Development of a Reconfigurable Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor in Radiation-hard Technology for Outer Tracking and Digital Electromagnetic Calorimetry

Lead Research Organisation: University of Birmingham
Department Name: School of Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

As particle physics progresses, the demands in terms of detector technologies always push toward needing fine segmentation, faster read-out and greater radiation tolerance; all at lower cost. To find particles too massive to have been seen already, particle colliders have to continuously push towards higher energies. However, as collision energies increase, the rates for events containing potential evidence for such new physics decreases as a fraction of the total, making it important at high energies to also have very high interaction rates. Also, as energies increase, the numbers of particles produced per collision increase and the mean energies of the produced particles of interest increase. The latter means that charged particles become harder to bend in the detector magnetic field and so better spatial precision (hence smaller sense elements) is needed leading to the need for much greater granularity (number of pixels per unit area). At higher energies, particle showers tend to also be much more collimated, making track separation also harder without many more read-out cells per unit area. Finally, at hadron colliders, high rates require many collisions per beam crossing so the interesting interactions are typically buried in 200 uninteresting ones produced at the same time. Unpicking the tracks from the interesting collision also requires very precise measurements. Finally, billions of collisions per second lead to radiation levels over years of operation that go way beyond the capabilities of normal electronics requiring specialist designs to work after the expected doses.

Particle physics sensors are not able to exploit the development of ultra-cheap mega-pixel cameras in many commercial devices because these neither have the speed or radiation hardness needed but they easily meet the requirements in terms of granularity. Therefore, if fast, radiation-hard versions could be designed, these would be a game-changer in terms of sensor affordability. Recent work has shown that there are commercial CMOS technologies available that can support radiation-hard designs and this proposal seeks to exploit these to demonstrate devices that could allow very large areas of experiments to be equipped with such detectors affordably. Aspects of the design that makes the sensors radiation hard also make them faster which is an added advantage for these applications. Nevertheless, proving small sensors with the required properties is a first step towards final arrays requiring thousands of square metres of sensors and much development time is needed before a very large array could be envisaged. Therefore, even though the possible applications are quite a long way off, the amount of time to develop new technologies to the required maturity to be exploited in such large arrays means that this R&D is very timely.

The UK has a lead in a number of the technology aspects for this but there are many other groups internationally pursuing the same goals and so this proposal is also important if current leadership, much of it developed through work for ATLAS and CMS upgrades and for the International Linear Colldier, is not to be lost.

Planned Impact

The proposal includes discussion of an immediate benefit from the developments proposed here in the context of activities linking Birmingham Medical Physics oncology experts with Birmingham Particle Physics on the Wellcome Trust funded Proton Radiotherapy Verification and Dosimetry Applications (PRaVDA) programme. This project targets the need in hadron therapy to improve the beam diagnostics, monitor proton/ion distributions during treatment and provide proton computed tomography imaging capability (pCT). Improvements are required for the full benefits of hadron therapy in terms of the high specificity of the delivered dose to translate into even more accurate localisation of the radiation field within the patient. The aim being to minimise dose to healthy tissue using the characteristic energy loss distribution of hadrons in material compared with x-rays or gamma-rays. If future cancers are to be avoided this is particularly important for paediatrics and such localisation can also be critical for tumour located close to vital organs.

There are at least 40 operational centres worldwide offering hadron therapy (either protons or carbon ions) with many more in the planning or construction phase. In the UK there is only currently one (60 MeV) centre at Clatterbridge treating eye tumours but two more are due to open in 2017 in London and Manchester. Several privately funded centres are also in discussion or planning stages at a number of locations including London, Oxford and Newport.

The PRaVDA proposal uses radiation-hard 10cm*10cm p-type strip detectors developed for the HL-LHC with Micron Semiconductors (UK) Ltd for tracking and a range telescope based on a stack 10cm*10cm large format MAPS (CMOS) sensors interspersed with thin absorber layers. However, the strip tracker, while fast, is limited in the number of tracks that can be unambiguously reconstructed from their projections in 3 directions at 60 degrees (x-u-v) while the MAPS technology is neither fast or radiation-hard enough for operation at very high beam currents. This means that while beam diagnostics and pCT can be successfully demonstrated at modest beam currents, the detector system is the limiting factor in the time required and is not suitable for operation at the much higher currents associated with monitoring the actual treatment.

A fast, radiation-hard pixelated detector system could serve both for the tracking and range telescope (calorimetry) aspects using a common detector throughout and benefit from the much lower expected costs with large scale CMOS technology. It would offer tracking capability at much higher proton currents and provide a range telescope able to cope with much higher doses and rates.

Other areas of application would include areas where fast imaging is required in high radiation environments. MAPS technology in small format devices is ubiquitous in a very wide range of commercial imaging devices. However, these devices collect charge through diffusion and so can be too slow and radiation soft for some applications. Imaging in harsh radiation environments in general, and not necessarily just for imaging ionising radiation, would benefit from developments of radiation-hard MAPS technologies which are designed to finally achieve very large area coverage affordably. Such areas could include applications in aspects of the nuclear industry (possibly using coatings to improve sensitivity for different particle types), in transmission electron microscopy or at intense X-ray sources (needing good radiation tolerance and very fast signal registration), as well as across a range of other areas in nuclear medicine. The potential for low cost bulk production and for thin devices offer a range of uses where current CMOS and CCD devices suffer limitations in terms of radiation survival and signal collection speed.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://fcc-cdr.web.cern.ch/#FCCHH
 
Description CASE Studentship
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/P002552/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description STFC CASE
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/P002552/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description STFC Global Challenge Network+ in Advanced Radiotherapy
Amount £914,987 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/N002423/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2019
 
Title Detectors being developed for future hadron colliders and hadron radiotherapy 
Description The technology developed for the HL-LHC is being applied within the PRaVDA Consortium for developing fast radiation-hard tracking detectors for proton therapy. For the PRaVDA full-scale demonstrator system, half the modules in the device were built at Birmingham and all the final assembly was carried out at Birmingham with testing at the Medical Physics cyclotron. (This work on medical applications also builds on the activities of the Mi3 Consortium funded by a Joint Research Council Basic Technology Award in 2008.) . In addition, work in this area links to the CERN ENLIGHT network (http://enlight.web.cern.ch/) and the STFC Global Challenge Network+ in Advanced Radiotherapy. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact PRaVDA has been an IET Innovation Award winner for 2014 for Model based Engineering and was selected by IET members to be part of an exhibition of "100 Ideas that Changed the World" (see http://savoyplace.theiet.org/ engineering-hub/discover/100-ideas/index.cfm). It was also one of only 22 projects featured in the Royal Society Summer Exhibition for 2014 (http://sse.royalsociety.org/2014/treating-cancer/) 
 
Description ATLAS ITK 
Organisation European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Department CERN LHC ATLAS
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Chair of the Institute Board with 100 international members
Collaborator Contribution International programme on Tracker Upgrade with 100 institutes from 22 countries working towards the 120MCHF (equipment costs only does not include salaries) main upgrade programme of ATLAS for the HL-LHC
Impact Particle Physics
Start Year 2017
 
Description Proton Radiotherapy Verification and Dosimetry Applications Consortium 
Organisation University of Lincoln
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I designed the sensors with UK industry (Micron Semiconductor Ltd). Defined final layout using silicon strips only. PDRA (T. Price) built MC simulation of the PRaVDA tracker and range telescope. Construction of half strip sensor modules completed under my supervision at Birmingham. Full system assembled at Birmingham and tested at Birmingham MC40 cyclotron.
Collaborator Contribution Mechanics, electronics, overall administration of full Wellcome Trust grant.
Impact G Poludniowski, N M Allinson, and P M Evans (2015), A review of proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy, British J. Radiology, 88,1053, doi;10.1259/bjr.20150134 Poludniowski, G. and Allinson, N. M. and Evans, P. M. (2014) Proton computed tomography reconstruction using a backprojection-then-filtering approach. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 59 (11). p. 2569. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/59/24/7905 Poludniowski, Gavin and Allinson, Nigel and Anaxagoras, Thalis and Esposito, Michela and Green, Stuart and Manolopoulos, Spyros and Nieto-Camero, Jamie and Parker, David and Evans, Philip and Price, Tony (2014) Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 59 (11). pp. 2569-2598. ISSN 1361-6560 doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/59/11/2569 T. Price, M. Esposito, G. Poludniowski, J. Taylor, C. Waltham, D.J. Parker, S. Green, S. Manolopoulos, N.M. Allinson, T. Anaxagoras, P. Evans and J. Nieto-Camero (2015), Expected proton signal sizes in the PRaVDA Range Telescope for proton Computed Tomography, JINST 10 P05013, doi. 10.1088/1748-0221/10/05/P05013 J.T. Taylor, P.P. Allport, G.L. Casse, N.A. Smith, I. Tsurin, N.M. Allinson, M. Esposito, A. Kacperek, J. Nieto-Camero, T. Price and C. Waltham (2015), Proton tracking for medical imaging and dosimetry, JINST 10 C02015, doi. 10.1088/1748-0221/10/02/C02015 G Poludniowski, N M Allinson and P M Evans (2014), Proton computed tomography reconstruction using a backprojection-then-filtering approach, Phys. Med. Biol. 59 7905, doi. 10.1088/0031-9155/59/24/7905 M. Esposito, T. Anaxagoras, P.M. Evans, S. Green, S. Manolopoulos, J. Nieto-Camero, D.J. Parker, G. Poludniowski, T. Price, C. Waltham and N.M. Allinson (2015), CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography, JINST 10 C06001, doi.10.1088/1748- 0221/10/06/C06001 Price, M. Esposito, G. Poludniowski, J. Taylor, C. Waltham, D.J. Parker, S. Green, S. Manolopoulos, N.M. Allinson, T. Anaxagoras (2015), Expected proton signal sizes in the PRaVDA Range Telescope for proton Computed Tomography, Journal of Instrumentation Journal,10 doi:10.1088/1748-0221/10/05/P05013 J.T. Taylor, P.P. Allport, G.L. Casse, N.A. Smith, I. Tsurin, N.M. Allinson, M. Esposito, A. Kacperek, J. Nieto-Camero, T. Price and C. Waltham (2015), Proton tracking for medical imaging and dosimetry, Journal of Instrumentation Journal,10 doi: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/02/C02015 M. Esposito, T. Anaxagoras, P.M. Evans, S. Green, S. Manolopoulos, J. Nieto-Camero, D.J. Parker, G. Poludniowski, T. Price, C. Waltham and N.M. Allinson (2015), CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography, Journal of Instrumentation Journal,10 doi: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/06/C06001
Start Year 2013
 
Title Assembly of multimode pCT scanner 
Description Radiation-hard all-silicon instrument to image with protons as complement to proton radiotherapy 
IP Reference WO2015189603 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact New funding from EPSRC
 
Description "Task 11.5: UoB MC40 Cyclotron, United Kingdom" (AIDA-2020 First Annual Workshop, DESY 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Horizon 2020 European Union funded AIDA-2020 proposal (GA no. 654168) with €10M in support of detector R&D
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://aida2020.web.cern.ch/content/uob
 
Description A Reconfigurable Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor in Radiation-hard Technology for Outer Tracking and Digital Electromagnetic Calorimetry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 2018 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, Sydney, Australia, 10th-17th November 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.eventclass.org/contxt_ieee2018/online-program/session?s=N-36#e130
 
Description CMOS Sensors for Future Applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-organised workshop and presented on DECAL MAPS
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/477242/
 
Description CMOS in hh colliders 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact UK community meeting on CMOS sensors for particle tracking, Coseners House, UK, 10th March 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/477242/timetable/#20160310.detailed
 
Description Charge collection test and TCAD simulation of OVERMOS, a CMOS 180nm MAPS detector 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 33rd RD50 workshop (CERN), 26th-28th November 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/754063/contributions/3222685/
 
Description DECAL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Future Circular Collider Week 2018, 9th - 13th April 2018, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/656491/contributions/2939182/
 
Description DECAL - digital electromagnetic calorimeter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact AIDA-2020 Third Annual meeting, Centro San Domenico, 24-27 April, 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/677272/contributions/2970733/
 
Description DECAL: Digital Calorimetry using DMAPs sensors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 14th Pisa meeting on advanced detectors, Isla d'Elba, Italy 27th May - 2nd June, 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://agenda.infn.it/event/17834/timetable/?view=standard
 
Description Detector R&D for Collider and Underground Experiments 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact EPS-HEP Conference 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://eps-hep2017.eu/
 
Description Detector R&D for Particle Physics (International Conference on High Energy Physics ICHEP, Valencia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary talk at the main HEP conference (International Conference on High Energy Physics ICHEP)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://ichep2014.es/
 
Description Detector Technologies for Future Colliders (Strategic Workshop on High Energy Particle Physics, Zurich 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participation and seminar at workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Digital Electromagnetic Calorimetry at the FCC-hh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact FCC week 2017, Berlin, May 29th - June 2nd, 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/556692/contributions/2465167/
 
Description FCC conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary Presentation to the FCC Meeting on Rome on the FCC-hh Detector Concept
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/438866/
 
Description FCC-hh Progress on physics and experiment studies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact FCC Week 2016, Rome, Italy, 11th to 15th April, 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/438866/contributions/1084937/
 
Description First tests of a reconfigurable depleted MAPS sensor for Digital Electromagnetic Calorimetry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 15th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation, Vienna, Austria, Feb 18th-22nd 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://vci2019.hephy.at/programme/
 
Description From Hadron Colldiers to Hadron Therapy Seminar RHUL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact HEP Group Seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description From Higgs to Healthcare (Oxford University Seminar) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar Oxford Physics Department
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ILC, LHC and FCC MAPS Designs at RAL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Advances in Radiation-Hard Monolithic Pixel Detectors, IoP HEPP Committee Half-Day Meeting on Development of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS), University of Birmingham, 19 July 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/640107/timetable/?print=1&view=standard
 
Description LHC Detector Upgrades 10th Annual Meeting of the Helmholtz Alliance "Physics at the Terascale", Hamburg 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at DESY
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Novel high voltage and resistive CMOS sensors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact AIDA-2020 Third Annual Meeting, Centro San Domenico, 24th-27th April
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/677272/contributions/2772685/attachments/1640949/2620655/180427_AIDA201...
 
Description Silicon Tracking Detectors for Hadron Beam Monitoring and Imaging (Ion Beam Therapy: Clinical, Scientific and Technical Challenges, Birmingham 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organiser and presenter at workshop on applications of particle physics technologies to hadron radiotherapy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ctrad.ncri.org.uk/events/ion-beam-therapy-clinical-scientific-and-technical-challenges
 
Description TCAD Process and device simulation of OVERMOS, a CMOS 180nm MAPS detect 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 32nd RD50 workshop, Hamburg, Germany, 4-6 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/719814/contributions/3022500/
 
Description TCAD simulations and measurements of OVERMOS - HR CMOS sensor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact AIDA-2020 Third Annual Meeting, Centro San Domenico, 24th-27th April 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/677272/contributions/2970732/