Effects of Fruit Juice Processing and Human Metabolism on the Functionality of Anthocyanins for Cardiovascular Health

Lead Research Organisation: University of East Anglia
Department Name: Norwich Medical School

Abstract

People who consume the highest quantities of fruits and vegetables appear to be more protected against heart disease than those who consume lower quantities. Evidence suggests that this protective effect is in part the result of substances in the fruits and vegetables called polyphenols. In recent years, berries and berry derived juices and wines have been promoted as especially healthy foods as they are high in a particular class of polyphenol called anthocyanins. These anthocyanins are reported to have activities that benefit the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and specifically stiffness of the arteries results from accumulated damage to blood vessel walls. There is a single layer of cells that lines the blood vessels which is sensitive to agents/compounds within the blood. When this layer is damaged as a result of injury or chronic disease, it loses its ability to maintain normal blood vessel function and becomes prone to processes that lead to heart disease. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin containing foods have been shown to have direct protective effects on this cell layer, thus restoring proper function to the blood vessels. However, the anthocyanins in the foods we eat often become altered during standard food processing and storage conditions, an effect that is believed to negatively alter their function relative to those in raw fruits or vegetables. As well, when we eat anthocyanins they become modified by our bodies, resulting in drastic changes to their original form. Previous experiments have used unaltered or original forms of anthocyanins to explore how these compounds affect the cells in our bodies and blood vessels. However, no studies have explored the true activity of anthocyanins as they exist within our bodies, as altered products in our circulatory system resulting from changes during processing and digestion. The effects of these alterations on the disease fighting properties of anthocyanins are currently unknown and could be greater, different or impartial to what we currently perceive. The aim of the present program of research is to identify the actions of pure anthocyanins relative to their altered products of processing and digestion on CVD risk. In order to determine their functions, we must first identify their forms in the body after we eat them. We will identify changes that occur to anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, the most abundant anthocyanin in nature) in common fruit juices on the UK market, during standard processing and storage conditions. We will also feed human participants a pure anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) in order to trace its path and alteration through the body. We will then study the effects of the identified compounds on CVD risk by exploring their activities on the cells (cultured-cells) lining our blood vessels. With this study we hope to prove the usefulness of anthocyanins as a dietary treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, using the relevant compounds found in the body; thus providing informed advice on the health benefits of anthocyanins. The results of this study are also relevant to agricultural industries as levels of anthocyanins in food crops can be easily increased using breeding strategies and pre and post harvest manipulation. This project is particularly relevant to the processed food and beverage industry, as although the alteration of anthocyanins during food processing has generally been considered of negative consequence, the proposed research could establish this as a neutral or potentially beneficial outcome; providing valuable evidence to support the use of fruit juices for the delivery of beneficial components for health. This proposal will also generate findings that may be useful for future studies aimed at investigating the relative activity of other dietary polyphenols, such as those found in coffee, tea, wine or chocolate.

Technical Summary

We hypothesise that the bioactivity of dietary anthocyanins is not directly related to their parent structures, but mediated by metabolites of their degradation products, whose mechanistic activities have yet to be explored. Preliminary evidence in our lab (pilot data) suggests that the majority of anthocyanins are likely present in the blood as metabolites of phenolic acid and aldehyde derivatives, of which we aim to investigate their mechanisms of action. In this proposal we plan to profile and identify structural changes that occur to anthocyanins during standard processing and storage conditions of common fruit juices on the UK market known to be high in anthocyanins. We will conduct human and cell based investigations to identify the bioavailable structures and cardiovascular mechanisms of action of anthocyanins using synthesised pure C-3-G and its respective degradation products and metabolites. A human 48h stable-isotope recovery trial will be conducted utilising 13C-labeled C-3-G to determine the pharmacokinetics of the parent compounds and their metabolites. Labelled compounds will be identified in the serum, urine, faeces and expired air. Anthocyanins will be quantified using HPLC- and GC-MS and isotope ratio GC-MS. Vascular mechanisms of action will be identified in a series of cell (HUVEC) studies using synthesised degradation products and metabolites as identified in the processed juices and human intervention. Gene and protein expression of eNOS, NADPH-oxidase, endothelin-1, IL-6, TNF-a, and VCAM will be determined using RT-PCR, ELISAs' and western blotting. This study will provide new insight into the true cardiovascular mechanisms of action of anthocyanins, in addition to detailing absorption, metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the physiological relevant bioactives. In general, this experimental approach provides a model for defining the active molecules responsible for the health benefits of all flavonoids in processed foods.

Planned Impact

This proposal fulfills the main objectives of DRINC, including improvement of human health and quality of life, providing evidence to benefit and increase opportunities for crops and crop production and providing research required to fulfil the increasing appetite of the public for healthier foods. The findings from this project will provide potential evidence on the benefits to public health of consuming processed fruit products; which is important given the current low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables in the UK diet. This will have implications for policy makers such as the FSA, as data provided could establish juices as having equivalent or greater health benefits compared to fresh fruit, indicating an elevated importance in the context of the current 5-a-day policy. The impact of processing on food bioactivity as explored in this proposal may identify dietary constituents that could be exploited as novel bioactives with potential functional-food, pharmaceutical and agricultural implications. Establishing the bioactivity of anthocyanin degradation products will offer commercial benefit and enhance the economic competitiveness of the UK, through providing evidence required to market products with known contents of these bioactive components as 'functional-foods' for health and well being. Providing proof of the health benefits of anthocyanin degradation products also holds industrial and agricultural benefit as anthocyanin levels in food crops could be easily modified using pre and post harvest manipulation or plant breeding or genetic approaches to produced increased concentrations of anthocyanins in plants, and therefore increased levels of degradation products in processed foodstuffs. The information generated in this project with provide critical early stage data on bioavailability and bioactivity to inform further studies to support potential health claims around the bioactivity of processed foods. Establishing levels of bioactive degradation products in juices will help estimate optimal dietary levels for human interventions and assist in designing future projects exploring levels of degradation products in other processed foods, establishing safety and bioactivity in cell/animal models and ultimately conducting large-scale, long-term dietary interventions to determine effects on chronic disease outcomes and ultimately providing proof of functionality. This proposed research programme has significant industrial impact and Coca-Cola Europe, Nestlé and GSK have expressed interest, in addition to acknowledging its potential usefulness in marketing and manufacturing (refer to attached statements of industrial support). Having strong support from industry establishes the relevance and importance of this project and improves the likelihood that the research will have impact on manufacturing and processing methods, product development and marketing strategies. This project will provide potential training and opportunities for two Postdoctoral Fellows and one PhD student to work in an experienced and multi-disciplinary team and develop advanced professional skills in nutrition, cell biology, analytical biochemistry and synthetic chemistry. This diverse skill-set is rarely seen within any one of these respective fields and will provide an invaluable foundation for a career in academia, industry or the pharmaceutical research sector. The outcomes and impact of the project will be disseminated through participation at planned workshops (i.e., BBSRC/DRINC consortium, BNF, FSA), industry led seminars (i.e, Leatherhead Foods International training conferences, and supporting industrial partners, including GSK, Nestlé, Cocoa-Cola Europe and Unilever), public presentations and workshops, media briefings, via the websites of the applicants, and to the scientific community through the production of high quality scientific papers and presentations at national and international conferences.

Publications

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De Ferrars RM (2014) The pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and their metabolites in humans. in British journal of pharmacology

 
Description This project aimed to establish the health effects of a class of dietary plant pigments called anthocyanins, by identifying their changes in dietary sources (such as fruit juices) and in the human body after they are consumed. The project involved the study of juice processing and storage, human metabolism, and human cell-culture studies exploring the cardiovascular bioactivity of anthocyanin-derived human metabolites.

The initial study of juice processing and storage revealed differential and relatively small losses (0.7-6.4%) of anthocyanins in cranberry, blackcurrant and raspberry derived-juices during processing; however, the refrigerated storage of juices over four months resulted in substantial losses in anthocyanin content (up to 100%). The apparent loss was not associated with breakdown or degradation to phenolic acids but rather the formation of new, larger structures, which warrant further investigation. This is presently being explored in collaboration with the University of California Davis as part of a BBSRC International Partnering Award exploring flavonoid polymer formation. The potential impact of processing on food bioactivity, as explored in the present proposal identified new dietary constituents that could be exploited as novel bioactives in the future, however this requires further research. As juices are a major source of anthocyanins to the consumer, this work holds particular relevance to the juice industry but perhaps also the public, given the contribution of fruit juices to daily fruit and vegetable intakes and the current low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables in the UK.

The result of our study feeding pure labelled anthocyanins to humans indicates that 45% of a single dose of anthocyanins is recovered in the urine, breath and faeces within 48 hours of consumption. In addition, as 6% of the dose was recovered in the urine and 7% in the breath, this indicates that anthocyanins are approximately 13% bioavailable (i.e., available in the systemic circulation to act upon our cells to elicit a biological response). The evidence also indicates that anthocyanin absorption and clearance from the body is highly variable between participants. Here we identified 31 unique metabolites of anthocyanins in the blood and urine, indicating anthocyanins are extensively metabolised and the metabolites are present in the circulation at much higher levels than the anthocyanins themselves (as un-metabolised forms). These results suggest that anthocyanin metabolites likely hold the key to understanding how anthocyanins work within the body to elicit their reported health effects.

The metabolites identified in the human trial were screened for their health effects using established human cell culture models, where the metabolites appeared to improve key mediators of healthy blood vessel function, such as increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced superoxide production. Both of these changes would theoretically lead to improved heart health. In models simulating the early stages of diminished blood vessel function or heart stress, the metabolites of anthocyanins were able reduce the production of markers of heart disease progression, such as cytokines and adhesion proteins. Together this suggests that the metabolism of anthocyanins could increase their activity in the body. Based on the results of the cell culture experiments, the metabolites of anthocyanins have significant biological activity and these metabolites should therefore be the focus of further investigations exploring the mechanism behind anthocyanins reported health effects.

The findings of the juice, human and cell analysis should provide useful information required for the design of clinical studies required for establishing health claims for anthocyanin-rich foods. The findings of this research could also ultimately help the Food Standards Agency develop more informed policies regarding guidelines for heart healthy diets.
Exploitation Route The findings from this project will provide evidence on the potential benefits to public health of consuming processed fruit products; which is important given the current low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables in the UK diet. The impact of processing on food bioactivity as explored in this proposal identify dietary constituents that could be exploited as novel bioactives with potential functional-food, pharmaceutical and agricultural implications.



Establishing the bioactivity of anthocyanin metabolites offers commercial benefit and enhances the economic competitiveness of the UK, through providing evidence required to market products with known contents of these bioactive components as 'functional-foods' for health and wellbeing. Providing proof of the health benefits of anthocyanin metabolites also holds industrial and agricultural benefit as anthocyanin levels in food crops could be easily modified using pre- and post-harvest manipulation or plant breeding or genetic approaches to produced increased concentrations of anthocyanins in plants.



Our findings relative to metabolism and bioactivity will inform future studies necessary for the establishment of health claims for anthocyanin containing foods. As juices are likely to be the major delivery vehicle of anthocyanins to the consumer, this work holds particular relevance to the juice industry. Findings from this research could ultimately help the Food Standards Agency and other EU government agencies develop more informed policies regarding dietary guidelines for the prevention of CVD. A pure 13-carbon enriched 'fit-for-consumption' anthocyanin (13C5-C3G) was developed for use in human tracer studies for establishing the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) of anthocyanins in humans. This synthesis strategy was published in Chemical Communications (Qingzhi Zhang, Nigel P. Botting and Colin Kay: 2011;47:10596-10598) and provides detailed methodology for others to reproduce this work.



Recently published data from our 13C5-C3G ADME trial (Czank et al., 2013 AJCN; in press, publication date 14/04/2014) identified multiple structural targets (i.e., novel metabolites) for exploring the mechanistic bioactivities of anthocyanins in cell culture models in addition to providing pharmacokinetic data necessary for the design of future clinical trials measuring acute bioactivity. Ultimately this data is necessary for building a portfolio of evidence for industry to apply for future health claims for anthocyanin rich foods.



An analytical methods paper has been prepared for publication, providing detailed and validated methodology appropriate for others to measure anthocyanin metabolites identified in human ADME trials exploring the metabolism and bioavailabity of anthocyanins from dietary sources. Again, these data are essential to building a portfolio of evidence for industry to apply for future health claims and the FSA to validate such claims.



The metabolites identified in the human trial were screened for their health effects using established human cell culture models, where the metabolites appeared to improve key mediators of healthy blood vessel function, such as increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced superoxide production. Both of these changes would theoretically lead to improved heart health. In models simulating the early stages of diminished blood vessel function or heart stress, the metabolites of anthocyanins were able reduce the production of markers of heart disease progression, such as cytokines and adhesion proteins. Together this suggests that the metabolism of anthocyanins could increase their activity in the body. Based on the results of the cell culture experiments, the metabolites of anthocyanins have significant biological activity and these metabolites should therefore be the focus of further investigations exploring the mechanism behind anthocyanins reported health effects.



The stability of juice pigments (anthocyanins) during processing and storage was established for three common berry-derived juices (cranberry, blackcurrant and raspberry) and the data was presented at international conferences and to industry partners at multiple BBSRC dissemination events. This data is useful in the future development of juices aimed at delivering high quantities of potentially bioactive anthocyanins to the consumer/public.



This project is of particular importance to flavonoid researchers as the study design outlines an experimental approach for defining the active molecules responsible for the health benefits of flavonoids in processed foods; an approach which may be applied to future studies on other food-based bioactives such as cocoa, coffee, tea and wine polyphenols. Our findings relative to juice processing provide evidence on the structure of novel compounds found in stored berry juice concentrates, which can be utilised for the design of future dietary studies using juices.



Ultimately, the present project provides valuable information regarding absorption and clearance of anthocyanins and the identity of important metabolites as potential biomarkers of intake for future studies. Our findings relative to metabolism and bioactivity can be used to inform future studies necessary for the establishment of health claims for anthocyanin containing foods. This project also provides valuable evidence for academics, supporting the importance of studying the bioactivity of phytochemical metabolites.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Retail

URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01106729?term=Colin+Kay&rank=1
 
Description BBSRC DRINC Travel Fund Award
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Funding ID R21509 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2013 
End 06/2013
 
Description BBSRC DRINC round-3 award
Amount £357,230 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/I006028/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2010 
End 10/2013
 
Description California Strawberry Commission
Amount $57,497 (USD)
Organisation California Strawberry Commission 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 05/2016 
End 04/2018
 
Description Norwich Rsearch Park Enterprise and Engagement award, 2014
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Norwich Research Park 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 10/2015
 
Description The collective bioactivity of dietary flavonoids: importance of specific structural characteristics for cardiovascular benefits
Amount £91,932 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/J500100/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2011 
End 10/2015
 
Description USA Partnering Award BB/J020001/1
Amount £39,364 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/J020001/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 05/2016
 
Description Centre for Nutrition Research 
Organisation Centre for Nutrition Research
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Data and publications following BBSRC Project feeding a labelled anthocyanin to human participants led to both parties approaching one another to develop a collaboration which initiated with the application to the California Strawberry Commission to explore anthocyanin metabolites in clinical samples
Collaborator Contribution collaboration on clinical trial
Impact to commence in May 2016
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Andrew Waterhouse of University of California Davis 
Organisation University of California, Davis
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dissemination of BBSRC DRINC results at a recent conference led to a successful BBSRC US partnering Award (BB/J020001/1) with the University of California Davis to foster future collaboration, training and knowledge transfer
Collaborator Contribution harmonized methodologies for the analysis of anthocyanins on different analytical platforms within UCD and UEA
Impact NA
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with F.S of University of California Davis 
Organisation University of California, Davis
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dissemination of BBSRC DRINC results at an invited lecture at the University of California Davis led to collaboration with the Department of Nutrition to foster future collaboration on the analysis of flavonoids in clinical samples from an ongoing clinical intervention
Collaborator Contribution collaboration on clinical study analysis
Impact NA
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with M.O. Department of Pharmacy, UEA 
Organisation University of East Anglia
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dissemination of data from the present grant led to collaboration with the University of East Anglia on a successful collaborative BBSRC DRINC round 3 grant award (BB/I006028/1)
Collaborator Contribution grant development
Impact award of BBSRC DRINC award
Start Year 2011
 
Description Collaboration with Plant Science Group, Cranfield University, Cranfield, 2013 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration established through attendance at BBSRC DRINC dissemination events led to meeting with staff in the department of Health at Cranfield University which lead to a formal collaboration to explore future projects with industry and grant applications to the BBSRC
Collaborator Contribution development of BBSRC Project grant application
Impact Development of BBSRC project grant application and award of internal funding support through industry engagement grant
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Stable Isotope laboratory, University of Glasgow 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration established through attendance at BBSRC DRINC dissemination events led to IRMS analysis of samples from human feeding study at the Stable Isotope laboratory, University of Glasgow leading to future dissemination and publication.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Cranfield University Collaboration 
Organisation Cranfield University
Department Agrifood
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration was developed through attending DRINC meetings, leading to development of a BBSRC DRINC proposal submitted 2016 titles 'Monitoring bioactive flux in functional beverages'. Start date September 2016
Collaborator Contribution development of a BBSRC DRINC proposal submitted 2016 titles 'Monitoring bioactive flux in functional beverages'. Start date September 2016
Impact development of a BBSRC DRINC proposal submitted 2016 titles 'Monitoring bioactive flux in functional beverages'. Start date September 2016
Start Year 2014
 
Description PepsiCo Collaboarative Meeting at Cranfield University, Oct 2014 
Organisation PepsiCo
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Proposal outlined to members of PepsiCo research and nutrition divisions exploring development of processing technology
Collaborator Contribution Met for a 4 hour meeting to explore future engagement and TSB application
Impact None as of yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Industrial Dissemination Workshop: GSK Nutritional Healthcare Future Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 8 academics and 5 GSK employees attended a consultancy workshop on the implications of flavonoids in food, health and future product development

Explored future formal collaborations between GSK (industry) and the Norwich Research Park
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Internal School Seminar Series (University of East Anglia) to PhD students and academic staff 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 60+ PhD students and members of academic staff attended a UEA internal seminar series 'Cell, Development and Biomedicine Seminars': Oral presentation - 'Implications of photochemical bioactivity: studies on structural stability, metabolism and molecular mechanisms of action of anthocyanins'

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Invited Keynote presentation, Wild Blueberry Association (WBANA) 16th Annual Summit, Bar Harbor, Maine, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 40 academics, marketing, industrial research and distribution employees attended the three day workshop to promote future research, marketing and development of the wild blueberry industry.

contributed to future marketing strategies of the wild blueberry association and developed new international collaborations and research funding opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited Lecture at The Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy; University of Reading 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 30-50 PhD students and academic staff attending an Invited Lecture at The Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy; University of Reading Oral presentation - 'Anthocyanin Absorption, Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics in Humans: potential impact on bioactivity'; a question and answer period followed discussion method development and optimisation.

A lab visit followed the lecture and future collaborative opportunities were discussed. In addition membership on thesis examination committees were established between Reading and UEA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Invited Seminar to MARS research and the department of Nutrition, University of California, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact 35 Academics, PhD students and Research associates attended the seminar 'Establishing the effectiveness of dietary flavonoids in improving health, through understanding the structural activity relationships of their metabolites' Presented to the Department of Nutrition & Mars Research Division Sept 25, 2014, UC Davis, CA.


no notable impacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited Speaker and Session Chair : Experimental Biology, March 28-April 1, Beltsville, MD. - The bioactivity of flavonoids is likely the result of cumulative low exposure to a variety of structurally similar phenolic metabolites. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Health professionals
Results and Impact talk sparked many questions from policy makers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited Speaker: Food Matters Live, November 19, 2015, London UK. Naturally functional 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk sparked questions for discussion with industry and KTN attendees

unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited Speaker: National Berry Health Benefits Symposium, October 13-15, Madison, Wisconsin. Newly discovered bioactive metabolites of berry anthocyanins: potential health effects and implications for future research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact sparked questions relating to the future of phytochemical research and health claims for foods rich in flavonoids

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited Speaker: Nutraformulate, March 17-18, Birmingham, UK. Exploring the impact of commercial and biological processing on the functionality of flavonoids: a summary of the findings and implications of recent BBSRC DRINC-funded research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact sparked talks with industry representatives

unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited Speaker: Wild Blueberry Association of North America (WBANA) 18th Annual Summit, Aug 5-7, Bar Harbor, Maine. Unravelling Bioavailability and Human Health: 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk changing way industry markets product

unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited speaker Internal Seminar, University Davis California, USA, 2012 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 30-50 academics and students from the departments of Viticulture, Food Science, Nutrition and Agriculture, from the University of California Davis, attended the Invited Lecture: Oral presentation

Collaborations stemming from this presentation have led to student exchange visits between the University of East Anglia and the University of California Davis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Plenary Lecture - International Workshop on Anthocyanins (IWA), 8th International Workshop on Anthocyanins, September 16-18, 2015, Montpellier France. Newly Discovered Metabolism & Health Effects of Anthocyanins: implications for future research and healt 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion regarding future of phytochemical research and development of health claims

Unknown
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public forum Norwich - Food for the Heart 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open Public Forum (100+ in attendance) at the Norwich Forum & public library where PhD Student posters were presented to members of the public

increased public awareness of diet and health and the impact of anthocyanin-rich foods on heart health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011