Investigation into the mechanisms by which maternal diet impacts on offspring health the role of programmed changes in the leptin axis

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Clinical Biochemistry

Abstract

The diet of an individual has important health issues at any stage of life. However there is evidence to suggest that the diet of pregnant and lactating women is particularly important as it has major long-term implications on the health of their babies. It has been shown that individuals with a low birth weight are not only less likely to survive delivery but are also at substantially increased risk of developing obesity as adults. In contrast breast-fed infants, who are known to grow more slowly than bottle-fed infants, are less likely to become obese later in life. The underlying causes of the relationship between early growth and later obesity are not known but we believe that the quality of the diet of women during pregnancy and during breast-feeding is critically important. We have shown in a rodent model that if pregnant animals have too little protein during pregnancy their babies are small at birth and are more likely to become obese in adulthood. We think this is because these animals eat more and exercise less. In contrast in our rodent model where animals grow slowly during lactation because their mothers are eating a diet low in protein, the animals do not get fat even when offered a highly palatable diet. We have identified an important gene in the brain that is expressed at higher levels in animals that are resistant to obesity. We think this makes these animals more responsive to a protein leptin. This protein is produced by fat cells and signals to the brain to suppress appetite and to increase energy expenditure. In this proposal we will test this idea by giving obesity-prone and obesity-resistant animals leptin and then measuring their food intake and energy expenditure. We will also study the brains of these animals further to identify other genes that are expressed at different levels. We will study the DNA from the brains of our animals to determine why particular genes are not expressed properly. Understanding these processes will enable us to both identify at risk individuals and to develop intervention strategies to improve the health of both pregnant and breast-feeding women and their offspring.

Technical Summary

Fetal and early life nutrition has long-term effects on adult health. Poor fetal nutrition leads to a 'thrifty' phenotype that appears beneficial when postnatal nutrition is poor, but maladaptive, increasing susceptibility to obesity, when postnatal nutrition is adequate or excessive. In contrast reduced nutrition during the lactation period is protective against subsequent obesity risk. We have developed models in which rats are cross-fostered between mothers fed normal (20 %) or low (8%) protein diets. Control rats are the offspring of dams fed a normal diet. Offspring of low protein fed dams that are cross-fostered to normally fed dams during lactation ('recuperated') are more susceptible to obesity. In contrast control offspring that are suckled by low protein fed dams ('postnatal low protein' or PNLP rats) are less susceptible to diet-induced obesity. Preliminary data suggests that PNLP rats have increased expression of the leptin receptor in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and increased energy expenditure, whereas recuperated rats have decreased energy expenditure. We aim to establish the molecular mechanisms that link maternal diet with susceptibility to obesity in later life by investigating programmed changes in leptin sensitivity. We shall measure food intake and energy expenditure following peripheral and central administration of leptin in the rat models. We will compare the effects of leptin on the expression of genes involved in its signalling in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in these three groups by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. We shall identify genes that are differentially expressed in the arcuate nucleus of control, recuperated and PNLP rats, using laser capture microscopy and microarrays and use bioinformatic tools to identify novel drug targets among these genes. Finally, we shall assess DNA methylation profiles of six of these genes to see whether this contributes to their differential expression. (Joint with Arch BB/E007821/1)

Publications

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Aiken CE (2013) Sex differences in developmental programming models. in Reproduction (Cambridge, England)

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Chen JH (2010) Early growth and ageing. in Nestle Nutrition workshop series. Paediatric programme

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Cottrell EC (2007) Developmental programming of energy balance and the metabolic syndrome. in The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

 
Description Diet is important for an individual's health at any stage of life. However, the diet of pregnant and lactating women is particularly important as it has long-term effects on the health of their babies. Individuals with a low birth weight are not only less likely to survive delivery but are also at substantially increased risk of developing obesity later on in childhood and when they are adults. In contrast, breast-fed infants, who are known to grow more slowly than bottle-fed infants, are less likely to become obese as children and later in life. The underlying causes of the relationship between early growth and later obesity are not known. However nutrition plays an important role in regulating early growth so we believe that the quality of the diet of women during pregnancy and breast-feeding is critically important. We have developed a rodent model that mimics what happens in humans who grow at different rates during fetal and early postnatal life and allows us to investigate the underlying mechanisms. If pregnant animals have too little protein during pregnancy their babies are small at birth, undergo postnatal catch-up growth and are more likely to become obese in adulthood. In contrast, if animals grow slowly while they are suckling because their mothers are eating a diet low in protein, they do not get fat even when offered a highly palatable diet. We have identified an important gene in the brain that is expressed at higher levels in animals that are resistant to obesity. This makes the animals more responsive to the protein leptin. This protein is produced by fat cells enters the blood and signals to the brain to reduce food intake and to increase energy expenditure. In very early life leptin also promotes growth of neurons in the brain. We have found, as predicted, that animals that grew slowly during suckling and become resistant to obesity are more sensitive to leptin both as babies and in adulthood. However, this is not only because they have more of the protein that leptin binds to: they also respond differently to small proteins that are released from nerves in the brain in response to leptin. This raised the question of why they responded differently to leptin and the small peptides. We addressed this problem by investigating whether gene activity is the same in animals that are sensitive and resistant to obesity and whether the small peptides have the same effect on gene activity. Since there are thousands of genes and many were found to differ in activity between our experimental groups, special computer-based methods were needed to interpret the results. We have developed such a method and identified genes that are present at different levels in the brain because of alteration of their mother's diet during pregnancy or lactation. Some of these are already known to be involved in the regulation of body weight, but many are not. Understanding what these genes do will enable us to develop intervention strategies to improve the health of both pregnant and breast-feeding women and their offspring. They also provide novel targets to help the pharmaceutical industry develop anti-obesity drugs. These findings are very important in light of the growing epidemic of obesity in society today.
Exploitation Route The identification of molecules in the brain that are altered as a consequence of maternal diet has provide novel candidates that could be important therapeutic targets.
Sectors Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Other

 
Description NIH meeting on Body Weight, Adiposity, Energetics and Longevity, St Simons Island, Georgia, USA, 2007 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given: The role of rapid catch-up growth or intense positive energy balance in early life



no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description 13th Insulin receptor and insulin action meeting. Programming by maternal over-nutrition: a developing obesity crisis. Nice France 20-22nd April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. 13th Insulin receptor and insulin action meeting. Programming by maternal over-nutrition: a developing obesity crisis. Nice France 20-22nd April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 2019 Sino-UK Cardiovascular Diseases Symposium Nanjing, China 24th May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming of cardiometabolic disease by maternal diet-induced obesity: a developing problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 65th Nestle Workshop, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 65th Nestle Nutrition Institution Workshop on the Importance of Growth for Health and Development, 29 March - 2nd April 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
"Early growth and ageing"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description 6th International Achieving Improved Outcomes in Neonatology and Academic Association Joint Conference. Cardiff Wales 13-15th March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Short and long-term impact of maternal obesity on offspring.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 7th Mediterranean Neuroscience Conference Marrakech, Morocco 23rd-27th June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Nutritional programming of cardio-metabolic disease by maternal obesity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2019 Transforming the Cardiovascular Health of Youth for Generations to come. Philadelphia USA 16th -19th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Cardiovascular health and Risk - Molecular Mechanisms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Angers annual summer school 2019, Angers France 27th June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture. Title: What is fetal programming?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Annual Dutch Diabetes Research Meeting 2019, Oosterbeek 28th-29th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming of cardio-metabolic health by maternal obesity: a developing problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Annual meeting of the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, Istanbul, Turkey, 2008 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given: Long-term consequences of early nutrition



no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description BHF CRE Annual Symposium 2019 Cambridge UK 9th May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming of cardio-metabolic disease by maternal diet-induced obesity: a developing problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Biocenter Oulu Day 'Fifty Shades of Fat' conference, Oulu, Finland 23rd March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker, Biocenter Oulu Day 'Fifty Shades of Fat' conference, 23rd March 2017, Oulu, Finland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description CUDOS conference on understanding molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and stroke, Doha, Qatar 10-12 April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. CUDOS conference on understanding molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and stroke. Nutritional programming of health and disease: are we ready to intervene? Doha, Qatar 10-12 April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Cardiovascular Division Seminar, Kings College London, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Cardiovascular Division Seminar at Kings College London, 1 November 2010, Kings College London
"Developmental programming of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Consequences of experimetnal IUGR on body weight and glucose homeostasis. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given at the ' Perinatal Programming the state of the art' meeting, Berlin, Germany

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Consequences of maternal over-nutrition: mechanisms of hyperphagia and insulin resistance 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given at the ILSI Europe roundtable Workshop on the effects of pre- and postnatal nutrition of infants of obese mothers: metabolic imprinting and later health outcomes, Brussels, Belgium

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description DNA damage, repair and lifespan: the influence of the early environment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given at the biennial colloquium series, nutrition, metabolism and the brain on " Energy regulation from conception to old age", Groningen, The Netherlands

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description DOHaD Conference, Santiago, Chile (Poster) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Poster Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact DOHaD Conference, 19-22 November 2009, Santiago, Chile
"Poor postnatal nutrition alters the effects of leptin, neuropeptide Y and the melanocortin receptor agonist on food consumption in later life"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Dept of Women's Health, Kings College London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Department of Women's Health, KCL, 11 March 2010, Kings College London
"You are what your mother ate: the developmental origins of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 11th World Congress. Picking apart obesity and diabetes in pregnancy, Melbourne Australia 20th-23rd October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker and Council Member. Talk title: Is it maternal hyperglycaemia or is it obesity that affects offspring health?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Developmental programming of metabolism-from global diabetes epidemiology to molecular mechanisms in animals and humans. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Taught PhD course in Copenhagen ;Programming of metabolism in rodents;

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Diogenes Satellite Mtg ECO09, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Diogenes Satellite ECO09, 4 - 5 May 2009, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands
"Programming of the appetite regulatory system"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Early growth and ageing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given at teh 65th Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop on the importance of growth for the health and development, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Early nutrition and long term health - the role of epigenetic programming 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given at the ESRC International Symposium on social science and epigenetics: opportunities and challenges, Edinburgh, Scotland

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Epigenetics, neonatal environment and nutrition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given a the 10th Agricultural Biotechnology International Conference, Saskatoon, Canada

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Experimental Biology conference 2017, Chicago, USA 22nd - 26th April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Experimental Biology 2017 Epigenetics and the developmental origins of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: knowns, unknowns and possibilities. Chicago USA 22nd-26th April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description FASEB Summer Research Conference on Obesity, Energy balance and disease, Indian wells, California, USA 4-9 August 2007. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given: Foetal and perinatal programming of energy balance



no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007
 
Description Human Nutrition Research Center (CRNH) Mtg, Clermont Ferrand, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Human Nutrition Research Center (CRNH), 28-29 May 2009, Clermont Ferrand, France
"Nutritional programming of type 2 diabetes, obesity and longevity"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description In-Utero MRI 2020 Queen Anne's College Oxford, UK 8th - 10th January 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Early Programming
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Diabetes Federation meeting. Montreal, Canada, 18-22 October 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given: The role of the intrauterine environment in the aetiology of Type 2 diabetes.


no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Keystone Islet Biology/Diabetes joint symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given: Early life programming of Type 2 diabetes

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description MRC Symposium, MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Edinburgh 24th February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Mechanisms underlying the programming of cardio-metabolic health by maternal obesity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description MSD Merck Diabetes Mtg, Seattle, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact MSD Merck Meeting, 17-19 April 2010, Seattle, USA
"Type 2 diabetes: Emerging Science"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Mechanisms and evolution of intergenerational change 2019, Wellcome Genome Campus. Hinxton UK 24th -26th September 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming by maternal over-nutrition - a plentiful problem
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Mechanisms of early life programming 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given at the Gordon Research Conference on Ageing, Ventura, USA

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Nutricia Research Scientific Symposium Mechanisms of metabolic programming: what can we learn from translational research? Groningen, The Netherlands. 31st January 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Nutritionally programmed influences on gene expression - a mechanism underlying the developmental origins of health and disease. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given at the 6th Congress of the International Society of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics (ISNN), Sao Paulo, Brazil

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description OCDEM Seminar, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Oxford UK 20th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming of cardio-metabolic disease by maternal over-nutrition: a developing crisis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description OHSU Heart Research Center's Annual Lecture, Portland, Oregon, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact OHSU Heart Research Center's Annual Lecture, 1 April 2012, Portland, Oregon, USA
You are what your mother ate: The developmental origins of type 2 diabetes and obesity"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Obesity Week 2019 Las Vegas, USA 3rd-7th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title? Is sugar an epigenetic trigger for obesity?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Oxidative Stress and Disease Gordon Conference, Ventura USA 17th - 21st March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Redox metabolomics and transcriptomics in metabolic disease phenotyping.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Programming of the appetite regulatory system 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given at the Diogenes Satellite ECO09, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Rank Prize Funds Mini Symposium on Obesity: from prevention to molecular mechanisms. Grasmere UK 15th-18th July 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Programming by maternal over-nutrition: a developing obesity crisis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Seminar Series MRI, Cambridge, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Seminar Series 2010 MRI, 12 May 2010, Cambridge
"Developmental programming and ageing"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Society for Maternal and Fetal Medicine 40th Annual Pregnancy Meeting Texas, USA 3rd - 8th February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited speaker. Talk title: Comparative impact of pharmacological treatments for gestational diabetes on neonatal anthropometry: systematic review and meta-analysis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Summer School, University of Angers. What is fetal programming? Angers, France 29th June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact University of Angers summer school. What is fetal programming? Angers, France 26th June - 7th July 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Tea Talk Series, Dept of Zoology, Cambridge, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Tea Talk Series, Dept of Zoology, 21 January 2010, Cambridge
"The developmental origins of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome"

NA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description The influence of early diet on the ageing trajectory 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk given at the China/UK Joint Workshop on Healthy Ageing - Diet and nutrition across the life course, Beijing, China

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010