MICE Ionization-Cooling Demonstration

Lead Research Organisation: University of Strathclyde
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

The Neutrino Factory is a possible future accelerator facility that creates beams of neutrinos from the decays of muons in a storage ring. The neutrino beams from a Neutrino Factory would have the highest intensity and can be controlled with unprecedented accuracy. For these reasons, the Neutrino Factory has the potential to discover measurable differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations, which could be the key to understanding the puzzle of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe. This phenomenon, known as CP violation, has been observed in the quark sector but has never been seen in the neutrino sector. A future Neutrino Factory would determine CP violation in the neutrino sector with the best possible accuracy. Furthermore, a Neutrino factory could be used as a first stage before the construction of a Muon Collider, which could be used to measure the properties of the Higgs boson with the ultimate precision, and could potentially reach energies of up to 6 TeV, in order to explore new physics phenomena at the highest energy frontier.

Both the Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider rely on the acceleration of muons. To be able to create muon accelerator facilities, we require to reduce the size of the muon beam so that it may be accelerated. Since muons decay within 2 microseconds in their own rest frame, the only known way to reduce the phase space of the muon beam before the muons decay is to use the concept of ionisation cooling, in which the muons lose energy in an absorber such as liquid hydrogen or lithium hydride (LiH) and then recover the longitudinal component of the momentum by accelerating them using RF cavities. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an engineering demonstration of the concept of ionisation cooling. This experiment is being built at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, in which a beam of muons will be cooled in a muon cooling cell consisting of three absorbers and two RF cavities inside the field of two focus coil magnets. The emittance of the beam is measured before and after the cooling channel using a scintillating fibre tracker inside a superconducting solenoid, and the muons are identified using time-of-flight detectors, a Cherenkov detector and a calorimeter system consisting of a scintillating fibre-lead pre-shower detector (named the KL) and a totally active scintillating detector, called the Electron Muon Ranger (EMR).

In this proposal we aim to perform measurements of emittance reduction, without RF cavities (MICE step IV) and perform the final demonstration of ionisation cooling with RF cavities. This proposal is a bid for 42 months funding from Oct 2016 to March 2020, supporting academic and student effort over that period and research staff from the end of the bridging support that ends in December 2016.

Planned Impact

1) The main impact of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is its contribution to the worldwide Accelerator R&D programme. Techniques developed in MICE are essential for future high power proton facilities including the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. These will benefit the worldwide accelerator industry, including the development of future RF cavities that can operate inside magnetic fields, the development of large superconducting technology that may be realised in a simpler and more cost-effective way, and the development of innovative instrumentation to operate at such facilities.

2) The training of accelerator physicists and engineers underpins the increasing use of accelerators in research and industry, including such disparate areas as medical treatment and diagnosis, security applications and power generation. MICE has trained over 67 STFC and university staff and students, including 22 PhD students (12 have graduated and are deploying their skills in industry, such as IT consultancy, the financial sector, IBM and defence industries), 16 post-doctoral and contract staff and 11 faculty (8 PDRA staff trained on the project have taken their expertise to other projects or to private industry). MICE has developed UK expertise in running a major project in the UK, with 4 STFC and 7 university staff playing senior roles in the project leadership. The expertise in university and STFC staff include: low frequency RF for future accelerators, large superconducting solenoids, novel liquid hydrogen handling systems and accelerator instrumentation.

3) The MICE project will benefit the following collaborations: the international MICE collaboration encompassing 34 institutions in 8 countries; the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF), (https://www.ids-nf.org/wiki/FrontPage) and the EC-funded EUROnu project (http://www.euronu.org/), the nuSTORM collaboration (http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.0294v1.pdf) and the 'Proton Accelerators for Science and Innovation' (PASI) collaboration, (http://pasi.org.uk/Main_Page).

4) The MICE project is benefitting UK and international industry through engineering and construction partnerships: cryogenic engineering (AS Scientific), collaborative development of unusually large superconducting magnets with closed-circuit cooling with TESLA engineering (UK) and Wang NMR (USA), knowledge exchange in the development of the MICE target with TechVac, Multigrind Watford, ExcelPrecision and CCFE-Babcock, and knowledge exchange with UK industry in the manufacture of RF amplifier components, HT safety systems, high power, high frequency electrical contacts and specialist plating and joining methods.

5) The MICE project is active in the dissemination of its activities, with refereed journal and conference publications, a freely accessible archive record (http://www.mice.iit.edu/), organised outreach activities for school students, participation in the Annual Goldsmiths courses for A-level teachers, participation in the Particle Physics masterclasses, public events, such as the "Accelerator extravaganza" at RAL and the General Public Access Day at RAl (8 July 2015), 15 undergraduate, PGI and summer projects hosted by MICE, publicity through Physics World and the CERN Courier, a prizewinning paper at the "SET for Britain" Meeting in 2009, and other public and media activities.
 
Description RF Accelerator Material in L5 Instructional Class
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Students will have been informed of aspects of RF accelerator technology on completion of studies, informed by the research on the MICE project. This specifically relates to PGT courses. RF technology is regularly indicated as being a significant skills shortage in a international context (both for accelerator science and in a wider scope).
 
Title MICE Raw Data 
Description Raw data obtained by the International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) experiment 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Papers on phase space control of muon beams 
URL https://figshare.com/articles/MICE_Raw_Data/3179644
 
Title MICE Recon Data 
Description Reconstructed data produced by the International Muon Ionisation Experiment 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Papers on emittance control of beams of energetic muons by ionisation cooling 
URL https://figshare.com/articles/_/5955850
 
Title MICE Simulation Data 
Description Simulations of ionisation cooling associated with the MICE project 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data supporting papers of muon cooling and emittance control through interaction with low-Z absorbers 
URL https://figshare.com/articles/_/5972329
 
Description MICE 
Organisation Fermilab - Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Department FNAL - Other
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment
Collaborator Contribution The Strathclyde aspects of MICE are focussed on the development of RF systems. In this context there are several major interactions within the MICE collaboration which are focussed on here. There are moreover much wider collaborations for other aspects of the MICE project. FNAL, LBL, DoE, IIT Very large contribution in the buiding and testing of the prototype RF cavities for MICE, Univ Geneva. development of data acquisition system for MICE, INFN Milan, Development of fast particle detectors.
Impact Publication of several papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE 
Organisation Illinois Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment
Collaborator Contribution The Strathclyde aspects of MICE are focussed on the development of RF systems. In this context there are several major interactions within the MICE collaboration which are focussed on here. There are moreover much wider collaborations for other aspects of the MICE project. FNAL, LBL, DoE, IIT Very large contribution in the buiding and testing of the prototype RF cavities for MICE, Univ Geneva. development of data acquisition system for MICE, INFN Milan, Development of fast particle detectors.
Impact Publication of several papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE 
Organisation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment
Collaborator Contribution The Strathclyde aspects of MICE are focussed on the development of RF systems. In this context there are several major interactions within the MICE collaboration which are focussed on here. There are moreover much wider collaborations for other aspects of the MICE project. FNAL, LBL, DoE, IIT Very large contribution in the buiding and testing of the prototype RF cavities for MICE, Univ Geneva. development of data acquisition system for MICE, INFN Milan, Development of fast particle detectors.
Impact Publication of several papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment
Collaborator Contribution The Strathclyde aspects of MICE are focussed on the development of RF systems. In this context there are several major interactions within the MICE collaboration which are focussed on here. There are moreover much wider collaborations for other aspects of the MICE project. FNAL, LBL, DoE, IIT Very large contribution in the buiding and testing of the prototype RF cavities for MICE, Univ Geneva. development of data acquisition system for MICE, INFN Milan, Development of fast particle detectors.
Impact Publication of several papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE 
Organisation U.S. Department of Energy
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment
Collaborator Contribution The Strathclyde aspects of MICE are focussed on the development of RF systems. In this context there are several major interactions within the MICE collaboration which are focussed on here. There are moreover much wider collaborations for other aspects of the MICE project. FNAL, LBL, DoE, IIT Very large contribution in the buiding and testing of the prototype RF cavities for MICE, Univ Geneva. development of data acquisition system for MICE, INFN Milan, Development of fast particle detectors.
Impact Publication of several papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE 
Organisation University of Geneva
Department Physics Section
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment
Collaborator Contribution The Strathclyde aspects of MICE are focussed on the development of RF systems. In this context there are several major interactions within the MICE collaboration which are focussed on here. There are moreover much wider collaborations for other aspects of the MICE project. FNAL, LBL, DoE, IIT Very large contribution in the buiding and testing of the prototype RF cavities for MICE, Univ Geneva. development of data acquisition system for MICE, INFN Milan, Development of fast particle detectors.
Impact Publication of several papers
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation Brunel University London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation Daresbury Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description MICE-UK 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Ronald, Strathclyde is the manager for the RF project on the collaboration. Strathclyde work with Imperial, Sheffield, Daresbury and RAL on the RF systems for the project. Strathclyde participated in the tests of the amplifier chain and the demonstration that they can be integrated in the MICE hall, and have participated in the tests of the cavities at Fermilab. Strathclyde are developing the detector to determine the RF phase during the particle transit of the cavities. The project also encompasses (through the international MICE collaboration) 10 US participating institutions, University of Geneva, four Italian Institutions, CERN, and Sofia with other institutions in Japan, China and the Netherlands.
Collaborator Contribution In terms of the RF project, Sheffield have interacted particularly with Strathclyde on the detectors for determining the RF phase experienced by the Muons crossing the accelerator gaps. Daresbury have led the development of the RF amplifiers, and are leading the LLRF system. Fermilab are testing the RF cavities developed by the Lawrence Berkeley lab. Close links with the Universities of MIlan and Geneva are important as the RF phase detection system must interface to the fast particle detectors and data capture systems developed by these laboratories.
Impact Two papers have been published to date
Start Year 2012
 
Description First Ever Ionization Cooling Demonstration in MICE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster paper at Neutrino 2018 - XXVIII International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://zenodo.org/record/1300586
 
Description MICE Collaboration Meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Typically participation in international MICE collaboration meetings (three per annum), locations spanning UK, US, Europe. In addition participation in several programme review meetings (typically two per annum) on the management of the research programme, plus engaging in focussed scientific and technical advisory review bodies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.mice.iit.edu
 
Description Recent results from MICE on multiple Coulomb scattering and energy loss 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster paper at XXVIII International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/nu2018/speakers