Hyper-K Pre-Construction

Lead Research Organisation: Queen Mary, University of London
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

The Hyper-Kamiokande experiment is the next generation flagship experiment for the
study of neutrino oscillations, nucleon decays, and astrophysical neutrinos. The detector is a third generation
underground water Cherenkov detector. It will serve as the far detector for a long baseline neutrino oscilla-
tion experiment planned for the upgraded J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) neutrino
beam as well as a detector capable of observing proton decays, atmospheric neutrinos, and neutrinos from
astronomical origins enabling measurements that far exceed the current world best measurements.
The proposed activities address the core scientific questions in STFC's roadmap 1 : What are the fun-
damental particles? (C1), Is there a unified framework? (C3) What is the origin of the matter anti-matter
asymmetry? (C7) How do the laws of physics work when driven to the extremes? (D1). Because the long
baseline neutrino experiment is capable of addressing these questions it is the highest priority of the neutrino
STFC roadmap. Furthermore, this project is also perfectly aligned with the European Strategy which recog-
nises it importance [2]: Rapid progress in neutrino oscillation physics, with significant European involvement,
has established a strong scientific case for a long-baseline neutrino programme exploring CP violation and
the mass hierarchy in the neutrino sector. CERN should develop a neutrino programme to pave the way for a
substantial European role in future long-baseline experiments. Europe should explore the possibility of major
participation in leading long-baseline neutrino projects in the US and Japan.

Planned Impact

The Hyper-K experiment is well placed to have a significant impact on our understanding of the Universe through the measurement of a number of keenly awaited quantities most notable of which are: CP-violation in neutrinos and neutrino mass hierarchy. To achieve this project plans to contribute to the experiment by researching and developing detector components that will significantly contribute to achieving these goals. These detector components are ground-breaking in their own right and have the potential to impact fields such as Medical physics through the photosensors that will be investigated as part of the project as well as other fields and the environment (the water target needs to have a high radiopurity which will require innovation to achive this). Perhaps the most important output of the experiment for UK industry will be the hundreds of trained postdocs and graduate students who will receive high-quality scientific training while working on the project.
Hyper-Kamiokande should provide a gold mine for public engagement in science. Any number of examples could be given of public engagement activities driven by the public's fascination with neutrino physics. It has attracted significant attention from the arts that have inspired the production of a number of works.

Publications

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Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
ST/R00031X/1 30/09/2017 30/08/2019 £298,429
ST/R00031X/2 Transfer ST/R00031X/1 31/08/2019 29/09/2020 £27,893
 
Description Hyper-Kamiokande will be both a microscope for discovering the properties of neutrinos and a neutrino telescope for observing the cosmos. We propose to develop key components for background noise suppression, data-readout, calibration and an intense neutrino source that will create unique scientific opportunities for UK scientists and engineers.

The 2014 R&D and 2017 preconstruction PPRP grants established the UK within Hyper-K and identified construction items.

They are the cylindrical Outer Detector (OD) system for the far detector; Data Acquisition (DAQ) and calibration systems for the far detector and the IWCD (that share the same technology), and the target for the upgraded beam.

The proposed capital investments in UK industries are designing, manufacturing, and assembling components for our deliverables for Hyper-K (DAQ, calibration, beam and OD).
We have several major industrial stakeholders with whom we have developed both working connections and hardware prototypes. Here are listed a few examples.

The electronics are part of our OD system. We have stakeholders from the electronics industry (Zot Engineering, Graphic PLC, Garner Osborne, amongst others), and some of these we already collaborated in the past on LHCb.
We are working with the only UK provider of photosensors, and one of the few in the world, ET Enterprises, whose workforce acquired new skills and extended their market options as a result of working with us.
We are engaging with a Sheffield company, LabLogic, which already collaborates with the University of Sheffield. Now, they will work with us to develop new plastic scintillators for the OD, thus expanding their market.
The work that we are conducting with these industries can allow them to position themselves within new and/or potentially lucrative markets and help build core capabilities and extend industry engagement.
Thus, we are aligned with the UK Government's Industrial Strategy to boost earning power of industry.

This project will increase collaboration and connectivity within UK infrastructures. Two departments at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory are involved and work on upgrades to the T2K near detector suite, a key part of the project, bringing in staff from the Daresbury Laboratory.
Critical measurements of radioactive cleanliness of components for the Super-Kamiokande upgrade are being made at the STFC Boulby laboratory, and these could be upgraded for Hyper-K.
The work on the neutrino production target is underpinned by materials science work by the RADIATE collaboration, which brings in other UK universities as well as the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy.

This project secures the UK's scientific leadership, already demonstrated by the current positions held by the UK members, and make the UK a major partner in the experiment.
The UK will take a crucial role in the detector construction and beam, securing future access to the pioneering physics potential of the experiment.
This work is highly regarded by the Japanese government (MEXT) and will provide an excellent demonstration of UK skills for future partnerships and to develop strategic links with Japan.

Infrastructure - we are creating a new long-term infrastructure for an international experiment in Japan that will maximise the value of UK government investment ["Next-generation particle physics experiments in the UKRI" Infrastructure Roadmap] and will underwrite future UK leadership in large scale infrastructure projects. The experiment is eagerly anticipated and its data will be used by scientists throughout the world.
Exploitation Route The work performed in this grants established the UK within Hyper-K and identified construction items. These will be the subjects of following grants.
Sectors Education

 
Description During the length of this grant, the members of the UK collaboration contributed to the knowledge dissemination in several ways: giving presentation at conferences, seminars, posters as well as offering thesis and projects to master and undergraduate students on Hyper-Kamiokande. Furthermore, several T2K PhD students are also partially working on Hyper-Kamiokande. The work done in this grant low the UK to continue to work on HK and move towards consutrciton
First Year Of Impact 2019
 
Description Member of LHC Experiments Committee
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL http://committees.web.cern.ch/Committees/lhcc/
 
Description Member of UK Committee on CERN (UKCC)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description MSCA- RISE JENNIFER2
Amount € 358,800 (EUR)
Funding ID EU Grant n.822070 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2023
 
Description MSCA-RISE JENNIFER
Amount € 126,324 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 03/2015 
End 03/2019
 
Description Super-Kamiokande 
Organisation Super-Kamiokande
Country Japan 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We have joined in January 2016. We are working on a calibration system for neutron. We have taken shifts.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in calibration. Detection of low background in gadolinium samples.
Impact This collaboration has just started
Start Year 2016
 
Description A talk or presentation - Particle Physics Masterclass (2018-2020) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Visit from sixth form students to department. Received talks and problem-based learning exercises.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
 
Description Chair of STFC PPGP(E) grant panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Appointed chair of STFC PPGP(E) grant panel. Oversees scientific assessment of particle physics grant applications to the consolidated grant scheme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://stfc.ukri.org/about-us/how-we-are-governed/advisory-boards/particle-physics-grants-panel/
 
Description Colloquium, DESY, Hamburg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Colloquium on HyperK at DESY Hamburg national lab in Germany
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://physikseminar.desy.de/hamburg/colloquia_in_2019/29_january_2019/
 
Description Colloquium, DESY, Zeuthen, Berlin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Colloquium on HyperK at DESY Zeuthen national lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://physikseminar.desy.de/hamburg/colloquia_in_2019/29_january_2019/
 
Description Member of the STFC PPGP Theory grant panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Member of the PPGP panel for the STFC. The panel reviews and decides upon applications for funding for current experiments and equipment requests for theorists in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Member of the STFC PPGP committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Member of the PPGP panel for the STFC. The panel reviews and decides upon applications for funding for current experiments and equipment requests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019
 
Description Ogden Trust Physicist of the year - invited speaker for Lancashire and Cumbria. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Invited talk about my career as a physicist and current research with the T2K experiment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Royal Society EXhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a exhibition stand at the Royal Society's summer exhibition featuring a number of exhibits, including an SK VR system, a 20" SK PMT and a (not-working) beam target from RAL, other exhibits, leaflets, take away information on neutrinos.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2018/summer-science-exhibition/exhibits/
 
Description Royal Society Summer Science Exhibit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Ghosts in the Universe exhibit at the Royal Society Summer Science event which ran for 1 week in the beginning of July 2018 was visited by more than 10,000 people (from the UK and international). The exhibit described the purpose of the experiment, what it intends to measure and what the UK groups were contributing to. The exhibit also described the theory driving the experiment. The exhibit was extremely popular and generated keen interest in the experiment. Followers to our Twitter feed increased by more than 200 as a result of the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2018/summer-science-exhibition/exhibits/ghosts-...
 
Description Talk about neutrinos at the Undergraduate conference for women in physics. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker to the conference for undergraduate women in physics. Talk was well received and I answered/discussed questions on neutrino physics and my career to date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Warwick Particle Physics Masterclass 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 50-60 Warwickshire school children attended and their teachers.

The feedback we receive from Masterclass days are always very positive i.e. we are clearly inspiring students with a scientific mind to pursue particle physics further.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
 
Description Warwick Particle Physics Masterclass 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 50-60 Warwickshire sixth form students and their teachers attended

Very positive feedback both directly and from questionaire forms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019