Building an intercultural pedagogy for higher education in conditions of conflict and protracted crises: Languages, identity, culture

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Education

Abstract

Conditions of conflict, civil war, siege and occupation, and other forms of protracted crises have resulted in the forced migration of refugees and internally displaced people, especially youths, who are then marginalised or excluded from formal education. These conditions created educational challenges in low and middle income countries (LMICs). How can researchers, educators, teachers, and students in (formal) higher education (HE) develop the capabilities and resources to support the learning of youths (and their families) who are marginalised and excluded from formal education, or who lack certain aspects of education for employability? What resources do they and local community support groups need to facilitate intercultural communication and education across these differences and divides? How can the arts and humanities support intercultural dialogue and understanding through non-formal education? How can intercultural pedagogies that promote the awareness and understanding of individuals' multiple languages, multiple identities, their culture and heritage, and self-representations be developed in and for these contexts? How can formal and non-formal education prepare young people to become global citizens: to take responsibility and participate in civil society, and act in the face of all forms of injustice?

This research network, responding to the AHRC GCRF highlight notice for education in contexts of conflict and protracted crises; aims to develop locally-generated, context-specific intercultural pedagogies and understandings of global citizenship in the LMICs of Columbia, Gaza, and Turkey. The network of multilingual, multi-/interdisciplinary researchers (in applied linguistics, education, intercultural communication, languages, and theology) will initiate exploration and dialogue to develop conceptualisations and methodologies of intercultural education-intercultural pedagogies-and global citizenship in these contexts. The network is led by researchers in the UK, and supported by academic advisors in the UK and Turkey and a researcher in Brazil, all of whom are experts in languages, intercultural communication and education, and the creative arts. The network-through collaboration and intercultural dialogue-will build capabilities among researchers, teachers, students, youths marginalised or excluded from formal education and work (and their families), and community support groups. Together, they will co-construct activities that draw on arts and humanities (languages, intercultural communication, and the creative arts) and deliver them via workshops in four case-study sites (Bogota, Gaza, Istanbul and Durham). The research will also facilitate improved understanding of the role of researchers' multilingual resources, translation, and intercultural communication in multilingual, intercultural research contexts.

The emerging new conceptualisations of intercultural education, intercultural dialogue, and global citizenship, and associated pedagogies will be useful to researchers and educators who are developing formal and non-formal education in LMICs where similar conditions prevail. The activities, available on the project website, will provide a practical resource. The intercultural pedagogies will be useful in teacher education and training in preparing teachers and community workers (e.g., in NGOs and charities). Pedagogies grounded in multiple languages and the creative arts-that recognised individuals' multiple languages, identities, cultures and cultural heritage-will be useful to teachers and community support groups to build intercultural dialogue and understanding across diverse groups of people, and to professional teachers' associations. Finally, the research will be important in shaping educational policy (in both LMICs and the North) that responds to the aims of the UNESCO 2030 education strategy (underpinned by SDG4 and SDG4.7).

Planned Impact

Responding to the AHRC GCRF's call to explore the contribution that arts and humanities research can make to education and learning in low and middle income countries (LMICs) in the above contexts, the research developed through the research network will benefit researchers in applied linguistics, education, languages, intercultural education and communication, and theology. The research will initiate the development of intercultural education pedagogies in formal and non-formal learning contexts, focusing on languages, culture and cultural heritage, multiple identities, and representations-concepts central in arts and humanities research concerning an individual's identity, belonging, and wellbeing. A related purpose is to build UK and LMIC arts and humanities cross/inter-disciplinary and cross-border capability through links among academics, teachers, and students in higher education, and populations in the community (e.g., refugees and asylum seekers, minority and indigenous groups, migrants, and people who are displaced or excluded, and who have limited or no access to education) and the community groups, NGOs, charities, and other individuals who support them.

The research network outputs will impact both academic and non-academic communities, locally, nationally, and internationally. The principal beneficiaries of the network activities are the excluded youths and their families who benefit from the non-formal learning and intercultural integration via the workshops. Other beneficiaries include: i) education policy makers who seek to provide guidance on curriculum development and capacity building in intercultural education and global citizenship education in implementing the UNESCO 2030 education strategy; ii) curriculum developers in secondary and higher education who are seeking new pedagogies and programmes that foreground languages, intercultural education and global citizenship to promote students as participating and responsible citizens alert to violent forms of extremism and threats to ethnic and cultural identities and heritages; iii) teachers' associations and professional groups who provide training, upskilling, and knowledge exchange in formal and non-formal educational contexts; iv) academics and researchers in HE who seek new and critical understandings and conceptualisations of intercultural communication, intercultural education, and global citizenship that are developed in the Global South, and underpinned by languages and the creative arts in shaping culture, identity, and representation; v) students, who via the online peer-student exchanges facilitated by the PI and Co-Is in the network, are able to construct new understandings of youth participation and responsibility (the forms of global citizenship outlined in SDG4.7) as well as new forms of peer learning with other young people marginalised or excluded from education; and vi) third sector groups (NGOs, charities, and other support groups) who will be able to apply the intercultural pedagogies to support intercultural communication and integration between host community members and refugees and migrants excluded from education, or who experience discrimination, unemployment, and loss of linguistic and cultural heritage and identity.

The transnational, multi-/interdisciplinary researcher network will also improve academic understandings of researcher methods and processes of translation, language and intercultural communication, especially when researching among professional groups, community groups, change agents and others in culturally and linguistically diverse local communities. These explorations of multilingual researcher processes will support the development of methods for "researching multilingually" (an area of research of the PI through two earlier AHRC-funded projects) among a transnational, multilingual, interdisciplinary group of researchers, many of whom are from LMICs.

Publications

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Corbett J (2020) Revisiting mediation: implications for intercultural language education in Language and Intercultural Communication

 
Title Short Documentary - Film 
Description The short documentary contains the shootings from the Musical Studio workshop and the Music Event of Istanbul Case Study. It presents the intercultural interactions between the participants which come from different backgrounds, and reflects the participatory learning sessions during the workshops. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact When the short documentary is released through social media channels, as it is in production now, it is expected that it will reach to a wide public audience and raise awareness among them for the impact of intercultural learning environment which created to bring the undergraduate students and their peers who has limited access to higher education on encouragement of youths with migrant background to access higher education. 
 
Description The findings and outcomes of the project are currently being prepared for report and publication in a book, and therefore, still in progress. However, key findings indicate that theoretically informed critical intercultural pedagogies promote intercultural dialogue among young people in higher education (in the DAC countries involved) and those excluded from it (e.g., refugees and asylum seekers) due to war, forced migration, and other protracted crises. The methodology drew on participatory arts-based interdisciplinary approaches: culture and heritage, languages and language education, life narratives, poetry and creative fiction, participatory photography, and music. The students, together with the project researchers, developed resources for intercultural engagement with young people excluded from education, and in doing so, developed awareness, participation and responsibility, and in some instances, became change agents, in opening up and sharing experiences of higher education with the excluded youths (thus addressing SDG4.7 and the UNESCO 2030 education strategy). Participant feedback (from the young people) suggests increased awareness and understanding of asylum and refugee experiences, and threats to well-being through exclusion from education, and the importance of intercultural dialogue to support this understanding.

Engagement with NGOs and other community organisations, which created challenges as well as opportunities, was important for reaching excluded youths as well as offering opportunities for extending the network. While often challenging to develop and maintain, these links proved helpful in linking students with refugee and asylum communities. The network funding also facilitated engagement with additional partners in Natal, North-east Brazil, and academics in another university (including an additional case study) in Turkey.

The network award, which included three 3-day meetings-two in DAC partner countries (Turkey, and Colombia) and one in the UK-enabled wider interdisciplinary networking and collaboration, thus extending the network and research outcomes.
Exploitation Route The critical intercultural pedagogies should be transferable to other higher, further, secondary, and informal educational contexts to develop in young people the need for participation, responsibility, and action against injustice in the community.

The collaborative strategies employed in the network grant will be useful for other researchers seeking engagement in LMIC DAC countries.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://biphec.wordpress.com/
 
Description A key purpose of this AHRC GCRF network award was to build intercultural dialogue among young people (postgraduate and undergraduate students) in higher education, and those excluded from it (refugees and asylum seekers (due to war, forced migration, and other forms of protracted crises). Although only completed on 31 December 2019, the network project has demonstrated some impact focused mainly in the areas of enhancing quality of life, health, and creative output. Impact emerged though engagement, participation, and dialogue among young people, facilitated by critical intercultural pedagogies focused on creative arts, culture, heritage, other forms of representation. Although guided by the researchers in the network, many of the activities developed in the higher education institutions (and reported in the "Findings" section) aligned with the UNESCO 2030 strategy, and SDG4, and SDG4.7. The activities sought to develop participation and responsible citizenship, and create change agents in students in higher education through engagement with young people excluded from education (e.g., refugees and asylum seekers) in their communities. The workshop activities at the heart of the network project took place in the DAC countries of Bogota, Colombia; Istanbul and another city in Turkey; Gaza, Palestine; Natal in North-east Brazil, and in Durham (UK). The project expanded its network to include an additional case study in Turkey (to create a photographic expose), and in the North-east of Brazil (to develop a writing and poetry exchange). All the workshops included activities around the themes of identity and belonging and with a purpose of facilitating intercultural dialogue in contexts of siege and exclusion, and thus impacted on students' in and youths excluded from higher education to promote intercultural dialogue and understanding through culture, heritage, and the creative arts. While the award was funded before the requirement to include a gender statement, gender equality was integral to the project. The formation of the network included two male and three female coinvestigators, and four advisors (three female and one male); the principal investigator was female. The participants (postgraduate students and their counterparts (refugees and asylum seekers, or others in contexts of protracted crises) included a gender balance, with possibly more female participants. The activities developed across the network sought to be inclusive in all respects (e.g., across genders, religions, languages, cultures, ethnicities, nationality, and economic differences). The activities across the network also sought inclusivity among students, excluded youths, researchers, teachers, teacher educators, and where possible, NGOs, charities, and other support agencies which support refugee settlement and integration. The impact of the activities at the UK university opened up opportunities for shared dialogue among international students and home students (mainly from the south of the UK), and mutual understanding of experiences of inclusion and exclusion, as well as first-hand experience (for the students at the UK university) of asylum and its implications for participation in society.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description 3 Faculties and 2 Research Center of Istanbul University constituted an interdisciplinary collaboration for Istanbul Case Study 
Organisation Istanbul University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research team is consisted of researchers from different academic fields including Theology, Educational Sciences, Political Sciences, Music, Communication. Since Istanbul case study has an multi-disciplinary nature which encompasses methodology and intellectual framework of different disciplines such as theology, political sciences, education, music, etc., the main contribution of the faculties can be regarded as academic support.
Collaborator Contribution 3 faculties of Istanbul University where researchers of the Istanbul case are affiliated not only provided intellectual basis for the realisation of Istanbul case study, but also enabled their facilities such as concert hall, meeting areas, infrastructural arrangements as well as video processing laboratory as it is the case with the Faculty of Communication available. Moreover, research and application center of religion music provided the musical infrastructure including equipment, rehearsal support, instrumentalists, etc. Career Center, and Faculty of Communication, on the other hand, contributed to extend the advertisements of the different events in Istanbul case study.
Impact The collaboration is of multi-disciplinary nature. An academic contribution (article, or book chapter) which reflects the findings of the case study Short-documentary of the workshops.
Start Year 2019
 
Description 3 Faculties and 2 Research Center of Istanbul University constituted an interdisciplinary collaboration for Istanbul Case Study 
Organisation Istanbul University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research team is consisted of researchers from different academic fields including Theology, Educational Sciences, Political Sciences, Music, Communication. Since Istanbul case study has an multi-disciplinary nature which encompasses methodology and intellectual framework of different disciplines such as theology, political sciences, education, music, etc., the main contribution of the faculties can be regarded as academic support.
Collaborator Contribution 3 faculties of Istanbul University where researchers of the Istanbul case are affiliated not only provided intellectual basis for the realisation of Istanbul case study, but also enabled their facilities such as concert hall, meeting areas, infrastructural arrangements as well as video processing laboratory as it is the case with the Faculty of Communication available. Moreover, research and application center of religion music provided the musical infrastructure including equipment, rehearsal support, instrumentalists, etc. Career Center, and Faculty of Communication, on the other hand, contributed to extend the advertisements of the different events in Istanbul case study.
Impact The collaboration is of multi-disciplinary nature. An academic contribution (article, or book chapter) which reflects the findings of the case study Short-documentary of the workshops.
Start Year 2019
 
Description 3 Faculties and 2 Research Center of Istanbul University constituted an interdisciplinary collaboration for Istanbul Case Study 
Organisation Istanbul University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research team is consisted of researchers from different academic fields including Theology, Educational Sciences, Political Sciences, Music, Communication. Since Istanbul case study has an multi-disciplinary nature which encompasses methodology and intellectual framework of different disciplines such as theology, political sciences, education, music, etc., the main contribution of the faculties can be regarded as academic support.
Collaborator Contribution 3 faculties of Istanbul University where researchers of the Istanbul case are affiliated not only provided intellectual basis for the realisation of Istanbul case study, but also enabled their facilities such as concert hall, meeting areas, infrastructural arrangements as well as video processing laboratory as it is the case with the Faculty of Communication available. Moreover, research and application center of religion music provided the musical infrastructure including equipment, rehearsal support, instrumentalists, etc. Career Center, and Faculty of Communication, on the other hand, contributed to extend the advertisements of the different events in Istanbul case study.
Impact The collaboration is of multi-disciplinary nature. An academic contribution (article, or book chapter) which reflects the findings of the case study Short-documentary of the workshops.
Start Year 2019
 
Description 3 Faculties and 2 Research Center of Istanbul University constituted an interdisciplinary collaboration for Istanbul Case Study 
Organisation Istanbul University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research team is consisted of researchers from different academic fields including Theology, Educational Sciences, Political Sciences, Music, Communication. Since Istanbul case study has an multi-disciplinary nature which encompasses methodology and intellectual framework of different disciplines such as theology, political sciences, education, music, etc., the main contribution of the faculties can be regarded as academic support.
Collaborator Contribution 3 faculties of Istanbul University where researchers of the Istanbul case are affiliated not only provided intellectual basis for the realisation of Istanbul case study, but also enabled their facilities such as concert hall, meeting areas, infrastructural arrangements as well as video processing laboratory as it is the case with the Faculty of Communication available. Moreover, research and application center of religion music provided the musical infrastructure including equipment, rehearsal support, instrumentalists, etc. Career Center, and Faculty of Communication, on the other hand, contributed to extend the advertisements of the different events in Istanbul case study.
Impact The collaboration is of multi-disciplinary nature. An academic contribution (article, or book chapter) which reflects the findings of the case study Short-documentary of the workshops.
Start Year 2019
 
Description 3 Faculties and 2 Research Center of Istanbul University constituted an interdisciplinary collaboration for Istanbul Case Study 
Organisation Istanbul University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research team is consisted of researchers from different academic fields including Theology, Educational Sciences, Political Sciences, Music, Communication. Since Istanbul case study has an multi-disciplinary nature which encompasses methodology and intellectual framework of different disciplines such as theology, political sciences, education, music, etc., the main contribution of the faculties can be regarded as academic support.
Collaborator Contribution 3 faculties of Istanbul University where researchers of the Istanbul case are affiliated not only provided intellectual basis for the realisation of Istanbul case study, but also enabled their facilities such as concert hall, meeting areas, infrastructural arrangements as well as video processing laboratory as it is the case with the Faculty of Communication available. Moreover, research and application center of religion music provided the musical infrastructure including equipment, rehearsal support, instrumentalists, etc. Career Center, and Faculty of Communication, on the other hand, contributed to extend the advertisements of the different events in Istanbul case study.
Impact The collaboration is of multi-disciplinary nature. An academic contribution (article, or book chapter) which reflects the findings of the case study Short-documentary of the workshops.
Start Year 2019
 
Description In the frame of BIPHEC, three academics from three different Turkish universities, collaborated for the case study 
Organisation Anadolu University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As research team of this case study we prepared theoretical basis of the case study, we provided facilities that needed for the implemantation and we wrote the academic report, analyzed data
Collaborator Contribution Research team members provide intelectual support based on their expertise related migration, refugees, educational sciences, intercultural education and research designs
Impact Outcomes that have resulted from this collaboration could be listed as below: Academic partnership Develop new insights related case study implementation Experience related with the Freireian Dialogue Experience of research and field study Acdemic text about the case study (will be published soon)
Start Year 2018
 
Description In the frame of BIPHEC, three academics from three different Turkish universities, collaborated for the case study 
Organisation Dumlupinar University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As research team of this case study we prepared theoretical basis of the case study, we provided facilities that needed for the implemantation and we wrote the academic report, analyzed data
Collaborator Contribution Research team members provide intelectual support based on their expertise related migration, refugees, educational sciences, intercultural education and research designs
Impact Outcomes that have resulted from this collaboration could be listed as below: Academic partnership Develop new insights related case study implementation Experience related with the Freireian Dialogue Experience of research and field study Acdemic text about the case study (will be published soon)
Start Year 2018
 
Description In the frame of BIPHEC, three academics from three different Turkish universities, collaborated for the case study 
Organisation Sakarya University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As research team of this case study we prepared theoretical basis of the case study, we provided facilities that needed for the implemantation and we wrote the academic report, analyzed data
Collaborator Contribution Research team members provide intelectual support based on their expertise related migration, refugees, educational sciences, intercultural education and research designs
Impact Outcomes that have resulted from this collaboration could be listed as below: Academic partnership Develop new insights related case study implementation Experience related with the Freireian Dialogue Experience of research and field study Acdemic text about the case study (will be published soon)
Start Year 2018
 
Title BIPHEC Building an Intercultural Pedagogy for Higher Education in Conditions of Conflict and Protracted Crises: Languages, Identity, Culture 
Description The website, under the wordpress licence, showcases the five case studies in the project (two in Turkey, one in the UK, one in Bogota, and one a collaboration between two universities in Brazil and one in Gaza). The website includes a description of each case study, and suggestions (of a pedagogic nature) for engaging students in higher education with young people excluded from education due to war, migration, and other forms of protracted crises. The website offers a pedagogic resource for researchers and teachers in developing materials to support collaboration, dialogue, and cooperation between these two groups. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The impact of the website is as yet unknown. 
URL https://biphec.wordpress.com/
 
Description Bi-national workshop Fulbright Colombia-American Embassy in Bogota: Enhancement Seminar for English Teaching Assistants Grantees (ETAs) - 2019. How to Teach in diverse and inclusive classrooms 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ten BIPHEC research participants were invited to share their "Toolbox of Activities" and research experience with the American English Teaching Assistant grantees 2019-2020, who volunteer in Colombian higher education contexts. Coming from different professional backgrounds, volunteers showed particular interest in critical intercultural pedagogies in language teaching and requested more information and details on how to carry out similar activities in the English language classroom.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description English Poetry Festival: Palestinian young poets at the crossroads of cultures 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Approximately 3000 students and teachers from local Palestinian universities and high schools as well parents and local community visited the three-day fair (2 - 4 Dec 2019) showing the poetic, artistic and intercultural products of over 90 undergraduate students enrolled in the English Language Department (Education and literature) at the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG). Due to influx of interested visitors, the fair/ show was extended for two more days to continue also on 7-8 Dec 2019 (5-6 IUG weekend). The products of these creative Palestinian students reflected the conditions of conflict and protracted crises Palestinians have been going through for decades. These young students performed excellent recitations of poetry throughout the festival. Some shared their own poems, some others embodied the poems of other poets in both languages English and Arabic, and one student sang Shakespeare's sonnet 18 "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day". The Festival/Fair is used as a multilingual and multicultural pedagogy to put young Palestinian youths at the crossroads of cultures, showcase Palestinian young talents, and engage the university students with the local community. The audience interacted largely with the activities displayed in each corner and were happy to see how Arabic poetry is related to the English one. Each corner created a whole picture of the era, the themes, the historical events, the most famous poets, poems and the culture that affected poetry at that time.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Music Event and Concert 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact The musical event was designed as a direct outcome of the Istanbul case-study workshop. During the workshop 2, which lasted 5 sessions, participants drafted lyrics and worked on performing their song. The musical event became the platform where they found the opportunity to chant songs together in front of their peers and family members as well as general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Photograh Exhibiton and Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact About 50 people visited the exhibiton and more than visited the blog
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://kampusteotekiilebirlikte.blogspot.com/
 
Description Selected conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Prue Holmes and John Corbett presented a dialogue about the research as a selected paper of eight for the November 2020 conference "International Association of Languages and Intercultural Communication". the presentation presented the emergent pedagogy and the challenges of undertaking AHRC GCRF research to postgraduate students and other researchers and teachers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://ialic.international/20th-anniversary-ialic-online-symposium/
 
Description Student Symposium: Language Education in the 21st Century-Universidad de los Andes 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Student Symposium: Language Education in the 21st Century
Every year, undergraduate students share their initiatives and research actions with other students and tutors from los Andes University and other local universities sharing the same fields of interest, Five BIPHEC research participants presented their experience and outcomes with regard to critical intercultural pedagogies, drama techniques and language teaching. They presented samples of the "Toolbox of activities" aiming to promote this approach in the language classroom. The topic raised many interesting questions, in addition to asking some of the participants to make demonstrations of the activities in some educational institutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Student online writing and workshops (Natal, North-east Brazil, and Gaza, Palestine) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Students from the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG) developed an online intercultural exchange with students from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) in NE Brazil. The basis of the online exchange was for the participants to develop, share and respond to creative and life writing in English. Participants shared and explored their experience of living in a conflict situation and an economically marginalised community through the exchange of poems, stories and flash non-fiction on an asynchronous, closed Facebook group, followed by a synchronous video conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Three Refugee-postgraduate student workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Postgraduate students at Durham University organised (together with the PI and Co-I, and supported by the project advisor at Durham University) three interactive 3-hour workshops where these students could dialogue with refugees from Syria and Iraq about experiences of higher education in the UK. The collaboration was made possible and supported by employees at Durham County Council who are directly responsible for refugee settlement in County Durham. Through the exchanges the students and young people learnt about one anothers' educational experiences and the challenges of exclusion from education. The workshops sparked curiosity among all involved, and the desire for further involvement beyond the scope of the activities of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://biphec.wordpress.com/