None in Three(Ni3) - A Centre for the Development, Application, Research and Evaluation of Prosocial Games for the Prevention of Gender-based Violence

Lead Research Organisation: University of Huddersfield
Department Name: Sch of Human and Health Sciences

Abstract

VISION - To create a global research centre dedicated to research and serious gaming interventions designed to prioritise the rights of girls and women to live a life free from violence and to prevent violence against those most vulnerable (UN Sustainable Development Goal no. 5; UK Aid Strategy obj.4). The inter-disciplinary, cross-cultural, trans-continental research and partnership platform we will establish will result in a cadre of social scientists and game developers from four ODA-listed countries and the UK, skilled in the development of frontier technologies, advanced research methodologies and policy formulation focused on changing the social and cultural drivers of gender-based violence. This will be known as The DARE Centre: the Centre for the Development, Application, Research and Evaluation of Prosocial Games for the Prevention of Gender-based Violence.

International women rights agreements and domestic laws on gender-based violence (GBV) constitute an important step towards its prevention and elimination. However, there is an implementation gap between policy directives and what happens on the ground and unless people understand why regulations should be observed, they can be ineffective. Furthermore policy-led approaches do little to address the underlying cultural attitudes and values that drive GBV. Therefore, key to reducing violence against women and girls are innovative educational and social strategies which recognize the changing world we live within and challenge GBV related attitudes while they are being formed. Targeting children and youths seems crucial for transforming societies and creating a lasting change to the situation of women worldwide. Based on a unique partnership between institutions in the UK, China, Jamaica, Pakistan and Uganda, (the DARE countries) the Centre will build on the University of Huddersfield's existing domestic violence prevention project 'None in Three' (www.noneinthree.org), to expand the social/cultural impact of prosocial games for the prevention of GBV globally. As evidenced by a growing body of research, the development of game technologies has created new outlets for the perpetration of GBV. However, given the appeal of novel technologies to younger generations, technological advancements may also be utilised for prosocial purposes to empower victims and catalyze action against violence. In recent years, researchers and educators have become increasingly aware of the potential benefits of prosocial video games. Unlike other media, video games scaffold children's experience using narrative and audio-visual content, as well as rules and objectives regulating players' behaviour. A recent meta-analytic study revealed a significant association between playing a prosocial video game and positive social outcomes (Greitemeyer & Mügge, 2014). Violent video games, in turn, lead to a bias in the perception of what counts as aggressive, which evokes aggressive behaviour. Importantly, appropriately designed prosocial video games can enhance moral reasoning and foster empathy in a way that the mere presentation of facts through other media outlets cannot accomplish. Empathy reduces aggression and leads to prosocial actions, which strengthen social bonds and integrates societies. Indicative areas of work for the DARE Centre include: China - promoting a culture of protection against sexual abuse and prevention of trafficking; Jamaica - challenging the commoditization of sex and its relationship to the commercial sexual exploitation of children and promoting a culture of personal accountability among men and boys; Pakistan-improving child protection systems in relation to child marriage and honour killings, Uganda-domestic violence, the prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation and child marriage and, the UK-interpersonal violence within adolescent relationships. These activities all seek to prevent gender based violence and elevate the status of women and girls.

Planned Impact

Academic impact - knowledge production, researcher development and inter-disciplinary collaboration
1. training researchers in the most advanced qualitative and quantitative social sciences research and analytic methods for GBV research;
2. conducting original research into socio-cultural drivers and aetiology of particular forms of GBV in contributing countries;
3. producing psychosocial profiles of attitudes to GBV among children and young people in the five DARE countries;
4. archiving datasets for wider access;
5. producing high quality open access journal articles including inter-disciplinary co-authored outputs (social work, psychology, criminology, digital games, education);
6. incorporation of research findings into university courses (evidence-based practice courses);
7. equipping early career researchers with skills in research leadership;
8. improving career prospects for early career researchers.

Policy impact
1. training on policy evaluation, analysis and formulation
2. working with governments to craft model policies that interweave GBV with prevention through education and technological advancement and crucially, to align with country strategic plans on the achievement of SDGs
3. building implementation science in the respective countries by equipping researchers with skills in robust evaluation and knowledge translation methods (e.g. the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research - CFIR, a comprehensive, meta-theoretical approach to project evaluation).

Professional/multi-disciplinary impact
1. training on research outcomes for professionals (teachers, school guidance officers, social workers, psychologists, magistry, health workers)
2. use of computer games as a tool in professional development
3. practice-based briefings, publications in professional magazines, professional conferences
4. legacy tools: computer games for ongoing use in GBV prevention education, survey instruments and trained analysts in psycho-social profiling of attitudes among young people to GBV
5. enhancing research and practice skills in identifying and responding to different forms of GBV
6. new knowledge on the attitudes of children and young people to GBV

Societal/community/family impact
1. computer games as a tool to be used in education settings with children and young people to: increase empathy, non-adversarial conflict resolution skills, challenge gender stereotypes, raise awareness about women's rights, empower victims, counter cultural values which contribute to GBV, foster cultures of accountability rather than victim blaming and to build emotional intelligence
2. utilising the computer games as an aid to rehabilitation programmes for persons convicted of GBV crimes;
3. establishing The IDEA, a media hub of Impact, Dissemination and Engagement Activities to engage multiple audiences using multiple methods and wide-reaching social media
4. implementing a series of awareness-raising events for community groups and producing sensitisation films on GBV and the need for family and community engagement in supporting behaviour change
5. training GBV civil society organisations in creating their own strategies for engaging the public in discussions that promote and facilitate shifts in thinking
6. training for media technicians in the production of public engagement films
7. engagement of faith-based and civil society organisations;
8. general public/parent meetings focusing on raising awareness and development of shared responsibility for GBV prevention
9. encouraging help-seeking behaviours from victims and perpetrators of GBV
10. the wider adoption of anti-violence computer games and resultant changes in attitudes and reduction of GBV measured through the application of robust pre-post game exposure surveys
 
Description Our qualitative research with survivors and perpetrators of specific forms of gender-based violence have enabled us to identify its social and cultural drivers in four diverse countries.
Exploitation Route Our findings can be used to inform gender policy, to improve professional practice and, to increase access to justice for survivors
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description Findings from qualitative research have been used to generate story lines and characterisations for prosocial computer games which will address attitudes on child marriage in Uganda, violence against women in India, child sexual abuse in Jamaica and intimate partner violence among adolescents in the UK. Additionally, findings have been used to generate social media outputs for public engagement purposes.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Review and synthesis of policy on gender equality and gender-based violence in four study countries, plus participation in national (GB) consultation on Domestic Abuse Bill
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL http://www.noneinthree.org/global-policy-hub/
 
Description Global Challenges Research Fund
Amount £4,003,000 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/P014240/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 12/2021
 
Description PhD Studentships (bursaries plus fees)
Amount £45,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Huddersfield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 10/2020
 
Description Santander Student Mobility Scholarships
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Huddersfield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 06/2019
 
Description University of Huddersfield - Area of Strategic Research Importance Fund
Amount £330,000 (GBP)
Funding ID The None in Three Centre - expansion of work to include the UK URF2016/ASRI/01 
Organisation University of Huddersfield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 10/2021
 
Title Framework for Generating Prosocial Computer Game Plot-lines for the Prevention of Gender-based Violence 
Description We have created a framework for generating narratives for prosocial video game design which ensures ODA compliance and goodness of fit with research outcomes, ethics and gaming principles. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This research tool is critical to ensuring that prosocial video games meet project objectives. It is currently in use by the Ni3 games team but will be the focus of a future publication to enable wide access. 
 
Title None in Three Victim Responsiveness Assessment (Ni3: VRA) 
Description We have developed a new research tool to evaluate the impact on children's cognitive and affective functions of prosocial gaming interventions for the prevention of gender-based violence 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This research tool has been used to evaluate the impact of a prosocial computer game dealing with the topic of domestic violence among a sample of 450 children from Grenada and Barbados 
 
Description Ni3 partners 
Organisation Makerere University
Country Uganda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Formal partners for conducting the research in Uganda
Collaborator Contribution Implementation of 7 work packages
Impact Too early
Start Year 2017
 
Description Ni3 partners 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing guidance and support
Collaborator Contribution Collating global policy on gender-based violence
Impact Too early
Start Year 2017
 
Description Ni3 partners 
Organisation University of Technology, Jamaica
PI Contribution Conducting research in Jamaica
Collaborator Contribution Implementation of 7 work packages in Uganda
Impact Too early
Start Year 2017
 
Description Engagement with Schools 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact In five countries (Jamaica, India, Uganda, UK and St Lucia) members of the project team have met with numerous school principles and teachers in order to share information about the work, to enlist support for the recruitment of survey participants and to discuss the introduction of gaming interventions to prevent gender-based violence. While achievements vary per country, in the reporting period we have introduced a prosocial computer game on domestic violence (developed during the first phase of Ni3 - EU-funded) in order to learn lessons for our current work and have undertaken research with almost 20,000 children to find out about the experiences of violence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Guest Lecture at Spring School organised by the University of Curacao and University of Leiden, The Netherlands - 'Frontiers of Children's Rights in the Caribbean Region'. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Adele Jones delivered a Guest Lecture on the topic of Child Abuse in the Caribbean at the Spring School organised by the University of Curacao and University of Leiden, The Netherlands - 'Frontiers of Children's Rights in the Caribbean Region'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Guest Speaker at International Institute for Traumatic Stress Studies Conference, Washington, US 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Adele Jones delivered a presentation as an Invited Guest Speaker at the International Institute for Traumatic Stress Studies, Washington, US.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.istss.org/ISTSS_Main/media/Documents/ISTSS-18-FP_FNL1.pdf
 
Description International Women's Day Global Social Media Campaign 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members and supporters of Ni3 participated in a week long social media campaign in celebration of International Women's Day. Social media outputs involving men and women, professionals and the general public were generated in the UK, India, Jamaica, Barbados and Uganda.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Keynote Speaker - 'Impact of domestic violence on children', 'No 'Mas, No More' UNICEF conference on domestic violence in the Caribbean. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Adele Jones was the invited Keynote Speaker at: 'Impact of domestic violence on children', 'No 'Mas, No More' UNICEF conference on domestic violence in the Caribbean.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://smn-news.com/st-maarten-st-martin-news/28738-1st-kingdom-working-conference-on-domestic-viol...
 
Description Keynote Speaker at the invitation of the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and UNICEF on the occasion of the first Caribbean Regional Child Protection Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Jones delivered the Keynote Speech at the invitation of the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and UNICEF on the occasion of the first Caribbean Regional Child Protection Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Media Interviews 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Several requests were received to provide media interviews. In this reporting period, over 15 articles (13 online, 2 print) about the project appeared in magazines/newspapers; two blogs were produced, PI Jones appeared in two television shows in Jamaica and two radio interviews were conducted, including PIs Jones & Boduszek participation in the BBC Click programme. These activities are is recorded on Sharepoint and evidence is available on request.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.noneinthree.org/impact/
 
Description Media and Public Engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In line with our Communication and Visibility Strategy we have undertaken the following activities:
Created nine YouTube films from the different study countries (370 views) and produced daily social media postings (Instagram: 449 posts/169 followers, Twitter: 823 tweets/475 followers and Facebook: 319 posts/25,151 followers) in order to facilitate the engagement of the general public with our research and anti-violence messaging. These outputs are captured on the IDEA (Impact, Dissemination and Engagement Activities) web pages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL http://www.noneinthree.org/impact/
 
Description Participation in International Women's Day Gender Equality Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gill Kirkman, Ni3 Country Director for the UK participated in an International Women's Day Gender Equality Conference in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, hosted by Aspiration & Achievement Group Dewsbury and Nyssa Empowerment social media community, addressing cultural practices affecting women and girls.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Participation in London Design Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Materials produced by the Ni3 Centre were included in an exhibition by the AHRC as part of London Design Week
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation in UKRI International Women's Day Campaign 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Adele Jones was selected for inclusion in an International Women's Day campaign by UKRI in celebration of 'inspiring women leaders'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ukri.org/research/themes-and-programmes/international-womens-day/
 
Description Public Lectures 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Three public lectures were organised. These were delivered by distinguished members/Visiting Professors of the Ni3 Centre's International Advisory Group: (Professor Stephen Jacobson, University at Buffalo, US; Professor Matt deLisi, Iowa State University and Mikael Barfod, International Human Rights Consultant/Political Scientist (former EU Ambassador to the Eastern Caribbean).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.noneinthree.org/impact/