Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Physics


The Advanced Instrumentation Testbed (AIT) is a new facility, to be sited in the Boulby Underground Laboratory, that aims to explore new technologies for the purposes of nuclear non-proliferation and particle physics. The first phase of AIT is the WATer CHerenkov Monitor for Anti-Neutrinos (WATCHMAN). WATCHMAN construction is primarily funded through the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). UK involvement is a partnership between our industrial partners in the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), the STFC-Boulby laboratory, and the Universities of Sheffield, Edinburgh, and Liverpool.

The WATCHMAN detector is a technology demonstrator, which will attempt the first monitoring of nuclear reactors from a standoff distance of tens of kilometres. The mechanism for this monitoring is anti-neutrino detection. Nuclear reactions all produce a large flux of anti-neutrinos, which cannot be shielded. The WATCHMAN detector combines the decades-old technology of water Cherenkov neutrino detectors with the new technique of gadolinium loading. Adding gadolinium to the detector makes it sensitive to the neutron that is produced in an anti-neutrino interaction, but not a low-energy neutrino interaction. As such, the coincident signature of positron plus neutron can be used to tag anti-neutrinos.

If successful, the techniques pioneered by WATCHMAN could be used to search for clandestine nuclear reactors as a means of non-proliferation and nuclear threat reduction.

The AIT also includes a significant component of research and development into new detection materials and technologies. For this purpose, AIT will be investigating fast photosensors such as the Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD), and new detector materials, such as water-based liquid scintillator. These can be used in future phases of the project to enhance the reactor detection range, as well as to enable particle physics goals such as geoneutrino studies and searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay.


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Description National Nuclear Laboratory Ltd (NNL) 
Organisation National Nuclear Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Access to data and experimetental setup and know for monitoring nuclear reactors with anti-neutrinos for safeguards. Join PhD appointment.
Collaborator Contribution Working towards full reactor simulation for anti-neutrino production. Access to Nuclear Policy Influencers. Join PhD appointment.
Impact Fledgling collaboration has just formed.
Start Year 2016