DUNE: Pre-Construction Phase

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Oxford Physics

Abstract

The LBNF/DUNE project is a global flagship initiative in high-energy particle physics that addresses key questions on the origin and structure of the universe. The long-baseline neutrino facility (LBNF) will be the world's most intense high-energy neutrino beam. It will fire neutrinos 1300 km from Fermilab in Illinois towards the 70,000 ton DUNE detector in South Dakota in order to study neutrino oscillations. DUNE will be the first large-scale US-hosted
experiment run as a truly international project.

DUNE has broad support from the global particle physics community in the US and Europe and with growing interest in developing countries; DUNE currently is a scientific collaboration of over 950 collaborators from 30 nations, with overall UK leadership.

LBNF/DUNE will undertake a game-changing programme of neutrino physics. Its highest-level scientific goals target big questions in physics:
1) Discovery and measurements of neutrino CP violation. This subtle difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos could be responsible for the remaining matter in the universe;
2) Precision neutrino physics, including the definitive determination of the mass hierarchy;
3) Search for new physics beyond the current understanding of neutrino oscillations;
4) Observation of the electron neutrino burst from a galactic core-collapse supernova, providing a real-time probe of neutron star and possibly black hole formation;
5) Search for proton decay, expected in most models of new physics, but not yet observed.

The UK plans to make a major contribution to the construction of the massive DUNE far detector, through a partnership between UK universities, UK national laboratories and UK industry. In this proposal UK scientists are requesting resources to prototype the production processes for the construction of detector elements for this global scientific project.

Planned Impact

A major UK capital investment in DUNE will deliver a number of long-term benefits to the UK.

i) Strategic Partnerships
- The capital investment would build a strong UK - US partnership in particle physics, as well as securing the UK's international position. LBNF/DUNE is a very high-profile project in the US and the strategic importance of partnering with the UK is recognised within the highest levels of the US DOE and beyond.
- DUNE offers the possibility to build strong partnerships between UK and developing nations, particularly in Latin America and a GCRF bid is planned.

ii) Industrial Impact/Engagement
- The large APA frames would be produced in UK industry. A potential partner has been identified and is engaged in the current prototyping programme.
- The DAQ electronics boards would be manufactured in UK industry, leveraging the existing connections with industry from ATLAS, CMS and SKA.

iii) Capability Building/Utilisation and Skills Retention
- Utilisation and retention of the existing skill base at the RAL and Daresbury laboratory.
- The provision of high-speed DAQ boards would enable UK universities to retain their world-leading reputation in high-energy physics, building on similar projects for ATLAS and CMS.

iv) Broader Impact
- DUNE is likely to be the next new global particle physics project. Strong UK participation will provide unique and exciting training opportunities for PhD students;
- A project of the scale of LBNF/DUNE and the exciting science that it will generate can play a role in inspiring the next generation young students into STEM subjects.
 
Title ProtoDUNE DAQ and operation 
Description The ProtoDUNE experiment at CERN has specific needs with regard to Data Acquisition from the experiment. It is a combination of specific functions needed for collecting beam data in the CERN beam and of functions needed in the final DUNE experiment when constructed. This institute has direct responsibility to providing the data acquisition for ProtoDUNE. It is the bridging step to providing DAQ for the large DUNE experiment to which this grant relates. In 2017 and 2018, this experiment went through extensive development and commissioning. The experiment was operated in September-November 2018 and successfully demonstrated many aspects of liquid argon TPCs. We now have a data set which is being analysed. The ProtoDUNE facility is being used for further development of DAQ for DUNE. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The DAQ design relies on a combination of standard and innovative methods which will pave the way for the methodology on the DUNE experiment and possibly other neutrino experiments. The DUNE experiment is a multi-mnational collaboration and the design methodology is being shared among all institutes. Once a functional version is operating (expected in 2018), the design methodology will be presented at conferences and made available in journal articles. The ProtoDUNE facility is now the 'standard candle' as far as low noise operation is concerned, and will be used to develop the much larger DUNE experiment. 
URL http://www.dunescience.org
 
Description Submission of grant request for Construction of DUNE experiment 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Particle Physics Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The DUNE experiment is a large liquid argon neutrino experiment situated 1250km away from the source of the Fermilab neutrino beam, and is designed to study CP violation in neutrinos through their oscillation. We are developing the data acquisition for this experiment. It is most important to be as economical as possible, because the detector needs to be as large as possible to leverage the use of the beam to detect this physics phenomenon (the experiment improves with larger numbers of interactions). Oxford is designing software, hardware and contributing to the prototyping at CERN. We re also lead institution in the bid for the next phase of funding, the construction of the experiment. We submitted the grant request in Sept 2018 and it is proceeding through committee review.
Collaborator Contribution There are eight other institutes working with us on the data acquisition including Bristol, RAL, Imperial and Sussex. We are coordinating our application for construction funds.
Impact Submission of grant proposal Sept 2018. Ongoing review input
Start Year 2017
 
Description Submission of grant request for Construction of DUNE experiment 
Organisation University of Sussex
Department Physics and Astronomy Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The DUNE experiment is a large liquid argon neutrino experiment situated 1250km away from the source of the Fermilab neutrino beam, and is designed to study CP violation in neutrinos through their oscillation. We are developing the data acquisition for this experiment. It is most important to be as economical as possible, because the detector needs to be as large as possible to leverage the use of the beam to detect this physics phenomenon (the experiment improves with larger numbers of interactions). Oxford is designing software, hardware and contributing to the prototyping at CERN. We re also lead institution in the bid for the next phase of funding, the construction of the experiment. We submitted the grant request in Sept 2018 and it is proceeding through committee review.
Collaborator Contribution There are eight other institutes working with us on the data acquisition including Bristol, RAL, Imperial and Sussex. We are coordinating our application for construction funds.
Impact Submission of grant proposal Sept 2018. Ongoing review input
Start Year 2017