The Cosmology of the Early and Late Universe

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Sch of Physics & Astronomy

Abstract

Our Universe is accelerating, distant galaxies move apart with ever increasing velocities, yet we don't know the source of this acceleration, referring to it as Dark Energy (DE). A key goal of our work is to pin down the nature of this enigmatic substance, including the possibility that it is signalling a breakdown of Einstein's description of gravity on the largest scales. The cosmological constant (CC) is the simplest DE candidate, yet the value it would have to have to be driving the acceleration is at least 60 orders of magnitude lower than we would naturally expect it to have based on the quantum theory of matter. As Pauli once observed, the electron's contribution to the CC should result in a universe no larger in size than the earth-moon distance ! We have developed two approaches to deal with the CC and will be analysing their cosmology. In both cases, we consider controlled deviations from Einstein's original model of gravity, allowing us to eliminate these dangerously large contributions to the CC. Alongside these models, we continue to ask questions about the nature of DE, and other novel long distance phenomena known as chameleons, developing new approaches to consider their effects on particles in accelerators, as well as on cold atoms in laboratory vacuum chambers.

Dark matter (DM( is an illusive substance difficult to see because it does not interact electromagnetically, and yet it completely dominates the matter content of the Universe driving the dynamics of galaxies. There are currently two main ways we use to detect DM particles: one is deep underground in direct detection experiments where the particle collides with a nucleus of a heavy atom and the recoil of the nucleus is picked up in sensitive detectors, and the other is through the indirect measurements of decay products such as very high energy gamma rays that are produced as a result of DM particles annihilating in the sun. Up until now these two approaches have been somewhat exclusive of each other using different approaches to their analysis. In this proposal we intend to develop technology that will allow for the consistent comparison of direct and indirect detection data, thereby bringing these communities together and increasing the chance of detection.

It is quite possible that the Early Universe was populated by two or more types of strings, fundamental strings whose modes of oscillations provide us with the particles we see today, and cosmic strings formed during phase transitions. Both of these strings would evolve as the universe expands and we can model their evolution. Because they are very massive (a km of cosmic string would have the mass of the moon for example), they perturb the spacetime in which they move leading to distortions in the temperature of the light in regions close to the strings. We search for this distortion in maps made from the remnant radiation from the Big Bang known as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). However, the most recent maps from the Planck satellite, in which we have played an important role in analysing, there is no direct evidence of the strings. It doesn't mean they are not there, although they may not be, but it does mean they are not as massive as we thought. However, there are other signals they can leave in the polarisation of the remnant radiation and we intend to obtain the unique signals cosmic strings and cosmic superstrings would leave in such a map and then search the Planck data to see if they are found lurking in there - the first direct evidence of string theory.

One of the key problems facing modern physics concerns reconciling two of the pillars of twentieth century physics, General Relativity which governs the motion of objects on macroscopic scales and Quantum Mechanics which governs objects on the atomic scale. The effort to reconcile these is known as Quantum Gravity and in this proposal we are aiming to develop a number of approaches with that as the ultimate goal.

Planned Impact

Who might benefit from this research?

The most obvious group of people that will benefit from our research are particle physicists, atomic/cold atom physicists, cosmologists, astronomers and mathematicians. Our work is interdisciplinary, we use astrophysical data to constrain fundamental models of particle physics, and in doing so we introduce mathematics that will be of interest to that community. This interest is seen in the fact we are invited to give plenary talks at all the major particle physics, astronomy and mathematics conferences, for example: SUSY2014, LOOP2015, COSMOS2014. Padilla was invited to present his work on the CCP in a series of lectures to the particle physicists at CERN as well as to cosmologists and astronomers in Mexico. Copeland presented his work to particle phenomenologists at SUSY2014 and will be a plenary speaker at NAM2016, the primary Astronomy conference in the UK.

Another group of people who we may well have an impact on is the General Public. Science and cosmology in particular holds an impressive fascination with the public. The Sixty Symbols videos that we run in Nottingham are subscribed to by over half a million people, and the particle physics inspired videos are particularly popular.

How might they benefit from this research?

The academic community will benefit because our results will hopefully enable them to make progress in their own fields. For example our work on dark energy may well provide insights for the astronomical community in searching for ways of probing for dynamical dark energy, or for cold atom physicists in considering new experiments to search for it. The work on Quantum Gravity and the CCP may well have an impact on mathematicians - the proposed solutions for example may lead to new insights in mathematics and particle physics.

Our Sixty Symbols videos are very popular and we know from feedback have an impact on people, to the extent that a number of people turn to studying physics having watched them. As an example of their popularity, three extended videos on topics covered in this proposal (Inflation, Cosmic Strings and Dark Energy) made by Copeland following his IOP award have been viewed over 870,000 times.
[https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLcUY9vudNKBMxm0HSZCDU7rMAWOt7zLgp]

Publications

10 25 50
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Achúcarro A (2019) Cosmological evolution of semilocal string networks. in Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences

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Alexandre J (2018) Consistent description of field theories with non-Hermitian mass terms in Journal of Physics: Conference Series

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Amendola L (2018) Cosmology and fundamental physics with the Euclid satellite. in Living reviews in relativity

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Amin M (2018) Gravitational waves from asymmetric oscillon dynamics? in Physical Review D

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Babichev E (2018) The sound of DHOST in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

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Barack L (2019) Black holes, gravitational waves and fundamental physics: a roadmap in Classical and Quantum Gravity

 
Description Black Hole Superradiance in Rotating Fluids
Amount £319,511 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P00637X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 11/2019
 
Description Cosmology in a Superconducting Magnet
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description ERC Consolidator Grant
Amount € 1,150,000 (EUR)
Funding ID ERC-2013-CoG-617656 TheMoDS 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 08/2014 
End 07/2019
 
Description ERC Starter Grant
Amount € 1,375,226 (EUR)
Funding ID 3064425 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 01/2012 
End 07/2017
 
Description FQXI
Amount £7,500 (GBP)
Funding ID RK2221 
Organisation Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 01/2018 
End 08/2018
 
Description IPPP Associateship
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Durham University 
Department Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP)
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2017
 
Description Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant.
Amount £202,993 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description Leverhulme Trust as a Research leadership Award
Amount £802,923 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2022
 
Description Research Fellows Enhancement Award 2017
Amount £97,078 (GBP)
Funding ID RGF\EA\180286 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Description Research Fellows Enhancement Awards 2018
Amount £189,387 (GBP)
Funding ID RGF\EA\181015 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Research Leadership Awards
Amount £982,358 (GBP)
Funding ID RL-2019-020 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 12/2021
 
Description Royal Society
Amount £84,148 (GBP)
Funding ID RGF\R1\180030 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2022
 
Description Royal Society University Research Fellowship
Amount £410,731 (GBP)
Funding ID UF130549 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2019
 
Description Rutherford Fellowships
Amount £448,213 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/R003904/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2024
 
Description URF Royal Society
Amount £425,814 (GBP)
Funding ID UF160622 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2022
 
Description URF Royal Society
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID UF120112 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Univ of Nottingham
Amount £7,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RA22FR 
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 07/2019
 
Description University Research Fellowships Renewals
Amount £322,150 (GBP)
Funding ID URF\R\180038 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2021
 
Description CERNs Physics Beyond Colliders program 
Organisation European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Department Physics Department
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Clare Burrage - Convenor of the BSM theory working group part of CERNs Physics Beyond Colliders program
Collaborator Contribution Members of the working group.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description COSMOS 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have access to COSMOS supercomputer
Collaborator Contribution All partners have access to COSMOS to undertake basic research into cosmology
Impact Many publications too numerous to mention
 
Description COST Network 
Organisation European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)
Department COST Action
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution John Barrett - COST network MP1405. He is on the management committee as UK rep
Collaborator Contribution They are members of the management committee.
Impact Monte Carlo simulations of random non-commutative geometries John W Barrett and Lisa Glaser Published 11 May 2016 • © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, Volume 49, Number 24
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration to mimic early universe scenarios in table-top experiments 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Mathematics Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We - Anastasios Avgoustidis, Richard J. A. Hill, Silke Weinfurtner and Steffen Gielen - started a collaboration to develop and investigate early universe scenarios in table-top experiments. This has lead to one pre-print article https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.05843 mentioned in the public press https://www.wired.com/story/to-understand-the-universe-physicists-are-building-their-own/ and a Nottingham University internal research grant in the amount of 30k GBP.
Collaborator Contribution The only collaborator not listed on the STFC grant is Richard J. A. Hill, who is an expert in magnet physics.
Impact https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.05843 - to be published as rapid communication in Phys. Rev. E. This is a truly interdisciplinary collaboration between cosmology, analogue gravity and magnet physics.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Dark Energy Survey 
Organisation Fermilab - Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Copeland is on the Theory Working Group
Collaborator Contribution They run the telescope
Impact None yet
Start Year 2012
 
Description Euclid 
Organisation European Space Agency
Department Science and Operations Department
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Skordis and Burrage are on Theory working group
Collaborator Contribution Support all elements of the satellite.
Impact None yet
 
Description Planck 
Organisation European Space Agency
Department Science and Operations Department
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Adam Moss is on the Planck team, working primarily on polarisation.
Collaborator Contribution All aspects of the project
Impact Huge impact on cosmology.
 
Description Simulations of the false vacuum decay in ultra-cold atoms and their applications for cosmology 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have formed a strong interdisciplinary collaboration to built a solid theoretical foundation for mimicking the false vacuum decay in ultra-cold atoms experiments. While my collaborators are all cosmologists, I am the only person on the team with a background on analogue simulators and an expertise in ultra-cold atoms.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators are 4 world-leading experts in cosmology: - Jonathan Braden (CITA, Canada) - Matthew C. Johnson (Perimeter Institute & York University, Canada) - Hiranya V. Peiris (University College London, UK & Oskar Klein Center for Cosmoparticle Physics, Sweden) - Andrew Pontzen (University College London, UK) Their expertise is on all matters related to the false vacuum decay.
Impact This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between researchers working on cosmology and analogue gravity. Currently we have one published article: Towards the cold atom analog false vacuum Authors: Jonathan Braden, Matthew C. Johnson, Hiranya V. Peiris, Silke Weinfurtner Journal ref: JHEP 07 (2018) 014 one pre-print article: A New Semiclassical Picture of Vacuum Decay Authors: Jonathan Braden, Matthew C. Johnson, Hiranya V. Peiris, Andrew Pontzen, Silke Weinfurtner Pre-print ref: arXiv:1806.06069 This study has been awarded a third Buchalter Prize in cosmology. We are currently preparing one more article: Title: Nonlinear Dynamics of the Cold Atom Analogue False Vacuum Authors: Jonathan Braden, Matthew C. Johnson, Hiranya V. Peiris, Andrew Pontzen, Silke Weinfurtner
Start Year 2017
 
Description WG3: Black holes and fundamental physics -- COST 
Organisation European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Thomas Sotiriou is leading the Work Package 3 of COST funded GWverse.
Collaborator Contribution They are all contributing research aspects. The Action will link 3 scientific communities that are currently largely disjoint: one specializing in GW detection and analysis, another in BH modelling (in both astrophysical and GR contexts), and a third in strong-gravity tests of fundamental physics, to form a single, interdisciplinary network, facilitating a common language and a framework to discuss, interact and learn from one another.
Impact None yet - two meetings have taken place in Brussels (2017) and Malta (2018)
Start Year 2017
 
Title [DE] VERFAHREN ZUR 3D-VERMESSUNG VON FLÜSSIGKEITEN UND GELEN 
Description [DE] Die optische 3D-Vermessung von Flüssigkeits- und Geloberflächen ist aufgrund der ungünstigen optischen Eigenschaften dieser Oberflächen bisher nur mit unbefriedigendem Ergebnis hinsichtlich zeitlicher und räumlicher Auflösung möglich. Das neue Verfahren soll die Oberflächenvermessung auch für Flüssigkeiten und Gele mit geringem Aufwand und mit hoher zeitlicher und räumlicher Auflösung ermöglichen. Zur Vermessung der Oberfläche von Flüssigkeiten und Gelen wird ein Mehrkamerasystem mit strukturierter Beleuchtung verwendet, wobei den zu untersuchenden Flüssigkeiten und Gelen ein an die strukturierte Beleuchtung angepasster fluoreszierender Farbstoff zugesetzt wird, welcher durch die strukturierte Beleuchtung zur Emission angeregt wird. Durch die Verwendung von spektralen Filtern vor den Kameras, welche das durch Anregung des fluoreszierenden Farbstoffes emittierte Licht der Oberfläche zur Kamera passieren lassen, können bekannte Verfahren zur Berechnung von korrespondierenden Punkten genutzt werden, ohne dass störende optische Effekte der projizierten strukturierten Beleuchtung oder von Fremdlicht (spekulare Reflexe, Volumeneffekte, Transparenz) die Qualität der Rekonstruktion schmälern. 3D-Vermessung von Flüssigkeits- und Geloberflächen mit hoher räumlicher und zeitlicher Auflösung. 
IP Reference DE102015001365 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed Yes
Impact We have successfully applied the sensor to our experimental setup, leading to the world's first discovery of super radiant scattering due to rotation: https://www.nature.com/articles/nphys4151 .
 
Description `Dark matter: the unusual suspects' - Oct 31st 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Anne Green - Public talk on `Dark matter: the unusual suspects' at University of Nottingham, for International Dark Matter Day, Oct 31st 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Alpha Galileo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Scientists make waves with Black hole research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=176403&CultureCode=en
 
Description Apollo 11 talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Ed Copeland: Talk on Apollo 11 to University of the Third age in Southwell. March 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Business Insider UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Energy from black holes can be stolen, shows an elegant new physics experiment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://uk.businessinsider.com/black-hole-energy-theft-superradiance-2017-6
 
Description Cafe Scientifique - Malta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 24/1/2018 "Gravity at Malta" and Cafe Scientifique Malta
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cafe Scientifique 2018, Malta 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Cafe Scientifique Malta & Outreach Lecture for ``Gravity at Malta" Conference, January 24th 2018, Malta
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Continued Sixty Symbols and Numberphile videos 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Videos made for the General public on maths and physics. reach audiences of well over 1 Million people (Numberphile) and 250,000 (Sixty Symbols)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013
URL https://www.youtube.com/user/sixtysymbols
 
Description DIE ZEIT / Spectrum.de 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public science article on Weinfurtner's work on hydrodynamic rotating black holes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.spektrum.de/news/schwarzes-loch-in-der-badewanne/1583782
 
Description Eurek Alert! 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Scientists make waves with black hole research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-06/uon-smw061417.php
 
Description Festival presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sidmouth Science Festival - 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Festival presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk and panel discussion, Blue dot festival, July 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Formby High School (Jan 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Tony Padilla - talk on power of mathematics to raise money for his friend with cancer - held at his old school in Formby, Liverpool. (Jan 2018)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Hands-on demonstrations of mathematical puzzles and mechanical toys 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Hands-on demonstrations of mathematical puzzles and mechanical toys (spinning tops etc) to family audience at the UofN Maths display desk at the following outreach events in Nottingham:

Family Discovery Day, March 30 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Hands-on demonstrations of mathematical puzzles and mechanical toys 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Hands-on demonstrations of mathematical puzzles and mechanical toys (spinning tops etc) to family audience at the UofN Maths display desk at the following outreach events in Nottingham:

Festival of Science and Curiosity, February 15 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Holst's The Planets with Nottingham Philharmonic orchestra 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Nov 2019 - concert at Albert hall Nottingham. Ed Copeland discussed the planets in between each movement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description I'm a scientist Particle Physics Subject Knowledge Zone 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Anne Green participant in I'm a scientist Particle Physics Subject Knowledge Zone (for teachers), Nov 19.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://subject.imascientist.org.uk/users/subject/particle-physics/
 
Description Interview for Wired Science Article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our - Silke Weinfurtner and Anastasios Avgoustidis - new proposal of Mimicking inflation with 2-fluid systems in a strong gradient magnetic field has been reported in a WIRED article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.wired.com/story/to-understand-the-universe-physicists-are-building-their-own/
 
Description LIVE Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Edges of Black Holes Re-Created in a Bathtub of Water
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.livescience.com/59607-black-hole-effects-simulated-with-water.html
 
Description Nottingham science Lectures (Feb 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Tony Padilla - talk on power of mathematics - Nottingham science Lectures (Feb 2018)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/physics/outreach/science-public-lectures.aspx
 
Description Numberphile videos 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Tony Padilla and Ed Copeland have been involved in a a number of Numberphile videos. A recent one on the sum of the integers has attracted over 3 million hits on you tube.

Hundreds of emails from students and interested people from around the world. Invitations to talk at numerous schools, articles in the NYT, de Spiegel and other major newspapers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.youtube.com/user/numberphile
 
Description Outreach lecture - Gravity attracts: Black holes and the quantum", given at the ``Finnish Science 100 Symposium'', Imperial College London, 4 November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jorma Louko - Gravity attracts: Black holes and the quantum", given at the ``Finnish Science 100 Symposium'', Imperial College London,
4 November 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/eventssummary/event_2-10-2017-13-33-21
 
Description Pesquisa FAPESP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Our Brazilian collaborator funded by FAPESP gave an interview to the newsletter magazine for the FAPESP: CIÊNCIA Astrofísica na banheira
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/2017/07/18/astrofisica-na-banheira/
 
Description Phys.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Scientists make waves with black hole research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://phys.org/news/2017-06-scientists-black-hole.html
 
Description Physics World (IOP) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Rotational superradiance spotted as water swirls down a drain
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Physics.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Water circling drain experiments offer insight into black holes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://phys.org/news/2017-06-circling-insight-black-holes.html
 
Description PhysicsWorld Studying impossible systems By Matthew Francis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public Science Article on Weinfurtner's work on hydrodynamic rotating black holes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://physicsworld.com/a/studying-impossible-systems-with-analogues/
 
Description Pint of Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Pint of Science Festival, Nottingham, May 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pint of Science, 2017, Nottingham, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Thomas Sotiriou - Pint of Science, May 15th 2017, Nottingham, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/events/nottingham
 
Description Pint of Science, including Creative Reactions Project (March-May 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Tony Padilla - Pint of Science series, including Creative Reactions Project (March-May 2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/events/nottingham
 
Description Science Daily 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Scientists make waves with black hole research: Water bath simulation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170614112852.htm
 
Description Science News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Scientists Make Waves with Black Hole Research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sciencenewsline.com/news/2017061415510087.html
 
Description Siencenews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Water circling a drain provides insight into black holes: Energy boost from rotational superradiance detected for the first time
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sciencenews.org/article/water-circling-drain-provides-insight-black-holes
 
Description Sixty Symbols Videos 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have a big impact with these videos receiving thousands of comments on the videos and emails sent thanking us for the work.

See above.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014
URL http://www.youtube.com/user/sixtysymbols
 
Description Space Daily 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Scientists make waves with black hole research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Scientists_make_waves_with_black_hole_research_999.html
 
Description TV space series for Discovery called Strip The Cosmos 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Silke Weinfurtner's Black Hole Laboratory was filmed for TV space series for Discovery called Strip The Cosmos.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk - 'The search for dark matter', New Scientist Instant Expert, London, Apr 19. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 'The search for dark matter', New Scientist Instant Expert, London, Apr 19.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk at AstroFest 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Clare Burrage - talk on dark energy at EuropeanAstroFest 2018, London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://europeanastrofest.com
 
Description Talk at Eton College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Ed Copeland - Oct 2020 - talk at Eton College to their Science Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk at Oundle School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Ed Copeland - Oct 2019 - talk at Oundle School
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description University maths society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 16/11/2018 Archimedeans (U. of Cambridge Math Soc)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Video Facebook Techinside UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The video was about our experimental verification of the super radiant scattering (published in Nature Physics) and viewed by more than 1,300,000 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/TechInsiderUK/videos/vb.514840712056653/697541813786541/?type=2&theater
 
Description Video Reuters 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Reuters filmed my experimental setup and this video was picked up by various other broadcasting agencies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.reuters.com/video/2017/08/21/black-hole-in-a-bathtub-makes-waves-for?videoId=372360813
 
Description Video The Black Hole Machine by Sixty Symbols 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This is a video coverage of my laboratory explaining the bizarre effects related to rotating black holes and how we can visualize them in my setup. The video was watched by more than 188,000 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOnoYQchHFw
 
Description Video on Facebook NOWTHIS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The video was about our experimental verification of the super radiant scattering (published in Nature Physics) and viewed by more than 3,100,000 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.facebook.com/NowThisFuture/videos/vb.1010847105623136/1703728126335027
 
Description Women in Science seminar, University of Nottingham, Nov 7th 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Anne Green - Speaker at Women in Science seminar, University of Nottingham, Nov 7th 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Youtube channel of lectures given in Mathematical Physics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Kirill Krasnov - Youtube channel of lectures given in Mathematical Physics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCVlk8Tu1qs6lXEz7Zw-pNnw/videos?view_as=subscriber
 
Description http://healthmedicinet.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Scientists make waves with black hole research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://healthmedicinet.com/i/scientists-make-waves-with-black-hole-research/
 
Description https://scitechdaily.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superadiance detection: Researchers Simulate the Conditions Around Black Holes Using a Specially Designed Water Bath
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://scitechdaily.com/researchers-simulate-conditions-around-black-holes/
 
Description nanowerk.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Media coverage of our superradiance detection: Scientists make waves with black hole research (w/video)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nanowerk.com/news2/space/newsid=47075.php