European Incoherent Scatter Radar Facility (EISCAt) - UK Support

Lead Research Organisation: NERC National Ctr for Atmospheric Sci


The EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter) Scientific Association is an international research organisation operating three incoherent scatter radar systems (the UHF, VHF and ESR radars), an Ionospheric Heating facility and a Dynasonde in Northern Scandinavia. EISCAT studies the interaction between the Sun and the Earth, as revealed by disturbances in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. The great flexibility of the incoherent scatter technique allows a wide variety of experimental modes to be used, optimised for different altitude regions of the ionosphere from the D-region to the topside. Because of this, the EISCAT radars make important contributions to a diverse range of studies from interplanetary scintillation measurements in the solar wind to coupling between the ionosphere and middle atmosphere. The radars run both Common mode experiments, with generally available data, and Special Programmes, in which the data are reserved for the proposing experimenters. EISCAT also makes a large number of observations in support of satellite missions, including Cluster, POLAR, FAST and GEOTAIL. The RAL EISCAT Group supports the work of scientists in those UK research groups using EISCAT data as part of their scientific programme, by providing a computing service, database, analysis programs, data handling software and assistance with the development and implementation of radar experiments.


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Blagoveshchenskaya N (2017) First observations of electron gyro-harmonic effects under X-mode HF pumping the high latitude ionospheric F-region in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

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Blagoveshchenskaya N (2013) Plasma modifications induced by an X-mode HF heater wave in the high latitude F region of the ionosphere in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

Description Introduction

EISCAT is a very long-running project. The UK joined the EISCAT Scientific Association when it was first founded in 1975 and UK scientists have been running experiments ever since data-taking began in 1981. In that time, results have been reported regularly to the various UK funding agencies responsible for EISCAT (SRC, SERC, PPARC, CCLRC, STFC and now NERC). For the purposes of ResearchFish, we are reporting on the "Key Findings" by calendar year starting in 2012, the first year for which ResearchFish entries were requested.

For each year, we break the key findings feedback into two sections, namely "Research Results" which summarises the results of published papers from that year and "Campaigns, Meetings and Other Activities", which summarises the anciliary activities connected with the project. The "Research Results" section is, in turn, split into two sections (space weather and space plasma science), since these are the two main areas in which UK EISCAT scientists are active.Space weather is the term used to describe the natural variations in the Sun, the solar wind and the magnetic environment of the Earth, which can influence systems such as satellites and power distribution grids, as well as affecting space-dependent technologies such as communications, global positioning and precision timekeeping. Space plasma science describes the study of the fundamental processes which control the energetics and dynamics of the Earth's geospace environment, without necessarily having any specific technological impacts.

Because the input is ordered by UK financial year, the inputs for 2014 extend only up to the end of March.

2012: Key Findings: Space Weather Studies

Dorrian et al (2012) used EISCAT as a radio telescope to study variations in the solar wind as revealed by the scintillation of radio sources close to the solar limb. They characterised the flow direction of the fast solar wind at heliocentric distances from 24_to_85 solar radii, finding an equatorward deviation of 3_-_4o, in both the northern and southern solar hemispheres, at different times during the declining phase of Solar Cycle 23. Lockwood (Julius Bartels Medal Lecture at EGU, 2012) showed how high-resolution studies using the EISCAT radars were giving a new understanding of the way in which energy and momentum coupled from the solar wind into Earth's magnetosphere, opening the possibility that historic data could be used to infer the characteristics of the solar wind and the embedded magnetic field. As well as influencing cosmic ray fluxes and the solar wind, changes in solar magnetic fields influence total and ultraviolet solar electromagnetic emissions and the number and fluence of large solar energetic particle events. Lockwood (2012) showed that there was considerable agreement between reconstructions of the heliospheric field based on cosmogenic isotopes, on geomagnetic data, and on models based on sunspot observations. Using the cosmogenic isotope record it was possible to forecast the range of future solar variations, suggesting a considerable probability of the Sun returning to "Maunder minimum" conditions within the next 40-100 years.

Yeoman et al (2012) used the EISCAT HF Heater at Tromso was used to illuminate a region of the ionosphere which was structured by a naturally occurring ULF wave, with a period of about 100 seconds. Simultaneous measurements by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar revealed that the ULF wave displayed curved phase fronts, likely to be an indication of non-stationary poloidal waves, excited by an azimuthally-drifting proton cloud in the vicinity of the magnetospheric ring current. Turunen and Kavanagh (paper at EGU 2012) reported on data taken by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar in continuous observations during the International Polar Year (IPY). This period coincided with a prolonged solar minimum and was, on average, geophysically very quiet. The measurements showed repeated low-altitude ionisation enhancements caused by high-energy electron precipitation. The occurrence of these events was compared to variations in the solar wind, using a superposed epoch analysis, suggesting that they were directly driven by high-speed streams.

Zhang et al (paper at EGU, 2012) showed data from 11 February 2004, when a number of poleward-moving electron density enhancements were observed by the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, under southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. These observations were consistent with the interpretation that polar cap patch material was generated by photo-ionisation at sub-auroral latitudes, before being structured by bursts of magnetopause reconnection, giving it access to the polar cap. There was clear evidence that this structuring was dependent on the variability of the y-component in the solar wind magnetic field. Carlson et al (2012) revisited the question of how the polar neutral atmosphere responds to energy input from the geospace environment. Current models are unable to predict the large increases in density and satellite drag observed at altitudes of around 400km, but Carlson et al suggested some refinements to existing theories, supported by EISCAT data among others. On this basis, they made suggestions as to how models could be improved in order to more effectively predict the atmospheric response to transient energy sources.

McCrea and Aikio (paper at EGU, 2012) looked ahead to the space weather topics which could be addressed by EISCAT's next-generation mainland facility EISCAT_3D, currently in the planning phase. EISCAT_3D will comprise a multistatic distributed network of phased array radars, some of which will have transmission and reception capabilities, while others will be purely passive receivers. It will be capable of both large-scale (volumetric) and small scale (aperture synthesis) imaging, with the capacity for continuous observations and significantly improved sensitivity and flexibility compared to the present radar systems. A major focus of planning for the new radar is on the space weather capabilities of the EISCAT_3D system, and the presentation reviewed these areas, looking at the demands which they might place on the design and performance of the new radar, and its relationship to other instruments.

2012: Key Findings: Space Plasma Science

The aurora (also known as the Northern and Southern Lights) is probably the best-known manifestation of the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind. The aurora contains structures on a very wide range of spatial scales, from thousands of kilometres down to a few tens of metres. The small-scale structures in the aurora are in many ways the most interesting, since they exemplify the most interesting plasma processes and their origin is often difficult to explain. EISCAT measurements of the aurora are invariably carried out in conjunction with co-located optical systems, so that the constantly-changing shape and motion of the aurora can be compared with the plasma densities, temperatures and electric fields measured by the radar. Using radar and optical measurements made at Tromso, Dahlgren et al (2012) studied auroral filaments a few tens of metres across, showing that they were caused by a flux of high-energy monoenergetic electrons, embedded in a background of lower energy precipitation - an observation which, however, is difficult to explain by any current theory. Lanchester et al (2012) reviewed recent developments in modelling the aurora, using results from the EISCAT Svalbard Radar and the co-located ASK imager to illustrate the relationship between models and observations.

A major focus for current models is the need to explain the fast motions, small structures and rapid changes in energy input which can occur in the aurora, which can best be investigated by a combination of models with the detailed observations provided by radars and optical instruments. Tuttle et al (presentation at EGU 2012) showed how data from EISCAT and co-located imagers could be used as inputs for an ion-chemistry model, to infer the profiles of the different atmospheric species whose ionisation contributes to the aurora. A paper at the same meeting by Schlatter et al showed how the two dishes of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar could be used together with three smaller passive array antennas, to implement a technique known as radar aperture synthesis imaging. The science goal of this technique is the measurement of small-scale coherent scattering structures from so-called Naturally Enhanced Ion Acoustic Lines (NEIALs), which correspond to one of the least understood plasma processes in the aurora. Good calibration of the interferometer system is essential for a successful measurement, and Schlatter et al showed how this could be done, using radar and optical measurements of satellites overflying the Svalbard Radar.

A hugely significant plasma process is the tendency of the ionosphere to become structured into irregularities on a very wide range of scale sizes, from many kilometres to a few metres or less. In general, this structuring occurs whenever conditions become disturbed, and is a permanent feature of the high-latitude regions. Oksavik et al (2012) reported on radar and optical measurements made in support of the ICI-2 rocket mission (Investigation of Cusp Irregularities) on 5th December 2008. Data from the EISCAT Svalbard Radar and the SuperDARN Hankasalmi radar, in conjunction with data from instruments on the rocket, were used to measure F-region irregularities and to test various theories of their evolution. Except for the scale size regime from 4-6 km, the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism was found to be too slow to explain the observed irregularities. The suggestion was therefore made that many of the observed structures originated from particle precipitation, and were then broken down into smaller structures by the Gradient Drift mechanism. La Hoz et al (paper presented at the 2012 COSPAR meeting) reported results from an EISCAT experiment in July 2011, in which Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) were observed simultaneously in the zenith at four different radar frequencies (933, 224, 56 and 7.9 MHz). In addition, remote measurements of the PMSE layer were made by the EISCAT_3D demonstrator array at 224 MHz located in Kiruna, Sweden, which is 234 km away from the transmitting site. In contrast to previous predictions about the aspect angle dependence of PMSE layers, strong backscatter was observed by the demonstrator array, suggesting that the turbulent irregularities producing this backscatter had an unexpectedly high degree of isotropy, raising the question of what process controls the isotropy of irregularities in this wavelength regime.

The EISCAT Heating facility at Tromso is a powerful HF transmitter, used to conduct controlled plasma physics experiments, using the upper atmosphere as a natural laboratory. As its name implies, the heater can increase the temperature of the electrons and ions of the ionosphere, but it can also create plasma irregularities as well as driving processes which accelerate electrons and also those which can briefly modify the composition and chemistry of the underlying atmosphere. Bryers et al (2012) and Senior et al (2012) both reported on effects produced by the heater in the F-region ionosphere at different levels of transmitted power. Both studies found that the heating was most efficient at higher powers, with Bryers et al (2012) reporting an approximately linear increase in electron temperature with heater power. Two regimes were identified: in the low-power regime, less than half of the heater power goes into electron heating, with the remainder going into the production of irregularities or being absorbed in the D-region. In the higher-power regime, however, the heater power translates much more efficiently into electron heating.

Baddeley et al (2012) and Borisova et al (2012) used the EISCAT Svalbard Radar to study effects produced by the similar, but less powerful, SPEAR heater on Svalbard. Both studies showed evidence that ionospheric processes can convert the polarisation of the transmitted signal into other modes. Borisova et al (2012) observed irregularity formation, as well as electron density and temperature increases, when heating in X-mode, suggesting that some of the heater signal had been converted into O-mode. Baddeley et al (2012) found heater effects at the upper and lower edges of a sporadic E-layer, suggesting the presence of Z-mode propagation.

2012: Key Findings: Campaigns. Meetings and Other Activities

During 2012, UK scientists carried out 8 experiment campaigns at the EISCAT radars. Of these campaigns, two involved the use of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar only, four involved the use of the mainland facilities only, and two involved the combined use of both the mainland and Svalbard radars. One of these campaigns consisted of passive-mode observations, mainly studies of the solar wind by interplanetary scintillation, while the remaining nine comprised active experiments using the radar transmitters. In 2012, the UK's allocation of Special Programme observing hours was 95 hours on the mainland systems and 67 hours on the Svalbard radar. The actual usage was 93 hours on the mainland radars and 47 hours on the Svalbard radar. The shortfall on UK ESR experiments is explained by a number of technical problems, which prevented certain experiments from being run as scheduled.

Two UK EISCAT time allocation rounds took place during 2012. In total, six experiment proposals were received from three different UK user groups. Between them, these proposals requested a total of 206.5 hours of radar time (144 mainland hours and 62.5 ESR hours) of which the time allocation panel awarded 174.5 hours (122 mainland hours and 52.5 ESR hours).

The UK EISCAT community continued actively to support the committees of EISCAT through its members of the EISCAT Council (Michael Schultz and Ian McCrea) and the Science Oversight Committee (Mike Kosch). The UK also provided members for the Executive Board (Ian McCrea) and General Assembly (Richard Harrison) of the EISCAT_3D project, funded by the European Union as part of the Seventh Framework Programme, which was developing the case for a new generation of EISCAT facilities on the Scandinavian mainland.

2013: Key Findings: Space Weather Studies

The primary sources of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) affecting altitudes below 100 km (>30 keV) are expected to be from the radiation belts. During substorms, EEP from the radiation belts should be restricted to locations between L = 1.5 and 8, while substorm-produced EEP is expected to range from L = 4 to 9.5 during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Therefore, one would not expect any significant D region impact due to electron precipitation at geomagnetic latitudes beyond about L = 10. However, Cresswell-Moorcock et al (2013) reported on large unexpectedly high-latitude D region ionization enhancements, detected by EISCAT at L ˜ 16, which appeared to be caused by electron precipitation from substorms. They went on to reexamine the latitudinal limits of substorm-produced EEP using data from multiple low-Earth orbiting spacecraft, and demonstrated that the precipitation can stretch many hundreds of kilometers poleward of the previously suggested limits, though, there seems to be significant variability from event to event. On average, large substorms, of the kind which might cause problems for spacecraft occur approximately one to six times per year, a significant rate, given their potential technological impact.

Coupling between the ionized and neutral atmosphere through particle collisions allows an indirect study of the neutral atmosphere through measurements of ionospheric plasma parameters. Vickers et al (2013) used the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) to estimate the neutral density of the upper thermosphere above ~250 km, based on the year-long operations of the International Polar Year from March 2007 to February 2008. Their technique was restricted to quiet geomagnetic periods, which applied to most of the International Polar Year which fell during the recent very quiet solar minimum. Differences between Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter and ESR estimates were found to vary with altitude, season, and magnetic disturbance, with the largest discrepancies during the winter months. A total of 9 out of 10 in situ passes by the CHAMP satellite above Svalbard at 350 km altitude agreed with the ESR neutral density estimates to within the error bars of the measurements during quiet geomagnetic periods.

Wu et al (2013) investigated variations of the high-latitude ionosphere during the main phase of a magnetic storm on 14-15 December 2006, to characterize the effects of high energy particle precipitation. Their data included electron density measurements provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) total electron content (TEC) measurements, the EISCAT radar, radio occultation (RO) from both the CHAMP and COSMIC satellites, as well as the ionospheric absorption of cosmic radio noise measured by the IRIS riometer in northern Finland. Significant increases in the electron density were found during the main phase of the magnetic storm, occurring over Scandinavian the Northwest part of Russia and Svalbard, primarily at an altitude of about 110 km. The observations also provided direct evidence that the stormtime E-layer electron density enhancement (e.g., the sporadic E) can come close to providing the dominant portion of the observed TEC increase. This is interpreted as the effect of the high energy electron precipitation during the magnetic storm, with electron energies reaching about 10 keV while the boundary of the high energy electron precipitation was also found to move poleward with a speed of about 800 m/s.

Birch et al (2013) determined the properties and behaviour of fine structured auroral radio absorption in the morning sector using EISCAT measurements to provide estimates of the energy spectrum of the incoming electrons. They illustrated that the observed motion of the absorption was not consistent with the gradient-curvature drift associated with the observed energies, rather the motion was in line with F-region drifts determined from coherent scatter radars suggesting that the cause of the precipitation lies in moving structures within the magnetosphere.

Forte et al (2013) compared Total Electron Content estimates from EISCAT and GPS measurements using EISCAT data from along the same line of sight of a given GPS satellite observed from Tromsø. They compared the temporal fluctuations in the TEC between the two techniques, which indicated a contribution from structures at E and F region altitudes. The authors attributed this to the presence of ionisation enhancements possible caused by particle precipitation and suggested that EISCAT-3D will gave great potential for resolving questions over the cause of TEC variability for Space Weather applications.

2013: Key Findings: Space Plasma Science

Senior et al (2013) investigated recently reported large electron density enhancements measured during high power radio wave injection experiments at EISCAT. The apparent enhancements extend over a wide altitude range, including the topside ionosphere. The authors present observational evidence that the apparent density enhancements seem to exhibit aspect-sensitive back-scattering and are not associated with corresponding changes in the frequency of the incoherent scatter plasma line. From this they conclude that the enhancement in the power in the ion-line is not actually a result of an enhancement in the plasma density but is rather due to some other mechanism that preferentially scatters the radar wave back along the magnetic field line. The authors make it clear that they cannot yet describe a physical mechanism to explain this.

Blagoveschchenskaya et al (2013) presented experimental results of strong plasma modifications induced by X-mode powerful HF radio waves injected into the high latitude F region of the ionosphere. The experiments were conducted in 2009-2011 using the EISCAT Heating facility, UHF incoherent scatter radar and the EISCAT ionosonde at Tromsø, Norway; and the CUTLASS SuperDARN HF coherent radar at Hankasalmi, Finland. The results showed that the X-mode pump wave could apparently generate strong small-scale artificial field aligned irregularities (AFAIs), with spatial scales across the geomagnetic field of the order of 9-15 m. These were excited when the heater frequency (fH) was above the ordinary-mode critical frequency (foF2) by 0.1-1.2 MHz. It was found that the X-mode AFAIs appeared between 10 s and 4 min after the heater was turned on. Their decay time varied over a wide range between 3 min and 30 min. The excitation of X-mode AFAIs was accompanied by electron temperature (Te) enhancements and an increase in the electron density (Ne) depending on the effective radiated power (ERP). Strong density enhancements were observed only in the magnetic field-aligned direction, over a wide altitude range up to the upper limit of the UHF radar measurements. The maximum value of electron density was about 50 km higher than the Te enhancement peak. Such electron density enhancements cannot be explained by temperature-dependent reaction rates and were attributed to production by accelerated electrons.

The EISCAT Svalbard Radar has two parabolic dishes. In order to attempt to implement radar aperture synthesis imaging methods three smaller, passive receive array antennas have been built using funding from the UK and Norway. The primary science goal for this new capability is to study the so-called naturally enhanced ion acoustic lines. In order to compare radar aperture synthesis imaging results with measurements from optical imagers, calibration of the radar interferometer system is necessary. Schlatter et al (2013) presented the phase calibration of the EISCAT Svalbard interferometer, including one array antenna. The calibration was done using coherent scatter from satellites passing through the radar beam, with optical signatures of the satellite transits providing an accurate position for the satellites. Using transits of a number of satellites sufficient for mapping the radar beam, the interferometric cross-phase was fitted within the radar beam. Their calibration technique will in future be applied to all antenna pairs of the antenna configuration for future interferometry studies.

2013: Key Findings: Campaigns. Meetings and Other Activities

UK usage of EISCAT in 2013 was 96 hours on the mainland radars and 74 hours on the ESR, compared to targets of 91 hours and 45 hours respectively. The mainland usage was therefore roughly on target, though the ESR time was over-used, in part due to demand accumulated in 2012 when the ESR was underused due to serious technical problems with the 32m ESR dish. The radar operations were consolidated into six campaigns, of which two used the ESR only, while the remainder used both the ESR and mainland radars. All campaigns included active measurements (using the radar transmitter) though one included passive observations aimed at determining the velocity of the solar wind via the interplanetary scintillation technique. Nine new applications for UK EISCAT observing time were made in 2013, originating from seven different research groups. In total, these applications collectively requested 168 hours of mainland time and 158 hours of EISCAT Svalbard Radar time, of which the panel awarded 100 hours of mainland time and 70 hours of ESR time.

The termination of the NERC "Services and Facilities" line meant that responsibility for EISCAT will transferred to the NERC centres. NCAS (the National Centre for Atmospheric Science) took over responsibility for EISCAT on October 1st. The UK EISCAT support activity is a joint endeavour with the British Antarctic Survey, hence the EISCAT project is in reality jointly administered by NERC and BAS.Dr. Micheal Schultz retired in 2013 and was succeeded as a UK EISCAT Council member by Dr. Mervyn Freeman (British Antarctic Survey). The UK member of the Science Oversight Committee (Prof. Mike Kosch) moved to a new post in South Africa and his role as UK SOC member was taken over by Dr. Andrew Kavanagh (British Antarctic Survey) who is also a half-time member of the UK EISCAT Support Group. In addition the UK hosted the 2013 International EISCAT Symposium (at the University of Lancaster from August 12-15 2013) and also hosted the EISCAT Council meeting at its autumn 2013 (October 30-31 , University of Leeds)

2014: Key Findings: Space Weather Studies

Cai et al (2014) investigated intervals of EISCAT data dominated by enhanced E-region density, during the interval 2009-2011. It was found that such density profiles were observed more often in winter and earlier spring than for other seasons, especially in the auroral zone. Their occurrence peaked around geomagnetic midnight at auroral latitudes, while it reached a maximum around geomagnetic local noon at the latitude of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. There was a notable discrepancy between the typical durations of E-region dominated events observed at the two EISCAT sites, being 30 minutes on average at Tromsø but only about half of this at Svalbard. Case studies confirmed that either enhanced E layer ionization or F layer density depletion could cause density profiles of this type to appear, with both processes capable of playing a prominent role in their formation.

Kero et al (2014) presented the first implementation of the so-called spectral riometer technique for the estimation of an ionospheric electron density profile. In contrast to a traditional riometer, operating at a single frequency, their experiment monitored the cosmic radio noise at 244 frequencies, ranging between 10 and 80 MHz, using the new KAIRA radio telescope. The received power at each time and frequency was compared to the corresponding quiet-day value, resulting in a cosmic radio noise absorption spectrum as a measurement of ionization in the ionosphere. The observed absorption spectrum was then used to invert the corresponding electron density profile by applying a simple parameterized electron precipitation model. By comparing the inverted electron density profiles to data from a simultaneous and nearly colocated EISCAT measurement on 13-14 November 2012, they showed that the spectral riometry approach was capable of producing realistic electron density profiles under conditions of substorm-related electron precipitation.

Pellinen-Wannberg et al (2014) reported intensive E region ionization extending up to 140 km altitude and lasting for several hours during the 2002 Leonids meteor shower maximum. The level of global geomagnetic disturbance as well as the local geomagnetic and auroral activity in northern Scandinavia were low during the event, hence the ionization could be explained by intensive precipitation. The layer was 30-40 km thick, so could not be classified as a sporadic E layer, (typically just a few kilometers wide). Incoherent scatter radars had not previously reported any notable meteor shower-related increases in the average background ionization; however, the 2002 Leonids storm flux was so high that it might have been able to induce such an event. A Chemical Ablation Model was used to estimate deposition rates of individual meteors, and the resulting electron production, arising from hyperthermal collisions of ablated atoms with atmospheric molecules, was related to the predicted Leonid flux values and observed ionization on 19 November 2002. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR), located at some 1000 km north of the UHF site, did not observe any excess ionization during the same period. The high-latitude electrodynamic conditions recorded by the SuperDARN radar network showed that the ESR was within a strongly drifting convection cell continuously fed by fresh plasma while the UHF radar was outside the polar convection region, hence helping to maintain the ionization.

Vickers et al (2014) exploited a new technique, based on ion-neutral coupling, which allowed estimations of the upper thermospheric neutral density to be derived from measurements of ionospheric plasma parameters by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. The technique was applied to a 13 year data set for the purpose of studying and quantifying the effect of solar activity on the upper thermospheric density inside the polar cap. The study focused on the effect of solar activity at 350 km altitude and found a strong linear correlation between the ESR estimates for the atomic oxygen density and the solar irradiance proxy F10.7 index. This relationship was used to isolate variations in the thermospheric density that were present after solar activity influences were removed. The results showed an apparent decrease in the thermospheric density of a few percent over the 13 year period, smaller than the uncertainty associated with the decline. The authors anticipated that the statistical significance of their result would increase by studying a longer data set. Conjunctions with the CHAMP satellite that show very good agreement between the radar and satellite density measurements was achieved at 350 km especially during low solar activity.

2014: Key Findings: Space Plasma Science

Blagoveschchenskaya et al (2014) presented results from experiments where an X-polarized HF pump wave at high heater frequencies (fH > 6.0 MHz) was injected into the ionospheric F region toward the magnetic zenith. HF pumping was conducted at different heater frequencies, away from electron gyro-harmonic frequencies, and with different durations of heater pulse. They found the first experimental evidence of artificial optical emissions at red (630 nm) and green (557.7 nm) lines induced by an X-polarized HF pump wave. Intensities at red and green lines varied in the range 110-950 R and 50-350 R, respectively, with a ratio of green to red line of 0.35-0.5. The optical observations were compared with the behaviour of the HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines from EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar data and small-scale field-aligned artificial irregularities from CUTLASS observations. It was found that X-mode optical emissions coexisted with enhanced ion and plasma lines and strong artificial field-aligned irregularities throughout the whole heater pulse. This indicated that parametric decay or oscillating two-stream instabilities were not quenched by small-scale field-aligned artificial irregularities excited by the HF pump wave.

Borisova et al (2014) reported the results of stimulating the F-region by high-power HF O-mode radio waves towards the magnetic zenith, when the ratio of the heater frequency to the critical frequency of the F2 layer was near the fourth electron gyroharmonic. Based on observations of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE), the behaviors of different parameters of the ionospheric plasma and small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities were compared and analyzed. The thermal (resonance) parametric instability (TPI) and the parametric decay (striation) instability (PDI) were found to coexist in the vicinity of the fourth gyroresonance harmonic.

Tuttle et al (2014) presented a new method for estimating the spatial and temporal evolution of the auroral electron energy spectrum at sub-kilometer and sub-second scales, using optical and incoherent scatter radar data. This method was applied to an event from 12 December 2006 when a thin auroral arc that exhibited sub-kilometer structuring was observed. The energy spectrum and resultant emission rates were estimated for a 10 s period when the arc was in the field of view of the optical instrumentation. Modeled images of the observed aurora were produced using the estimated emission rates and compared with the optical observations of the aurora. It was found that the modeled images reproduced the structure and dynamics of the observed aurora to within the uncertainties of the models used. A brightness underestimate of about 30% could be explained as arising from the underestimate of the energy flux in the EISCAT measurements.

Kosch et al (2014a) developed a technique to estimate the steady state, field-aligned anomalous electric field in the topside ionosphere. If the ionosphere is pumped with high-power high-frequency radio waves, the F region electron temperature is raised, increasing the plasma pressure gradient in the topside ionosphere. This results in ion upflow along the magnetic field line. The electric field is estimated from a modified ion momentum equation and the MSIS model

Kosch et al (2014b) used the EISCAT HF heater to investigate the aspect angle sensitivity of pump-induced artificial optical emissions, as a function of the pump beam launch angle relative to the magnetic field line direction. The highest intensity optical emissions occurred when the pump beam pointing direction was in the magnetic zenith (approximately 12° S of local zenith). For pump beam directions further north from field-aligned, the optical emission intensity decreased for the same pump power. In addition, the primary photon-emitting region became displaced towards the magnetic zenith relative to the pump beam and for larger aspect angles, the brightest emissions were found to be outside the -3-dB pump beam width. The Cooperative UK Twin-Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS) coherent scatter high-frequency (HF) radar detected a quasi-constant level of backscatter power from the pumped ionosphere, indicating that saturated striations were formed for all pump beam directions. This indicated that the presence of upper-hybrid resonance was not sufficient to explain the angular sensitivity of the optical emissions.

Senior et al (2014) presented the first high-frequency (HF, 8 MHz) observations of the modulation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) by artificial radio heating of the ionosphere. They compared them to observations at 224 MHz and model predictions showing that model results are in qualitative and partial quantitative agreement with the observations, supporting the prediction that with certain ranges of ice particle radii and concentration, PMSE at HF radar wavelengths can be enhanced by heating due to the dominance of dust charging over plasma diffusion.

2014: Key Findings: Campaigns. Meetings and Other Activities

UK usage of EISCAT in 2014 was 115 hours on the mainland radars and 46 hours on the ESR, compared to targets of 133 hours and 49 hours respectively. The radar operations comprised five active radar campaigns and one period of passive observations of radio sources for studies of solar wind propagation. Of the active campaigns, one used the ESR only, two used the EISCAT mainland systems only and two used both the ESR and mainland radars. Ten new applications for UK EISCAT observing time were made in 2014, originating from five different research groups. In total, these applications collectively requested 209 hours of mainland time and 67 hours of EISCAT Svalbard Radar time, of which the panel awarded 136 hours of mainland time and 52 hours of ESR time. Under a reciprocal arrangement made with Environment Canada, the UK EISCAT time allocation process for the first time offered the possibility to request time on the new Canadian incoherent scatter radar at Resolute Bay. Twelve hours of such time was requested, of which eight were awarded. The four-year Preparatory phase study into the development of the EISCAT_3D radar was concluded successfully in 2014, and applications were made for a follow-on study, called "EISCAT_3D: Preparation for production" to be funded under the auspices of the European Union's Horizon 2020 programme.

2015: Key Findings: Space Weather Studies

McCrea et al (2015) presented the science case for EISCAT 3D, a next generation phased array using advanced software and data processing techniques. The new radar facility will enable the EISCAT_3D science community to address new, significant science questions as well as to serve society, which is increasingly dependent on space-based technology and issues related to space weather. The location of the radar within the auroral oval and at the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex is also ideal for studies of the long-term variability in the atmosphere and global change.

McKay-Bukowski et al (2015) published details of the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) system and some of its first results. KAIRA is a dual array of omnidirectional VHF radio antennas located near Kilpisja¨rvi, Finland; operated by Sodankyla¨ Geophysical Observatory. It makes extensive use of the proven LOFAR antenna and digital signal-processing hardware, and can act as a stand-alone passive receiver, as a receiver for the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) very high frequency (VHF) incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø, or for use in conjunction with other Fenno-Scandinavian VHF experiments. The authors demonstrate the applicability of the radio astronomy technology to geoscience applications and present a selection of results from the commissioning phase of the system.

Zhang et al (2015) tracked the formation and evolution of polar cap ionization patches in the polar ionosphere, directly observing the full Dungey convection cycle for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, enabling them to study how the Dungey cycle influences patch evolution. The patches were initially segmented from the dayside storm enhanced density plume at the equatorward edge of the cusp. Convection then led to the patches entering the polar cap and being transported anti-sunward. Changes in convection over time led the patches to follow a range of trajectories, each of which differed somewhat from classical twin-cell convection streamlines. Pulsed nightside reconnection modulated the exit of the patches from the polar cap, after which the patches broke up into a number of plasma blobs and returned sunward in the auroral return flow of the dawn and/or dusk convection cell. The full circulation time was about three hours.

2015: Key Findings: Space Plasma Science

Blagoveschchenskaya et al (2015) presented experimental results from pumping the ionospheric F-region with an extraordinary (X-mode) HF pump wave at high heater frequencies (fH=6.2-8.0 MHz). The experiments used a range of heater frequencies, providing a comparison of X-mode HF-induced phenomena excited under different ratios of fH/foF2 and an estimation of the frequency range above foF2 for which such X-mode phenomena are still possible. HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines were shown to be excited above foF2 when the HF pump frequency was between the foF2 and fxF2, foF2=fH=fxF2, whereas small-scale field-aligned irregularities continued to be generated even when fH exceeded fxF2 by up to 1 MHz. The magnetic zenith effect (HF beam/radar angle direction) was found to be typical for X-mode phenomena under fH/foF2 >1 as well as fH/foF2 =1, and it was shown for the first time that an X-mode HF pump wave is able to generate strong narrowband spectral components in the SEE spectra (within 1 kHz of pump frequency) in the ionosphere F region, which were recorded at distance of 1200 km from the HF heating facility. The observed spectral lines were associated with the ion acoustic, electrostatic ion cyclotron, and electrostatic ion cyclotron harmonic waves (otherwise known as neutralized ion Bernstein waves). The comparison between the O- and X-mode SEE spectra recorded at distance far from HF heating facility clearly demonstrated that variety of the narrowband spectral structures were only observed under X-mode HF pumping.

Fu et al (2015) also presented observations of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification. They reported the first EISCAT results of narrowband SEE spectra and compared them to SEE previously observed at HAARP during electron gyro-harmonic heating. An analysis of experimental SEE data showed emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency, interpreted as Stimulated Brillouin Scattering, which strengthened as the pump frequency approached the third electron gyro-harmonic. Also, for different heater antenna beam angles, the CUTLASS radar backscatter induced by HF radio pumping was suppressed near electron gyro-harmonics, whereas electron temperature enhancement weakened as measured by EISCAT/UHF radar. The main features of these new narrowband EISCAT observations were generally consistent with previous SBS measurements at HAARP.

Havnes et al (2015) compared radar observations of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) modulated by artificial electron heating, at frequencies of 224 MHz (EISCAT VHF) and 56 MHz (MORRO). Statistically there was a clear difference between how the MORRO and the VHF radar backscatter reacted to heater cycling (48 s heater on and 168 s heater off). While MORRO often showed an increased backscatter level when the heater was switched on, the VHF radar nearly always saw a "normal" VHF overshoot behaviour with an initial rapid reduction of backscatter. In some heater cycles, however, a substantial recovery of the VHF backscatter was seen, reaching levels several times above that just before the heater was switched on. For the MORRO radar a recovery during the heater-on phase was much more common. The reaction when the heater was switched off was a clear overshoot for nearly all VHF cases but less so for MORRO. These variations can be well described by present models. On the other hand, the backscatter in low layers at 81-82 km was shown to be quite different, with modest or no reduction in backscatter as the heater was switched on, followed by a strong recovery to levels several times above that of the undisturbed PMSEs. This simultaneous, nearly identical behaviour at the two very different radar frequencies is not well described by present modelling.

Dahlgren et al (2015) reported measurements of high-resolution multi-monochromatic auroral emissions. These revealed the first optical evidence of coexisting small-scale auroral features resulting from separate high- and low-energy populations of precipitating electrons on the same field line. They were able to determine estimates of the average energy and the energy flux of the precipitation. The high-energy precipitation formed large pulsating patches of 0.1 Hz with a 3 Hz modulation, and non-pulsating coexisting discrete auroral filaments. The low-energy precipitation was observed simultaneously on the same field line as discrete filaments with no pulsation. The simultaneous structures do not interact, and drift with different speeds in different directions. The authors suggested that the populations are accelerated by separate mechanisms, possibly with the small scale structures generated by local instabilities above the ionosphere.

Miyoshi et al (2015) looked at pulsating auroras showing quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that these electrons and sub-relativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere, owing to whistler mode wave-particle interactions. Electron density enhancements suggested precipitation of electrons with a broadband energy range from ~10 keV up to at least 200 keV, while non-radar techniques showed energetic electron precipitations during the same period. The Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Tromsø during this period, and observed rising tone emissions of lower band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Computer simulation of the wave-particle interactions showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV, consistent with the energy spectrum estimated from the EISCAT observations. This result provides new evidence that pulsating aurora are caused by whistler chorus waves, with scattering by propagating whistlers simultaneously causing both the precipitation of sub-relativistic electrons and the pulsating aurora.

Schlatter et al (2015) presented measurements of naturally enhanced ion acoustic line (NEIAL) echoes obtained with a five-antenna interferometric imaging radar system. installed in close proximity to the EISCAT radar on Svalbard. Based on the coherence estimates derived from measurements on four baselines, they showed unambiguously for the first time that the enhanced backscattering region was of very limited extent in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. The size of the enhanced backscatter region was determined to be less than 900 × 500 m, and at times less than 160 m in the direction of the longest antenna separation, assuming the scattering region to have a Gaussian scattering cross section. Volumetric images of the NEIAL echo were obtained, showing the enhanced backscattering region to be aligned with the geomagnetic field. Although optical auroral emissions were observed outside the radar look direction, the observations were consistent with NEIAL echoes occurring on field lines with particle precipitation.

2015: Key Findings: Campaigns. Meetings and Other Activities

UK usage of EISCAT in 2015 was 99 hours on the mainland radars and 66 hours on the ESR, compared to targets of 133 hours and 49 hours respectively. The radar operations comprised four major radar campaigns, together with some shorter experiments, coinciding with overpasses of the Cluster satellites, spread throughout the year . Of the four campaigns, three used both the ESR and mainland radars and one used the EISCAT mainland systems only. The observations in support of the Cluster mission used both the ESR and mainland radars. Six new applications for UK EISCAT observing time were made in 2015, originating from five different research groups. In total, these applications collectively requested 61 hours of mainland time and 57 hours of EISCAT Svalbard Radar time, of which the panel awarded 58 hours of mainland time and 52 hours of ESR time. The UK took over the rotating chair of the EISCAT Council for a two-year period from the start of 2015, with Dr. McCrea acting as chairperson.
Yamazaki et al. (2016) determined the ion temperature climatology for the ESR and the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar for the year-long IPY campaign (March 2007 to February 2008). They compared the observations against the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM), and the International Reference Ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) finding good agreement with the former. Daily variations in the high-latitude ion temperature were attributed to ion frictional heating and at the ESR a strong daytime response was interpreted as a result of cusp heating. The authors found that neither model reproduced the strong temperature response to geomagnetic activity above the ESR.
Martin et al. (2016) presented a method of using multifrequency riometer data from the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) instrument to estimate D region height profiles using a nested sampling technique. Their IONONEST technique allowed them to find the posterior probability distribution of parameters that describes an electron density height profile by comparing measured or simulated absorption data to absorption data calculated from a parameterized electron density height profile model. The returned electron density height profiles were compared to data from the EISCAT VHF radar demonstrating that the technique is capable of returning realistic values. They considered two D region models for electron density profiles and found that a polynomial model created more realistic profiles than a two parameter model.
UK usage of EISCAT in 2016 was 99 hours on the mainland radars and 50 hours on the ESR, compared to targets of 100 hours and 54 hours respectively. The radar operations comprised three major radar campaigns (March, October and December), together with some shorter experiments to support satellite overpasses, spread throughout the year . Of the three campaigns, two used both the ESR and mainland radars and one used the EISCAT mainland systems only. The satellite observations used both the ESR and mainland radars. Four new applications for UK EISCAT observing time were made in 2016, each originating from a different research group. In total, these applications requested 34 hours of mainland time and 36 hours of EISCAT Svalbard Radar time, which the panel awarded in full. Two hours of time on the Canadian RISR-C facility were also requested under the auspices of NERC's Memorandum of Understanding with Environment Canada, and these were also awarded. At the end of 2016, Dr. McCrea handed over the role of chairperson of the EISCAT Council to Prof. Hiroshi Miyaoka from the National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Japan

Dahlgren et al (2017) used high-resolution multispectral optical and incoherent scatter radar data to study the variability of pulsating aurora. They studied two events and combined the data with electron transport and ion chemistry modelling to provide estimates of the energy and energy flux during the bright and dark periods of the pulsations. Results indicated a reduction in the number flux of higher energy electrons during the dark periods and the energies never drop below a few keV. The authors identified a slow decrease in the background diffuse emission with a brightness minimum just before the start of a bright period for a series of pulsations. Since the dips in the emission during dark periods are dependent on the switching between light and dark this could indicate a common mechanism for precipitation during both phases. The transition between bright and dark was also studied in a statistical sense, which revealed that pulsations are often asymmetric with either a slower increase of brightness or a slower fall.
Forte et al (2017) used EISCAT in conjunction with a GPS link to determine the contribution of auroral ionization structures to GPS scintillation. EISCAT measurements were made along the same line of sight of a GPS satellite observed from Tromsø and followed by means of the EISCAT UHF radar to causally identify plasma structures that give rise to scintillation on the co-aligned GPS radio link. Large-scale structures associated with the poleward edge of the ionospheric trough, with auroral arcs in the nightside auroral oval and with particle precipitation at the onset of a substorm were indeed identified as responsible for enhanced phase scintillation at L band. For the first time it was observed that the observed large-scale structures did not cascade into smaller-scale structures, leading to enhanced phase scintillation without amplitude scintillation. New insights from this experiment allow a better characterization of the impact that space weather can have on satellite telecommunications and navigation services. This paper has already been downloaded over 1000 times since publication.
UK usage of EISCAT in 2017 was 60 hours on the mainland radars and 33 hours on the ESR, compared to targets of 103 hours and 49 hours respectively. The radar operations comprised four major radar campaigns (January, February, March and December), together with some shorter experiments, coinciding with overpasses of the Cluster satellites, spread throughout the year . In addition the UK donated some time to a multi-national attempt to investigate the physics of the mesosphere through the creation of Artificial Periodic Irregularities, which occurred in July 2017. Of the four main campaigns, three used both the ESR and mainland radars and one used the EISCAT mainland systems only. The observations in support of the Cluster mission used both the ESR and mainland radars. Seven new applications for UK EISCAT observing time were made in 2017, originating from five different research groups. In total, these applications collectively requested 115 hours of mainland time and 89 hours of EISCAT Svalbard Radar time, of which the panel awarded all 115 hours of mainland time and 29 hours of ESR time. The applicants of one of the ESR applications were asked to resubmit with a more detailed case, while consideration of another was deferred while it was established whether the experiment was feasible within EISCAT's technical and operational limitations.
Exploitation Route At the present time, with NERC's space weather strategy still in the planning phase, the direct use of EISCAT research in a commercial context is unlikely. It should be noted that EISCAT is not a UK facility but an international scientific organisation which, under its governing statutes, is precluded from participating in business or military projects. Hence the potential for directly commercialising EISCAT science is inherently limited, though there is some scope for EISCAT to act as a data supplier to other organisations providing an operational service, as has already happened with the provision of space debris monitoring data to ESA for its Space Situational Awareness programme.

The topics of solar-terrestrial physics and space weather are inspiring to the general public, and always attract a high level of media interest. During 2012, an edition of the BBC "Horizon" series was partly filmed at EISCAT's Tromso site and an edition of the BBC "Sky at Night" series was filmed at the Svalbard Radar. An edition of the BBC programme "Stargazing Live" was broadcast live from EISCAT's Tromso iste in January 2014. A set of photographs of the EISCAT facilities, taken at the EISCAT Tromso site, also appeared as a feature article in "Eureka", the science supplement of "The Times".
The research carried out by the UK EISCAT community is not intended to be directly usable for any operational or commercial purposes. Instead it should be regarded as underpinning science, aimed at increasing our understanding of the Earth's geospace environment and providing the knowledge necessary to drive improvements in its modelling and prediction. In some areas, the relationship between EISCAT research and model development is very direct - an example is the paper by Carlson et al (2012) which offers direct advice to modellers about the potential for improvements in the modelling of the high-latitude thermosphere. In other areas, such as investigations of the plasma physics of irregularity formation, the link to models may be less direct but the results are still important to securing an adequate overall understanding.

Over the past year or more, there has been a very strong push by NERC to develop both UK cross-council collaborations, and international agency collaborations, on space weather research. One member of the UK EISCAT support group (Ian McCrea) has been closely involved in this initiative, including assisting in the preparation of the new UK Space Weather Strategy document and discussing potential areas of future collaborations with US agencies such as NSF, NOAA and NASA. It is hoped that EISCAT-related research will play a strong role in the international research collaborations which will emerge from the ongoing NERC discussions on space weather.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Environment,Other

Description EISCAT is primarily a facility for discovery science; hence the overwhelming majority of the data use has been scientific (i.e. for research papers, theses and conference presentations). EISCAT's statutes do not allow the use of its data for commercial or defence applications; however use of EISCAT results in for unclassified work in the public/policy sector is allowed and there have been some instances of this. As an example, EISCAT has been used by the European Space Agency as a data provider for the "Space Surveillance and Tracking" element of its Space Situational Awareness programme. The experiments which EISCAT performed were primarily concerned to establish the suitability of the radars to perform space debris observations, including object tracking, and to assess the scope for the radars to be used in this way during later phases of the programme. This is obviously subject to the requirements that this work should not be commercial or military and an EISCAT expert group has been appointed to draw up guidelines to ensure that policy will not be breached by any activities which ESA may request. EISCAT is also attempting to secure a greater involvement in the space weather element of the SSA programme, e.g. via the use of its publicly available data for activities such as nowcasting and model validation, but this discussion is still at a comparatively early stage. Prior to the SSA programme, EISCAT archive data have been used in the development of ionospheric models, including the MSIS model, which was heavily based on worldwide incoherent scatter data. Long-term EISCAT data are frequently used for comparisons, aiming at the improvement of these modelling capabilities.
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Environment,Other
Impact Types Cultural

Description NERC Capital Bid (two HF heater transmitter tubes)
Amount £28,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 03/2018
Description NERC Capital Funding (UK Investment in EISCAT_3D)
Amount £50,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 03/2019
Title UK EISCAT Database 
Description Full copy of all EISCAT data obtained since 1981, specifically an exact copy of EISCAT's master archive in Kiruna. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This is the database which enables all of our EISCAT research - i.e. it leads to all of the publications declared in this submission. 
Description EISCAT_3D Preparatory Phase (EU FP7) 
Organisation EISCAT
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of the science case for the EISCAT_3D radar and some activity in the management of the EISCAT_3D Preparatory Phase project.
Collaborator Contribution Design work on new radar, prototyping of system elements, identification of sites, discussion of legal issues, development of software, consortium building, preparation of a funding plan, outreach to various stakeholders.
Impact A large number of project deliverables, listed by work package at Our group was involved in Work Packages 1 and 3.
Start Year 2010
Description BBC Radio 4 Thin Air 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Radio interviews at the EISCAT site, sparked further coverage on another station.

Request for interview by another radio station.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
Description BBC Stargazing Live: January 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Live interview at the EISCAT sites and talk about the aurora. Sparked a considerable number of appreciative comments.

Interest in further opportunities (e.g. for 2015 solar eclipse)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
Description BBC World Service Science in Action 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview about future EISCAT facilities - complementary to the "Thin Air" interview.

Interest in using EISCAT for other media activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
Description Invited Talk (Royal Astronomical Society) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact As a result of the EISCAT UK project winning the RAS Group Achievement Award for 2016, I was invited to give a lecture at the February 2017 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society in London, The audience was of order 100-200, including high-profile professional astronomers as well as some journalists and members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
Description Project development report (UK National Astronomy Meeting 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to update the UK Solar-Terrestrial Physics community about recent progress in the planning and construction of the EISCAT_3D facility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
Description Research seminar (Strathclyde University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar and visit to Strathclyde University, as part of a new research collaboration on Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
Description Review of future research contexts for the EISCAT_3D facility at the EISCAT International Symposium 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation entitled "What will the future landscape look like (for EISCAT_3D and related facilities) given at the EISCAT International Symposium, National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Japan to an international audience of the global radar and upper atmospheric science community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
Description Sky at Night The Sun King 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Programme led to discussion about further media opportunities.

Increased interest from BBC in EISCAT, space weather and related issues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
Description URSI Incoherent Scatter Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Annual meeting of the URSI Incoherent Scatter Working Group at the 2017 CEDAR meeting. Andrew Kavanagh is co-chair of this international working group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017