Particle Physics Capital Equipment Request

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Holloway, University of London
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

The following information is reproduced from the RHUL Group's
2015 Consolidated Grant application:

Experimental particle physics addresses some of the fundamental
questions about the structure and behaviour of the Universe at the
level of the smallest particles of matter, the quarks and the leptons,
and the forces acting between them. We are exploring fundamental
properties of particles at the the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and
also exploring the nature of dark matter and neutrinos by developing
and employing novel detection systems.

We are contributing to the continued operation of the ATLAS project at
the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. We have constructed and
commissioned electronic systems and the software that drives them.
From the beginning of data taking we have played a leading role in
searches for exotic particles, the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson,
and studies of properties of the top quark. We are preparing for the
renewed data taking starting in 2015 with further analyses on these
and related topics.

Although there is ample indirect evidence for the existence of dark
matter is inferred from its gravitational interactions, it has not yet
been directly detected in terrestrial laboratories. Direct detection
experiments seek to observe dark matter scattering on target detector
nuclei. We explore these issues through a world-leading dark matter
search on DEAP/CLEAN, a liquid Argon detector with unique potential
for scaling to multi-tonne masses, with the DMTPC detector development
programme to measure the dark matter wind, and the Lux-Zeplin
experiment. The group's expertise in high pressure TPCs is now being
utilised to carry out measurements relevant to the study of neutrinos
as part of the Hyper-K experiment.

Our expertise in accelerator science will allow us to carry out
studies for the machine-detector interface for the High Luminosity LHC
and ILC. We will also expand the interactions between our
phenomenology group and the experimental community.

Planned Impact

Reproduced from the RHUL Group's 2015 Consolidated Grant application:

The Centre for Particle Physics (CPP) at RHUL includes the particle
physics experimental research supported in the Consolidated Grant.
The CPP also contains the John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science
(JAI) at RHUL and our theoretical physics activity; while these are
not applying for funding in this proposal, it should be recognised
that they have impact related synergies that will benefit from this
grant.

The main beneficiaries from our research include:

Higher Education Institutions

- The RHUL group runs an annual masterclass in particle physics, where
sixth formers are invited to the university to take part in lectures
and practical activities in particle physics. The intended impact is
to increase the numbers of students going on to study physics at
university level, as well as to increase interest in particle physics
in its own right.

Employers of numerate and scientifically literate staff

- Particle physics PhD's are highly sought after outside of academic
institutions, in physics related jobs, engineering, IT, high-tech
industry and finance.

- Undergraduates are attracted to science degrees by their excitement
by particle physics; these graduates subsequently go into the wider
workforce.

Wider public through a greater appreciation of fundamental physics

- The huge exposure of the LHC, discovery of the Higgs boson and
searches for new undiscovered particles in the UK media demonstrates
national interest in particle physics

- Scientific discovery is part of the human condition and has a strong
role in the culture of the nation.

Users of computing

- The LHC analysis needs vast computing resources that have
necessitated developing transformative computing systems, namely the
Grid, that has set new scales for distributed computing and is also
opening up new possibilities outside of particle physics.

- students emerge from our research programmes well versed in
state-of-the-art computing and bring this expertise to industry and
finance.

Detector systems

- The dark matter group at RHUL is very interested in low-background
radiation detector development, in particular using cryogenic targets
with large area photo-detectors for scintillation photon detection. We
are also actively pursuing low-pressure gas time projection chamber
R&D with both commercial photosensors for optical readout as well as
low-noise electronics for charge readout. Both of these efforts
potentially have commercial applications in the areas of low energy
gamma and direction sensitive neutron detection. Potential
beneficiaries are medical and security sectors.

- In order to advance the impact agenda, the dark matter group at RHUL
is endorsing a SEPNET/IPS Fellowship application by the University of
Surrey in the context of SEPNET and intends to collaborate on
developing technology transfer projects to explore commercialising
radiation detectors based on our R&D efforts, and associated
instrumentation and techniques.

Accelerator physics and facilities

- User facilities such as Diamond Light Source, ISIS neutron source,
free electron lasers and high energy colliders all benefit from
research developments of the JAI. The ultimate aim is to improve the
performance of these facilities for the user communities.

- The JAI is transferring its knowledge and expertise on beam
instrumentation to UK bases SMEs via Innovations Partnership Schemes
(IPS) and shared projects. An example is high resolution Cavity Beam
Position monitors which were developed for the ILC and are now being
co-developed with Oxford-FMB as a product for free electron lasers.

- Combined accelerator and particle matter interaction simulations are
being used to simulate the LHC and ILC, but has broad application for
the growing field of medical accelerators and vendors of these
systems.

Publications

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