of the optical fibre routing and supports. INFN (Genoa) played important role in the development and testing of the readout electronics (amplifier boards for SiPM light sensors). NSU and JMU succesfully won funding from the NSF to contribute to the hodoscope construction costs. University of Glasgow will develop slow control infrastructure and contribute to the gain monitoring systems for the hodoscope. Edinburgh PI, PDRA's and students have been funded by overseas visitor funds from INFN.
Impact MesonEx proposal: JLAB Exp-11-005. Approved for 120 days beamtime. Scheduled for start of operation with CLAS12. Forward Tagger Technical Design Report: http://www.jlab.org/Hall-B/clas12-web/docs/ft-tdr.2.0.pdf PPRP application for UK contribution to Forward Tagger: STFC grant No. ST/M001571/1. All collaborators applications succesful (INFN, Italy and NSF, USA) Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14
Start Year 2009
 
Description Forward Tagger Collaboration at CLAS12, Jefferson Lab 
Organisation Thomas Jefferson University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the development and construction of the fast timing hodoscope, a new particle ID system to operate close to the electron beamline at the Thomas Jefferson National Lab in the USA (JLAB). We carried out the detailed simulations necessary to establish the design and carried out the prototype testing to detail its performance. The UK contribution to the hodoscope construction funding is the only outstanding component, and is a central part of the JLab PPRP application currently under consideration. We are spokespersons for the flagship experiment using the device (MesonEx) with the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab. This will be the first experiment following the JLAB upgrade (2016) with 120 days of beamtime. The experiment has the potential to be a discovery experiment for the long sought hybrid mesons. We contributed significantly to the writing of the proposal and carried out many of the computer simulations which established the suitability of CLAS12 for meson spectroscopy. We have developed new electronic readout boards which provide amplified analogue outputs from state of the art Silicon Photomultipliers (Hamamatsu S10362-33-100C). We have designed optical fibre coupling systems to connect the particle detectors to the SiPM. Use latest technology Flash-Analogue to Digtal Convertors (ADC) negating the requirement of traditional Time to digital convertor (TDC) systems.
Collaborator Contribution JMU have collaborated on the hodoscope design - specifically the design of the optical fibre routing and supports. INFN (Genoa) played important role in the development and testing of the readout electronics (amplifier boards for SiPM light sensors). NSU and JMU succesfully won funding from the NSF to contribute to the hodoscope construction costs. University of Glasgow will develop slow control infrastructure and contribute to the gain monitoring systems for the hodoscope. Edinburgh PI, PDRA's and students have been funded by overseas visitor funds from INFN.
Impact MesonEx proposal: JLAB Exp-11-005. Approved for 120 days beamtime. Scheduled for start of operation with CLAS12. Forward Tagger Technical Design Report: http://www.jlab.org/Hall-B/clas12-web/docs/ft-tdr.2.0.pdf PPRP application for UK contribution to Forward Tagger: STFC grant No. ST/M001571/1. All collaborators applications succesful (INFN, Italy and NSF, USA) Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14
Start Year 2009
 
Description Forward Tagger Collaboration at CLAS12, Jefferson Lab 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We lead the development and construction of the fast timing hodoscope, a new particle ID system to operate close to the electron beamline at the Thomas Jefferson National Lab in the USA (JLAB). We carried out the detailed simulations necessary to establish the design and carried out the prototype testing to detail its performance. The UK contribution to the hodoscope construction funding is the only outstanding component, and is a central part of the JLab PPRP application currently under consideration. We are spokespersons for the flagship experiment using the device (MesonEx) with the CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab. This will be the first experiment following the JLAB upgrade (2016) with 120 days of beamtime. The experiment has the potential to be a discovery experiment for the long sought hybrid mesons. We contributed significantly to the writing of the proposal and carried out many of the computer simulations which established the suitability of CLAS12 for meson spectroscopy. We have developed new electronic readout boards which provide amplified analogue outputs from state of the art Silicon Photomultipliers (Hamamatsu S10362-33-100C). We have designed optical fibre coupling systems to connect the particle detectors to the SiPM. Use latest technology Flash-Analogue to Digtal Convertors (ADC) negating the requirement of traditional Time to digital convertor (TDC) systems.
Collaborator Contribution JMU have collaborated on the hodoscope design - specifically the design of the optical fibre routing and supports. INFN (Genoa) played important role in the development and testing of the readout electronics (amplifier boards for SiPM light sensors). NSU and JMU succesfully won funding from the NSF to contribute to the hodoscope construction costs. University of Glasgow will develop slow control infrastructure and contribute to the gain monitoring systems for the hodoscope. Edinburgh PI, PDRA's and students have been funded by overseas visitor funds from INFN.
Impact MesonEx proposal: JLAB Exp-11-005. Approved for 120 days beamtime. Scheduled for start of operation with CLAS12. Forward Tagger Technical Design Report: http://www.jlab.org/Hall-B/clas12-web/docs/ft-tdr.2.0.pdf PPRP application for UK contribution to Forward Tagger: STFC grant No. ST/M001571/1. All collaborators applications succesful (INFN, Italy and NSF, USA) Publicity http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/new-school-alumni-magazine-01-10-14
Start Year 2009
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation Julich Research Centre
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation Julich Research Centre
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department Frascati Laboratory (LNF)
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Torino
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Trento
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Trento
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Description HASPECT 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The HASPECT collaboration aims to deliver next generation partial wave analyses for the new hadron spectroscopy data emerging from the major experimental facilities. We have contributed to the effort by developing event generators for photon induced reactions (EdinGen) and provide high level computer expertise to setup the framework. We analyse archived meson photo production data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab to constrain the models ready for the hybrid meson search in CLAS12.
Collaborator Contribution Nuclear theorist collaborators have developed the production amplitude parameterisations. Collaborators have analysed other CLAS data sets relevant to the programme. Developed complimentary analysis methods.
Impact Application to Horizon 2020 for financial support. Conferences and meetings organised regularly.
Start Year 2010
 
Title Prototype detector for photon beam monitoring in laser plasma accelerator systems - potential in radiotherapy 
Description The siliconphotomultiplier readout developments made as part of this grant have been used to build a prototype photon beam monitor for laser/plasma produced beams. These have potential in radiotherapy. The development is currently being developed under an STFC impact acceleration award. 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Radiotherapy
Current Stage Of Development Initial development
Year Development Stage Completed 2018
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact flash radiotherapy is a promising tool for future radiotherapy and has the potential to improve survival outcomes over standard radiotherapy (linac) techniques. 
 
Title Silicon photomultiplier readout and amplifier developments 
Description The silicon photomultiplier technologies developed for the apparatus funded in this grant was used to build a PET demonstrator device which has been used to prototype new imaging ideas for PET imaging. The data from this demonstrator was used to prove the method which led to innovateUK funding with an industrial partner (ongoing) 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Initial development
Year Development Stage Completed 2016
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact still under development but has potential to enable cheaper PET machines and better PET scan images.