Euclid Urgency

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

This grant is to support the Euclid satellite, a selected M-class mission in European Space Agency Cosmic Vision programme. Euclid is due to be launched in 2020, and is designed to tackle some of the biggest questions in cosmology and astrophysics. This field is experiencing a golden age of discovery driven by new experiments and theoretical advances. However, we still face three fundamental challenges before a more complete model of the Universe can be achieved: i) What are the properties of the "dark matter" and "dark energy" that make up 96% of the Universe? ii) How do galaxies form and evolve? iii) What is the origin and distribution of structures in the Universe?

Euclid will address these fundamental problems by performing an enormous galaxy survey, measuring the angular positions of 150 million galaxies, and taking spectra for 45 million of them. This survey will allow multiple physical processes to be measured and their corresponding parameters determined. While the design of the survey aims to measure the accelerated expansion of the Universe, these data have tremendous legacy value, with optical imaging at spatial resolution similar to Hubble over a third of the night sky, imaging 1.5 billion galaxies for weak lensing shape measurement, infrared imaging in 3 bands with only slightly worse spatial resolution, and spectra and redshifts of 40 million galaxies. This dataset can only be obtained from space, and will be used by scientists worldwide in a wide range of contexts, and it will have huge public outreach potential.

Euclid will also be capable of undertaking additional science surveys during the nominal mission, enabling ground-breaking research in the areas of cool exoplanets, and supernovae & transients. Working groups set up to study these possibilities both have UK leadership.

UK work on the payload instruments and the Euclid Ground Segment are supported by UKSA grants. The output from these systems is data products up to the level of measurement statistics (known as power spectra and correlations functions). These data will require extremely careful analysis and comparison to accurate theoretical models. The preparatory work needs to start now, given the range and level of accuracy required. This grant application requests support for this work, particularly focussing on the core scientific methods around which Euclid was designed, namely weak lensing and galaxy clustering. Specific projects include creating likelihood pipelines for galaxy clustering and weak lensing measurements, preparing a method to determine the observational mask, and defining the weak lensing calibration strategy. These areas would directly support Thomas Kitching and Will Percival, who co-lead the weak lensing and galaxy clustering science working groups respectively. We also request support for legacy science, providing partial FEC support for Isobel Hook, Eamonn Kerins and Stephen Warren who co-lead working groups focussed on additional science in the areas of supernovae, exoplanets and local Universe respectively. Travel funds are also requested, to be administered by Carlton Baugh at Durham University to allow UK scientists to attend Euclid meetings.

Publications

10 25 50
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Barreira A (2015) Weak lensing by voids in modified lensing potentials in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

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Barreira A (2015) Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Barreira Alexandre (2015) Weak lensing by voids in modified lensing potentials in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

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Cucciati O. (2016) Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Cucciati O. (2016) Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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He Jian-Hua (2016) Subhalo Abundance Matching in f (R ) Gravity in Physical Review Letters

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Jennings E (2014) Velocity and mass bias in the distribution of dark matter haloes in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Jose Charles (2017) Understanding the non-linear clustering of high-redshift galaxies in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

 
Title Cosmic Origins II 
Description A stereoscopic movie made for the 2013 Summer Science Exhibition at the Royal Society. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact This movie was seen by over 5000 people at Summer Science 2013. We were invited by the British Council to participate in other events, representing research in the UK, as a result of the impact of the movie. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/user/OurCosmicOrigins
 
Description This grant support the participation of UK research in meetings of the Euclid Consortium; the mission aims to measure the properties of dark energy. This has allowed UK researchers to play a leading role in the preparations for the Euclid mission, through their contributions to the science working groups and organisational units.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Education,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Title Millennium Archive 
Description The Millennium Archive is a relational database at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics at Garching, Germany that is mirrored in Durham. This allows remote users to access data from the Millennium N-body simulations and associated galaxy catalogues. Users can download and manipulate data. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2006 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This database will shortly contain models produced under the Gemini studentship. The database will also be used to serve mock catalogues to the Euclid Consortium 
URL http://galaxy-catalogue.dur.ac.uk:8080/Millennium/
 
Description Euclid Consortium 
Organisation European Space Agency
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Euclid Consortium is a collaboration of over 1000 scientists and engineers who are working on ESA's Euclid mission to measure the geometry of the Universe. This project involves essentially every astronomy group in Europe and also USA colleagues. The institutions listed above are the main ones with which we collaborate. My role is to oversee the production of mock galaxy catalogues for the Euclid Consortium, and to manage a work package on Validation, along with Matteo Viel, Trieste, in OU-LE3.
Collaborator Contribution Maintained leadership role in production of synthetic galaxy catalogues for Euclid
Impact We are provided mock catalogues for the Euclid Consortium. These were featured in the Euclid Red Book and are currently helping various science working groups to develop their analysis tools
Start Year 2009
 
Description Euclid Consortium 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Euclid Consortium is a collaboration of over 1000 scientists and engineers who are working on ESA's Euclid mission to measure the geometry of the Universe. This project involves essentially every astronomy group in Europe and also USA colleagues. The institutions listed above are the main ones with which we collaborate. My role is to oversee the production of mock galaxy catalogues for the Euclid Consortium, and to manage a work package on Validation, along with Matteo Viel, Trieste, in OU-LE3.
Collaborator Contribution Maintained leadership role in production of synthetic galaxy catalogues for Euclid
Impact We are provided mock catalogues for the Euclid Consortium. These were featured in the Euclid Red Book and are currently helping various science working groups to develop their analysis tools
Start Year 2009
 
Description Euclid Consortium 
Organisation University of Bologna
Department Department of Physics and Astronomy
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Euclid Consortium is a collaboration of over 1000 scientists and engineers who are working on ESA's Euclid mission to measure the geometry of the Universe. This project involves essentially every astronomy group in Europe and also USA colleagues. The institutions listed above are the main ones with which we collaborate. My role is to oversee the production of mock galaxy catalogues for the Euclid Consortium, and to manage a work package on Validation, along with Matteo Viel, Trieste, in OU-LE3.
Collaborator Contribution Maintained leadership role in production of synthetic galaxy catalogues for Euclid
Impact We are provided mock catalogues for the Euclid Consortium. These were featured in the Euclid Red Book and are currently helping various science working groups to develop their analysis tools
Start Year 2009
 
Description Euclid Consortium 
Organisation University of Trieste
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Euclid Consortium is a collaboration of over 1000 scientists and engineers who are working on ESA's Euclid mission to measure the geometry of the Universe. This project involves essentially every astronomy group in Europe and also USA colleagues. The institutions listed above are the main ones with which we collaborate. My role is to oversee the production of mock galaxy catalogues for the Euclid Consortium, and to manage a work package on Validation, along with Matteo Viel, Trieste, in OU-LE3.
Collaborator Contribution Maintained leadership role in production of synthetic galaxy catalogues for Euclid
Impact We are provided mock catalogues for the Euclid Consortium. These were featured in the Euclid Red Book and are currently helping various science working groups to develop their analysis tools
Start Year 2009
 
Description GREAT Stockholm 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The British Council invited the ICC to present its "What is the Matter?" exhibit in Stockholm as part of the activities associated with the award of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics (shared by Peter Higgs). The exhibit was sited in the central train station in Sweden and was seen by around 1000 people. This was part of an event called "Research and Innovation is GREAT", which promotes the UK abroad.

Raised profile of STFC funded research on international stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://icc.dur.ac.uk/index.php?content=Outreach/swedish
 
Description Participation of the ICC in the Royal Society's Summer Science Exhibtions 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The ICC has been awarded places at the Royal Society's Summer Science Exhibitions in 2002, 2005, 2009, 2010 and 2013. We have developed new exhibits for each event, including a series of successful stereoscopic movies (Cosmic Cookery, Cosmic Origins I, Cosmic Origins II). Cosmic Origins I won an award. These movies have been shown at events and in museums all over the world. The Summer Science events have been attended by 5000-10000 people, made up of members of the general public, school pupils and policy makers.

After the 2013, we were invited by the British Council to represent Britain at international events (the Thai Festival of Science and Engineering, and GREAT in Stockholm, both in 2013)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2009,2010,2013
URL http://icc.dur.ac.uk/index.php?content=Outreach/Outreach
 
Description Thai National Science and Technology Fair 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of "Cosmology in Crisis: What is the matter?" exhibit from Summer Science 2013, at the invitation of the British Council. The event was attended by 1.1 million visitors.

Letter of thanks from British Council; positive feedback from visitors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://icc.dur.ac.uk/index.php?content=Outreach/Thailand_en