Hyper-Kamiokande (UK Strategy for Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC was a major technical and scientific triumph, but it is not the end of the story. There are still many unanswered questions in particle physics. Of these, perhaps the most intriguing is the question of why there is more matter in the Universe than antimatter. If this wasn't the case essentially all the particles would have annihilated with their antiparticle partners and the Universe would be a very different place; there would be no large-scale structure and we wouldn't be here to answer this question.
There must be some explanation for this matter-antimatter asymmetry, and what ever the answer, it implies that "CP is violated", i.e. matter behaves slightly differently from antimatter. CP violation has been observed in the decays of strongly interacting particles, but this is not sufficient to explain the matter-dominated Universe. However, there are indications that neutrinos might provide the answer through a process called lepto-genesis. CP violation in the neutrino sector could represent the next major discovery in particle physics.

Neutrinos are neutral "ghost" particles that hardly interact with matter. When the travel over large distances they change their nature, a process called neutrino flavour oscillations, whereby one type of neutrino oscillates into a different type. CP violation for neutrinos would imply that these oscillation rates are slightly different for neutrinos and antineutrinos. Observing this difference is the next big challenge to experimental particle physics.

The LBNE experiment is the flagship of the future US particle physics programme. It is designed to discover CP violation for neutrinos. A powerful beam of neutrinos will be fired 1300 km from Fermilab, near Chicago, towards a huge underground detector in South Dakota. This underground detector will contain 50,000 tons of liquid argon at a temperature of 87 K (-186 degree Celsius). The liquid argon technology enables neutrinos to be detected with "photograph-quality" detail, marking a breakthrough in neutrino experiments.

In this proposal, UK physicists are requesting £2.5M over three years to take leading roles in the LBNE experiment and to develop the liquid argon detector technology. This research and development phase will allow the UK to be the leading non-US partner in this incredibly exciting experiment.

Planned Impact

see Je-S form reference Q2017804
 
Description We have developed calibration sources that are capable of injecting short-duration light flashes into a water Cerenkov detector. We have developed a test regime for determining the radiopurity of gadolinium sulphate samples. We have a better understanding of how a detector such as HyperK may observe neutrinos from a supernova and also possibly say something about the underlying astrophysics that drives the supernova.
Exploitation Route Our findings will largely feed into further work on water Cerenkov detectors. However, indirectly, some of our findings may guide and influence the recently-funded US-UK funded AIT/WATCHMAN project which is planning to build a similar detector for nuclear non-proliferation studies.
Sectors Security and Diplomacy

URL https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/physics/research/pppa/nugroup/hyperk
 
Description Know-how acquired via the HyperK (and T2K and SuperK) projects has been applied successfully to the request for funding to the WATCHMAN/AIT project which may educate nuclear non-proliferation policy in the future.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Collaboration with SuperKamiokande (SuperK) Collaboration 
Organisation Super-Kamiokande
Country Japan 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Selected members of the UK HyperKamiokande team, including Lee Thompson and Andrew Cole from Sheffield joined SuperK in January 2016. We are working with members of the SuperK EGADS team on measuring the activity of Gadolinium samples at the so-called Boulby Underground Germanium Suite (BUGS) at STFC's Boulby Underground Lab. There are also plans to use SuperK as a testbench ofr some of the HyperK calibration work that we are involved in.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in calibration. Production of Gd samples. Expertise in handing and measurement of Gd samples.
Impact Work is ongoing, no direct impact yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description AstroSoc talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about HyperKamiokande to Chesterfield Astronomical Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Cocktails & Physics public outreach event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An evening event called "Cocktails & Physics" in a bar in Sheffield involving 3 presentations about neutrinos, supernovae and SuperK/HyperK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Colloquium, DESY, Hamburg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Colloquium on HyperK at DESY Hamburg national lab in Germany
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://physikseminar.desy.de/hamburg/colloquia_in_2019/29_january_2019/
 
Description Colloquium, DESY, Zeuthen, Berlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Colloquium on HyperK at DESY Zeuthen national lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://physikseminar.desy.de/hamburg/colloquia_in_2019/29_january_2019/
 
Description HyperK "STEMinar", Jan 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on HyperK to STEM postgraduates, academics and people from industry at university-wide LGBT+ event at the University of Sheffield.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Mini-workshop at Sheffield Festival of Science and Engineering 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk plus mini-exhibition on neutrinos and HyperKamiokande as part of the Sheffield Festival of Science and Engineering
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public Lecture from Nobel Laureate 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture at the University of Sheffield. Given by Nobel Laureate, Professor Kajita. Topic was neutrinos, HyperK and SuperK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/news/nr/nobel-prize-winner-sheffield-1.705852
 
Description Royal Society EXhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a exhibition stand at the Royal Society's summer exhibition featuring a number of exhibits, including an SK VR system, a 20" SK PMT and a (not-working) beam target from RAL, other exhibits, leaflets, take away information on neutrinos.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2018/summer-science-exhibition/exhibits/
 
Description Talk to U3A (University of the Third Age) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about neutrinos and HyperK to the Science and Technology Group of the Sheffield branch of the U3A (University of the Third Age)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Tapton School, Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk on HyperKamiokande at Tapton School Sheffield.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017