Energisation of nitrogen fixation in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

Lead Research Organisation: John Innes Centre
Department Name: Molecular Microbiology

Abstract

Bacteria are simple single celled organisms that lack the membrane bound structures found in higher cells of plants and animals. However, while bacteria may have a less complex cellular organisation they carry out a huge range of chemical reactions not found in plants and animals. Bacteria are responsible for the cycling of many nutrients such as N2 (N2 is also known as nitrogen gas and consists of two nitrogen atoms bound by a strong triple bond), which is a very inert atmospheric gas. N2 makes up 78% of the atmosphere but is very unreactive and cannot be used directly as a source of nitrogen, which is needed for amino acid, protein and DNA synthesis. However, a small number of bacteria can reduce (add hydrogen) to N2 and convert it into ammonia (NH3), which is readily incorporated into amino acids and then all the other building blocks of life, by a wide range of organisms including bacteria and plants. In many parts of the world the limitation to growth of plants, which in turn support animal life, is the supply of nitrogen as ammonia or related compounds. Since up to 65% of available nitrogen (eg ammonia) comes from bacteria this makes them essential for life on earth. Within the bacteria, most of the nitrogen is actually produced by one family known as the Rhizobiacea. This remarkable group of bacteria form a symbiotic association (both partners benefit) with plants of the legume family, that results in the formation of root nodules (on pea plants these are 2-3 mm bulbs that can easily be seen by pulling up a plant and inspecting its roots). The rhizobia are held inside the nodules where the plant provides them with an ideal environment (low O2 and lots of energy) in which they can reduce N2 to ammonia. The ammonia is supplied to the plant as its nitrogen source so this is why this is known as a symbiotic interaction. It means that the plant does need any nitrogen in the soil and enables rapid growth. The purpose of this research is to understand the type of fuel provided by the plant to power the fixation of N2 to ammonia by the bacteria. Questions include how is the fuel delivered to the bacteria and how do they metabolise (break it down) it to simpler compounds. Finally, we want to know whether, apart from ammonia, the bacteria secrete other compounds to the plant.

Technical Summary

The Aap and Bra are broad specificity amino acid transporters that are essential for productive N2-fixation in peas (Hosie et al., 2001; Hosie et al., 2002; Lodwig et al., 2003; Prell & Poole, 2006; White et al., 2007) and in recent ground-breaking work we have concluded they secrete alanine as part of a GABA-alanine-cycle operating in nodules. The oxo-acid generated by this cycle is succinate semialdehyde, which our calculations reveal has one of the lowest redox potentials of any compound in intermediary metabolism. Its midpoint potential is less than that of ferredoxin and is therefore ideally suited for the generation of reductant for nitrogenase. Furthermore, the GABA-alanine cycle bypasses a large part of the TCA-cycle, suggesting that central metabolism may be completely changed in legume bacteroids; explaining why many TCA-cycle mutants are able to fix nitrogen in planta. It is crucial to determine whether the GABA-alanine- and TCA-cycles function alone or in combination to drive N2-fixation in Rhizobium-legume symbioses to underpin the global nitrogen cycle. We therefore propose to determine how GABA is metabolised to balance bacteroid metabolism and fuel N2-fixation, and how this is integrated with the TCA-cycle. The very low midpoint potential of succinate semialdehyde is an extraordinarily powerful reason for bacteroid metabolism to use semialdehyde oxidation and may be important in generating a global redox switch for N2-fixation in legume nodules. Thus, the GABA-alanine-cycle may explain both how carbon and nitrogen are exchanged between the plant and bacterial symbionts, as well as provide a powerful chemical rationale for how reduction of N2 is achieved.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Bacteria are simple single celled organisms that lack the membrane-bound structures found in higher cells of plants and animals. However, while bacteria may have a less complex cellular organisation they carry out a huge range of chemical reactions not found in plants and animals. Bacteria are responsible for the cycling of many nutrients such as nitrogen, which is a very inert atmospheric gas. Although nitrogen makes up 78% of the atmosphere it cannot be used directly as a source of nitrogen, which is needed for amino acid, protein and DNA synthesis. However, a small number of bacteria can reduce (add hydrogen) to nitrogen and convert it into ammonia (NH3), which is readily incorporated into amino acids and then all the other building blocks of life, by a wide range of organisms including animals and plants. In many parts of the world the limitation to growth of plants, which in turn support animal life, is the supply of nitrogen as ammonia or related compounds. Since up to 65% of available nitrogen (e.g. ammonia) comes from bacteria this makes them essential for life on earth. Within the bacteria, most of the nitrogen is actually produced by one family known as the Rhizobiacea. This remarkable group of bacteria form a symbiotic association (both partners benefit) with plants of the legume family, that results in the formation of root nodules (on pea plants these are 2-3 mm 'bulbs' that can easily be seen by pulling up a plant and inspecting its roots). The rhizobia are held inside the nodules where the plant provides them with an ideal environment in which they can produce ammonia. The ammonia is supplied to the plant as its nitrogen source so this is why this is known as a symbiotic interaction. It means that the plant does need any nitrogen in the soil and enables rapid growth. The purpose of this research is to understand the type of fuel provided by the plant to power the fixation of nitrogen to ammonia by the bacteria. We have performed experiments to map bacterial metabolism leading to a greater understanding of the symbiotic process.
Exploitation Route This work forms a basis for extending nitrogen-fixation to non-legume (crop) plants.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS
Amount £1,146,829 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L011484/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2018
 
Description India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC)
Amount £1,680,948 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N013387/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria
Amount £4,496,752 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N003608/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria (Co-I with Prof. Martin Buck as Lead PI)
Amount £4,496,752 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N003608/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description Mechanism of global regulation of ATP dependent transporters by PTS-NTR
Amount £520,908 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K006134/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2013 
End 02/2016
 
Description Rhizobium bacteroid development
Amount £556,695 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/J007749/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2012 
End 04/2015
 
Description Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture (Co-I with Prof. Ray Dixon as Lead PI)
Amount £1,624,659 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N013476/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2019
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Aberystwyth University
Department Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Department ICAR - Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
Country India 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Department ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science
Country India 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Department Department of Bio-Chemistry
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation The Energy and Resources Institute
Country India 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation University of Calcutta
Department Department of BioChemistry
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation University of Hyderabad
Department Department of Plant Sciences
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Nitrogen economy of bacteria 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Imperial College Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules.
Collaborator Contribution Focus on establishing the mechanistic basis of signal perception and propagation that operates to allow the appropriate adaptive patterns of gene expression to be mounted. Study of bacterial systems, of agronomic, medical and industrial relevance. Computational systems biology, drawing together information from macromolecular sequences, protein structures, biological networks and other experimental data to study the evolution and function of biological systems. Emphasis on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit.
Impact Funding obtained from BBSRC for sLoLa 'Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria' Grant Ref: BB/N003608/1. 2nd Jan 2016-1st Jan 2020
Start Year 2014
 
Description Nitrogen economy of bacteria 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Imperial College Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules.
Collaborator Contribution Focus on establishing the mechanistic basis of signal perception and propagation that operates to allow the appropriate adaptive patterns of gene expression to be mounted. Study of bacterial systems, of agronomic, medical and industrial relevance. Computational systems biology, drawing together information from macromolecular sequences, protein structures, biological networks and other experimental data to study the evolution and function of biological systems. Emphasis on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit.
Impact Funding obtained from BBSRC for sLoLa 'Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria' Grant Ref: BB/N003608/1. 2nd Jan 2016-1st Jan 2020
Start Year 2014
 
Description Nitrogen economy of bacteria 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules.
Collaborator Contribution Focus on establishing the mechanistic basis of signal perception and propagation that operates to allow the appropriate adaptive patterns of gene expression to be mounted. Study of bacterial systems, of agronomic, medical and industrial relevance. Computational systems biology, drawing together information from macromolecular sequences, protein structures, biological networks and other experimental data to study the evolution and function of biological systems. Emphasis on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit.
Impact Funding obtained from BBSRC for sLoLa 'Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria' Grant Ref: BB/N003608/1. 2nd Jan 2016-1st Jan 2020
Start Year 2014
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation Montana State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation Plant Biology Division
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation University of Wisconsin-Madison
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description BASF Symposium 'Unlocking Yield Potential in Soil', Germany, October 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk provided plenty of questions from audience.

Increase interest in my work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Back2Roots Advisor, annual project meeting. Jan 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International advisor to the Back2Roots research programme in the Netherlands
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Bacterial World, Natural History Museum, Oxford, Dec 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Phil gave a talk to school children on an open day at the museum as part of the Bacterial World exhibition.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/bacterialworld/
 
Description Bayer Crop Science 16th-17th Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Bayer Crop Science 16th-17th Feb 2016. A group of academics advised industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Botanic Gardens seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I talked to the Botanic Gardens about nitrogen and humanity

Lots of questions and feedback. This is widely advertised to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Bring and share pulse lunch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Bring and share pulse lunch to celebrate world pulse day 18th Jan 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Development of Poole Lab website (Rhizosphere.org) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Rhizosphere website is used to describe work performed, profiles lab members, lists outreach activities and celebrates achievements. Also includes a list of Lab publications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org
 
Description ENFC, Budapest posters and talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact An international conference. Group members presented posters and gave talks to approx. 500 scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description European Nitrogen Fixation Conference (ENFC), Spain, Sept 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk led to plenty of discussion. The six posters from the group which were also presented were well attended and provoked interest.

Improved collaboration with international colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Facebook LIVE video by Oxford Sparks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Oxford Sparks FacebookLIVE podcast on nitrogen and the importance of nitrogen-fixing legumes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/OxSparks/videos/1210777428999882/
 
Description FacebookLIVE - the future of food 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Facebook LIVE podcast in association with Oxford Sparks (latest 6.6k views)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/OxSparks/videos/1210777428999882/
 
Description Gatsby Plant Science Summer School, Hawkshill, July 2018 (Phil Poole, Vinoy Ramachandran) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Summer school for undergraduates interested in Plant Sciences. Phil gave a talk. Vinoy attended as a post-doc mentor to the undergraduates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Give peas a chance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We made a film with Oxford sparks on nitrogen fixation

Lots os hits on the web site
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Graduate School Speaker, Lunteren, The Netherlands, April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Graduate School Speaker, Lunteren, The Netherlands, April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Conference on Nitrogen Fixation (ICNF) Asilomar, USA, Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk led to discussions. Poster sparked interest amongst audience.

Interest and approval of work from respected colleagues. Discussion of new ideas in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description KEYS conference, Amsterdam, June 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Gave a talk to an industry-sponsored conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Lecture at Cirencester Science and Technology Society, Royal Agricultural University, 9th May 2018, (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture given to general public interested in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany Dec 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Seminar and discussion with colleagues at Max Planck Institue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Meeting minds Oxford Alumni 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a talk to the Oxford biological sciences Alumni

Enthusiastic response from the audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Michigan State University, student workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Student workshop at an American University where I was an international expert.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description NIAB-East Malling Research seminar series, Jan 2019 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lunch time seminar at Research Institute. Spent much of the day in discussion with colleagues there.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Organised OxBacNet meeting - Feb 2018 (Alison East) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact University of Oxford, Bacteriology Symposium and Network meeting. Held three times a year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/oxbacnet/
 
Description Oxford Botanic Gardens Seminar Series, Nov 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Evening seminar to interested members of general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Research Seminar, Lisbon, March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research Seminar, Lisbon, March 2017 at II Semana Bioengenharia, Instuto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, UK. Seminar, 29th April 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, UK. Seminar, 29th April 2016, addressed audience made up of academic colleagues and post-grad students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Schools one week Intensive course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Intensive one week course for A level students in practical plant and microbial science

Students all keen to apply for science based university courses
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar, University of Southampton, Feb 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar, Crop Systems Engineering Seminar Series, University of Southampton, Feb 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Society for General Microbiology 'Emerging Challenges and Opportunities in Soil Microbiology', Loughborough, Sept. 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk led to discussions

Audience showed interest and discussions were had with colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Talk to Zoological Society of London, London Zoo,13th March 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar to an audience interested in science, but not specialists in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Thatcher Development Programme's Foundation Day Panel Discussion, 'Climate Change: Approaches and Innovations for the Future' - Feb 208 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Broad-ranging panel discussion with students from different disciplines held at Somerville College, Oxford.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description The Microbiome: human medicine and agriculture in a bacterial world, Royal Society, Oct 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Royal Society organised two days of discussion to formulate policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Queen's College, seminar series (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Queen's College, seminar series (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) Title: Life Underground: The basis and future of agriculture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Twitter account Rhizosphere @PooleLabOxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Twitter account to publicise the work of the Poole Lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com
 
Description University of York, Dept. of Biology invited seminar- Feb 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar and active discussion with members of Dept. of Biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description VI Annual Meeting of the Plant Genetic and Biotechnology Network, Graduate School, Italy, June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact VI Annual Meeting of the Plant Genetic and Biotechnology Network, Graduate School, Italy, June 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Visit to Murdoch University, WA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Spent 1 month in Australia as Sir Walter Murdoch Adjunct Professor with Australian colleagues. Liaising, gave a seminar and got involved with their research activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit to Murdoch University, Western Australia as Sir Walter Murdoch Visiting Fellow, Dec 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Visit to another laboratory for several weeks. Included giving two seminars and extended discussions with colleagues in the field.

Strong ties formed and fostered with the research groups in universities in Western Australia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Winchester College, Nov 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Phil gave a talk to the students of Winchester College.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Wow! How? Family Science Fair, March 2013, 2014, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Demonstrations stimulated discussion about simple science with children aged 5-10yrs and their parents/carers

Favourable comments from the audience on how the stand sparked their interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Wymondham academy school visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk to 6th form students to encourage them to consider science as a career

Students keen to apply for university places
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014