Programme of Research in Experimental Particle Physics at the University of Warwick: 2015-2019.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Warwick
Department Name: Physics


The scope of the proposed research lies in five distinct areas: Higgs and new phenomena searches at the ATLAS Experiment; the physics of particles containing the beauty quark at LHCb; the physics of neutrinos with T2K and SuperNEMO; accelerator research and development for new high intensity proton, muon and neutrino beams; detector R&D. It also includes Outreach and Knowledge Exchange programmes. In more detail:

o The ATLAS experiment at CERN, a large, general purpose detector operating at the LHC was designed to search for and study the Higgs boson, as well as new exotic forms of matter. Our initial work will be to support the experiment by contributing to its ability to identify interesting events rapidly for recording and further analysis. We will also contribute to the detailed study of the Higgs boson which was discovered in 2012. We will do this by helping to optimise the coeection of events in which it decays to pairs of tau leptons, heavy relatives of the electron. We will also look for other, heavier exotic new bosons.

o We aim to further our research into matter/anti-matter asymmetry (CP Violation) in the decays of Beauty
mesons at the LHCb experiment. This is important, because we have shown in past experiments that
the leading source of CP violation at the weak scale is consistent with the Standard Model mechanism
of CP violation. However, cosmological considerations indicate that there should be other sources
of CP violation in Nature, so we aim to make further sensitive tests with beauty mesons, in order
to see if any evidence for additional sources of CP violation or other new physics in Nature may appear in such decays. We also plan to study
rare decays of B mesons, which may be able to indicate the presence of new types of interactions outside the Standard Model of particle physics.

o The elucidation of the properties of neutrinos. These are very light, neutral particles which are emitted, for example, by the sun, and in radioactive beta decay. They have recently been found to oscillate, ie. transmute from one type to another, while they propagate. We have built part of the T2K experiment which is now operating in Japan. Analyses of its data recently found new types of oscillations of muon to electron type neutrinos. We aim to continue running this experiment, to better measure this newly-discovered effect, and also to search for it with anti-neutrinos. We further plan to contribute to the SuperNEMO experiment, which aims to determine the nature of the neutrino as so called Dirac or Majorana particle. The former has distinct anti-particles, while the latter is its own antiparticle. This question may be resolved by searching for double beta decay accompanied by no neutrinos. We will contribute to the analysis of data obtained by a "demonstrator module" attempting to observe such decays.

o We propose to continue our research and development of high power accelerators for the generation of proton, muon and neutrino beams. We have in mind future neutrino factories, although other machines could benefit from our research. Such neutrino factories, if built, would continue to develop the theme of research into neutrino oscillations and matter-antimatter asymmetry of neutrinos as outlined above. Such machines could also bring many benefits to medicine and industry.

o We propose to continue our research and development of position- and energy-sensitive detectors
for applications in neutrino experiments and with potential spin-off applications in industry.

o We will continue to develop our outreach programme which includes activities for local schools
and articles in popular science publications.

o Supported by a strong University strategy and ethos in knowledge exchange, we will continue to pursue all avenues
for possible knowledge exchange.

Planned Impact

Beneficiaries of the proposed research will include:

o UK industry and academic partners from outside particle physics may benefit from the possibility of technological spin-off from hardware and/or software which we propose to develop as part of the research programme. A derivative of our research on future neutrino detectors has been the issue of two IP licenses contracted to a new spin-off company, UVDyne Ltd., since 2014 with the University as main shareholder. Support for all commercial and IP activities on campus is provided by Warwick Ventures - the university's professional subsidiary for commercial advancement and support. Furthermore, our work in developing innovative reconstruction methods for large-scale neutrino detectors has potential beneficiaries from a range of subjects, including mathematics, computer science biological and medical science. Local contacts to the Warwick Computer Science Department exist as well as a collaboration with the Statistics Department in Durham. Another potentially interesting partner has been identified in Systems Biology at Warwick. Societal beneficiaries are being addressed in a new interdisciplinary spin-off launched together with the Warwick Manufacturing Group which researches novel uses of potential future photovoltaic technologies. Generic particle physics software tools are our unique contribution to that effort and it is planned to widen the scope of the initial feasibility study to involve more Departments on campus such as the Warwick Business School and Engineering.

o Local school children and the general public through our outreach programme will learn about cutting-edge research carried out on the building blocks of matter and their fundamental interactions, using state-of the art instrumentation. One of the most effective means of engagement in terms of audience size comes through media coverage. For aspects of our research activity that we feel the public could particularly engage with, we work with the University's Communication Office to issue press releases. This has in the past been successful in generating some rather high profile news coverage e.g. BBC Midlands Today coverage, BBC website items, BBC Coventry and Warwickshire radio exposure as well as university video content organised by the Communications Office. Members of our group will continue to regularly publicise our science through engagements such as public lectures and talks to local clubs and societies. We will also continue to foster and develop close ties with local schools through: our annual Masterclass and International Masterclass initiative, hosting local schools visits, supervising students for summer holiday placements (e.g. as part of the Gold Crest scheme), activities associated with the STEMNET Science and Engineering Ambassadors (e.g. contributions to science fairs such as the annual Big Bang science fair) and participation in the`I'm a scientist - get me out of here' events.

We will continue to develop our links with schools (both students and teachers) through our close collaboration with the Warwick Physics Department's Ogden Teaching Fellow. Example annual events in which we participate include Faculty Taster Days, Future Scholars events, Teacher and Advisors Conference, National Student Conference Workshops and the Warwick Christmas Science lectures. We have recently gained part ownership of a mobile dome and cloud chamber which will be used as a resource to publicise our research and will, in particular, allow us to expand our outreach activity into primary schools.

o Our post-graduate students enjoy access to a diverse range of key-skills training courses laid on by the University and the Midlands Physics Alliance. We also have a joint studentship with the surface science group to develop innovative photovoltaic and UV sensor technology for immediate commercial applications.
Description Considerable research has been completed into the nature of the Higgs boson, which was first discovered in 2012. Furthermore, many exclusions of physics beyond the Standard Model have been performed at the ATLAS and LHCb experiments. Improved measurements have been made of several CP-violating observables in the decays of beauty particles, together with their rare decays. First hints of CP-violation in neutrino oscillations have been performed by the T2K experiment.
Exploitation Route The mysteries of how these breakthroughs in fundamental physics may find application by others are still to be worked out by those others.
Sectors Education

Description A number of public outreach talks have been given at local schools as well as at the Scientific Cafe in Coventry. Also, Prof. Gary Barker appeared on television.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Education
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

Title Review of Particle Properties 
Description This is a globally-accessible database of all particle physics results. Many results of this research have entered into this database and several members of my team have directly contributed to this database. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This database is the research Bible for particle physics. It is universally used and accepted within the particle physics community and is without peer. 
Description The ATLAS experiment 
Organisation ATLAS Experiment
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Warwick supports the operation of ATLAS through trigger operation, maintenance and development. We play leading roles here, currently providing the trigger monitoring coordinator and deputy overall coordinator, but with the precise role held varying with time. We are also contributing to the phase-II upgrade, developing and building the quality checking system for the detector modules the UK and China are making for the tracker. We are active in a range of physics analyses: studies of the Higgs boson and QCD and searches for new physics.
Collaborator Contribution The collaboration of 3000 people has too many activities to usefully describe here.
Impact The discipline is Physics. 1000 papers have been produced by the collaboration, with Warwick playing a leading role in dozens,
Start Year 2012
Description A device (1), such as a detector or imaging device, for detecting ultraviolet light, is described. The device comprises a housing (4) for a chamber. Disposed within the housing is a charge carrier multiplier structure (9) comprising a dielectric sheet (10) having first and second opposite faces (11, 12) and having an array of holes (16) traversing the dielectric sheet between the first and second faces. The device includes a photocathode (13) supported on the first face of the dielectric sheet, having a work function of less than 6 eV. The device includes an anode (14) supported on the second face of the dielectric sheet. 
IP Reference WO2015150765 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed No
Impact iCURE fellowship award, scoping route to market.
Description Organisation of School's TEDxCERN 1/2-Day Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Together with the Fellow, I organised an event at which a number of University of Warwick academics gave talks and answered questions before, during and after the November 2018 TEDxCERN lectures were broadcast direct to our audience from CERN. The event took place at Warwick School in Warwick, but including 6th formers from several other local schools including King's High School and Myton School.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
Description Warwick Particle Physics Masterclass 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 50-60 Warwickshire school children attended and their teachers.

The feedback we receive from Masterclass days are always very positive i.e. we are clearly inspiring students with a scientific mind to pursue particle physics further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
Description Warwick Particle Physics Masterclass 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 50-60 Warwickshire sixth form students and their teachers attended

Very positive feedback both directly and from questionaire forms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019