Community based interventions against Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis on the Jos Plateau Nigeria

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Veterinary Clinical Studies

Abstract

The project aims to develop novel ways of controlling animal trypanosomiasis. The Jos plateau in Nigeria is a heavily populated area home to almost a million cows kept by settled pastoralists who live alongside subsistence farmers. Trypanosomiasis causes severe production losses in livestock in this area, as it does through out Sub Saharan Africa. It affects the livelihoods of the poorest and most disenfranchised populations living in rural communities. The parasites that cause trypanosomiasis are transmitted by tsetse flies feeding on blood from an infected host. Treatment of the disease is both affordable and effective: a single treatment with a cheap injectable drug is sufficient to clear the animal of all circulating trypanosomes Therefore, although these parasites are a double constraint to development, their control is equally of double benefit to humans and their livestock. In the absence of large scale tsetse control programmes, sustainable methods of trypanosomiasis control need to be found. It is not appropriate or possible to treat every animal without the risk of resistance to the drugs developing. It is thus necessary to target interventions to high-risk carriers of disease amongst livestock and wildlife. In this project, we aim to (i) maximise livestock health through integrated disease management (ii) Identify the major risk factors for trypanosomiasis at different times and locations iii) formulate a policy for effective government support of community based disease management. The project will enable policy makers, public institutions, communities and individual smallholder farmers to identify appropriate and cost-effective methods for the sustainable farmer based control of trypanosomiasis in livestock.

Technical Summary

Livestock underpin poor rural livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa, but animal health is constrained by both epidemic and endemic diseases. The former are managed by national and regional control programmes whereas individual farmers control endemic diseases, with communities and local organisations providing support in decentralised and privatised systems. Animal trypanosomiasis constitutes a major endemic problem in tsetse-infested regions, reducing livestock product yields and devaluing farmers' investments - costing livestock producers and consumers an estimated US$1340 million annually. The Jos Plateau in North-Central Nigeria is a major cattle keeping area, holding ~ a million cows ( 7% of the national herd) kept by settled pastoralists practicing seasonal migration. It became tsetse infected in the early 1980's and trypanosomiasis is a recent problem in the area. While trypanosomiasis can be seen as a dual constraint to rural development its control presents a double benefit: improvements in livestock health having positive outcomes for human health well-being and development. We aim to develop novel integrated control strategies based on an understanding of the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in domestic livestock, Epidemiological theory will be integrated with quantitative field studies where pastoralists contend with trypanosomiasis and co-exist with subsistence farmers in an area with high land pressure. Research will target (i) pastoralists for whom simple and practical decision support tools are needed for livestock management and (ii), district and national level policy makers requiring decision support for endemic disease control.

Planned Impact

Livestock underpin livelihoods of the poor in rural Africa, providing meat, milk, manure draught power, and can be key financial and social assets. Without veterinary support, up to 25% of herds/flocks are lost to disease each year, amounting to US$120-$180 per annum per farmer - highly significant for those living on less than $1 per day. Animal trypanosomiasis reduces offtake of animal protein and other products. Animal trypanosomiasis is estimated to cost livestock producers and consumers US$1.3 billion annually, reducing livestock product yields and devaluing farmers' investments. Thus, from individual to government level control of human and animal trypanosomiases would have a large beneficial impact on economic development and animal health. Unlike top-down methodologies, farmer-based approaches to trypanosomiasis control are sustainable and have less environmental impact. Many poor people consider livestock the best option for escaping poverty and livestock play a major role in reducing vulnerability, either being sold to meet exceptional expenses or to mitigate the effects of crop failure. Livestock are popular investments for participants in credit programmes and are widely favoured by NGOs as a means of reducing poverty. Animal trypanosomiasis imposes a disproportionate burden on Fulani pastoralists as they often rely on livestock as their sole source of livelihood. Pastoralist women are also severely affected by the effects of trypanosomiasis on milk yields as they trade in dairy products. The project will include an extensive training programme including 2 post graduate positions at PhD level. In-service clinical training in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for animal trypanosomiasis for federal, state and local government veterinary and scientific staff participating in veterinary and medical cross-sectional studies and veterinary longitudinal observational and intervention studies. Enumerators will receive basic training in socioeconomic methodologies required for household surveys and economic studies. The project will have the following key outputs which will impact on the control of animal trypanosomiasis in the Sahel region of sub-Saharan Africa: (i) a comprehensive new understanding of transmission of trypanosomiasis on the Jos Plateau (ii) a new set of intervention methodologies for control of animal trypanosomiasis calibrated and validated for use in the Sahel region of West Africa; (iii) appropriate-technology decision support tools for diagnosis and treatment of animal trypanosomiasis validated for use in this transmission zone; (v) quantitative estimates of the economic burden of animal trypanosomiasis; (vi) Framework for effective, sustainable support of community based disease control strategies by government agencies. These outputs will be made available through appropriate dissemination pathways as a package of decision support tools appropriate for medical and veterinary policy makers, primary animal healthcare providers and rural populations in Africa. Dissemination pathways will include workshops, project reports, peer-reviewed scientific publications, press releases and briefing of local, governmental and international institutions. Dissemination will commence as soon as results become available in the second year of the project and continue until its conclusion .Finally, the project will provide CPD training to scientific and veterinary staff in Nigeria.

Publications

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Badejo, A. (2013) Gender and Sustainable Livelihoods in a Pastoral System in 5th Annual Medicine and the Social Sciences & Humanities Conference, Texas

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Ducrotoy MJ (2014) Brucellosis as an emerging threat in developing economies: lessons from Nigeria. in PLoS neglected tropical diseases

 
Description Notable results from this award are the high prevalence and clinical impact of tick-borne diseases and the clinical impact of helminths that affect the outcomes of trypanosomiasis in cattle.

Tsetse and trypanosomiasis populations were observed to be quite fragile and easily disrupted, interventions having a high impact on tryps prevalence in cattle. Vectocid significantly reduced the prevalence of trypanosomes in cattle. prevalence.

Research into how pastoralists diagnose disease in animals compared to how vets do it has given insights in how to more effectively communicate health care advice to pastoralists.
Exploitation Route Funding secured from NIHR - Tackling Infections to Benefit Africa (TIBA) Programme - Project "Contribution of maternal transmission and silent carriers in the epidemiology and persistence of African Trypanosomiasis in human and animal populations". This is a multi-site study : Uganda, Nigeria, South Sudan.

There is a need for a public awareness drive on tick borne diseases for pastoralist communities.

The impact of a large scale deworming exercises and application of Vectocid as additional control, together with treatment for trypanosomiasis should be evaluated over a 5 - 7 year period to look at impact on calving and productivity and the indirect impacts on human health and education of women.

Measures that simultaneously target all 3 endemic diseases would improve animal health but there is a lack of capacity and access to veterinary care that needs to be addressed.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description Our results are currently being used by the Plateau State government, National Veterinary Research Institute and Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research by: Disseminating project results to pastoral communities which opens further avenues for extension services Refining their recommendations to pastoralists for endemic disease control and increased productivity Refining allocation of resources and institutional cultures of collaboration to align with the reality of endemic diseases as Also being used by private sector feed and pharmaceutical industry partners to continue to expand their retail network amongst the Fulani in Plateau State in ways that meet pastoralist needs and circumvent barriers to access and uptake identified in this project.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy
Impact Types Cultural,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description GCRF-IAA
Amount £11,333 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/GCRF-IAA/06 
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Title Cattle weighing belts 
Description Cattle weighing belts developed by CEVA to aid accurate live weight estimation and therefore accurate drug dosage were trialled and adapted for use on White Fulani Cattle. These have since been put into use by field teams during surveys and introduced to Fulani herders 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact More pastoralists and healthcare practittioners are able to give accurate drug dosages based on animal weight as per manufacturers recommendations 
 
Title PCR-Reverse line blotting technique for molecular diagnosis of tick-borne diseases 
Description Improved molecular diagnostic technology to accurately speciate between the various pathogenic organisms that can be actively transmitted by ticks...... 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Training in this technique provided to collaborating scientists and students at the Utrecht Summer School Accurate identification of multiple pathogen infections in ticks and cattle leading to greater understanding of endemic disease in cattle in the study area 
 
Title PCR-microsatellite method for T. vivax population genetics 
Description Development of a combination PCR-microsatellite protocol to produce genotypes for T. vivax samples and determine the population genetics and geographical differences within the species 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Greater understanding of tsetse movement and invasion patterns in Nigeria 
 
Title Rickettsia diagnostic PCR 
Description Development of PCR protocols for species level identification of Rickettsia spp. pathogens within ticks and vertebrate hosts 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Identification and awareness of zoonotic risk of Rickettsia infections in North-Central NIgeria 
 
Description Adamore Ltd 
Organisation Adamore Nigeria
Country Nigeria 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Access to new markets for Adamore products Access to wide network of veterinary health practitioners
Collaborator Contribution Donation of drugs and insecticide for project Supply of veterinary products for retail venture to improve herders access to quality products
Impact Majekodunmi A. et al, Restricted Application of Insecticide for the control of trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases in Pastoral Cattle in Nigeria - in preparation
Start Year 2010
 
Description Advocacy for Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (ADVANZ) 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contribute data and networking resources to the platform Increased awareness of platform
Collaborator Contribution Access to wide network of contacts and resources related to One Health
Impact Collaborations with ICONZ, INZI, DDDAC, OH-NEXTGEN and associated outputs
Start Year 2011
 
Description CEVA Sante Animale 
Organisation Ceva Animal Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Access to new markets for CEVA products Access to wide network of veterinary health practitioners
Collaborator Contribution Donation of drugs and insecticide for project Supply of veterinary products for retail venture to improve herders access to quality products
Impact Majekodunmi A. et al, Restricted Application of Insecticide for the control of trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases in Pastoral Cattle in Nigeria - in preparation
Start Year 2010
 
Description DfID Research Into Use - Nigeria 
Organisation Government of the UK
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Joint supplementary feed and veterinary drug supply venture Provided access to large animal feed customer base for RIU farmers growing dual purpose cow-peas and those in the storage and processing network Provided access to staff time and expertise, transport and other facilities
Collaborator Contribution Joint supplementary feed and veterinary drug supply venture Provided access to large supply network for fodder and concentrate feeds Provided access to staff time and expertise, transport and other facilities
Impact Majekodunmi 2013 - Evaluation of Dry Season Supplementary Feed Ration on Productivity and Parasitic Diseases of Fulani White Cattle in Nigeria
Start Year 2010
 
Description Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium (DDDAC) 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Opportunity for further application/validation of DDDAC research Participated in project planning activities for Zambian projects
Collaborator Contribution Various team members visited Nigeria to share knowledge and experiences during engagement activities Contributed to project planning activities
Impact Anderson et al, 2011; Okello, Welburn and Smith, 2014; Okello, Bardosh et al, 2014;
Start Year 2012
 
Description Georgia Southern University 
Organisation Georgia Southern University
Department U.S. National Tick Collection
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed tick samples
Collaborator Contribution Provided training and access to expert knowledge and Tick database
Impact Lorusso, Gruszka et al, 2013, Lorusso, Picozzi et al, 2013
Start Year 2011
 
Description Georgia Southern University 
Organisation Georgia Southern University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed tick samples
Collaborator Contribution Provided training and access to expert knowledge and Tick database
Impact Lorusso, Gruszka et al, 2013, Lorusso, Picozzi et al, 2013
Start Year 2011
 
Description Integrated Control of Neglected Zoonoses (ICONZ) 
Organisation European Commission
Department Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Staff time and expertise for field-work, planning, analysis and writing. Shared use of transport and field and lab equipment and facilities Access to important contacts, particularly Nigerian Institute of Trypanosomiasis Research. Widened scope of research to include more diseases and socio-economic subjects so project more readily received by participants and results provide a more complete picture of the systems studied. Increased project efficiency by pooling material and human resources. Improved networking opportunities for students and post doctoral researchers
Collaborator Contribution Staff time and expertise for field-work, planning, analysis and writing. Shared use of transport and field and lab equipment and facilities. Access to important contacts, particularly Nigerian Veterinary Research Institute. Widened scope of research to include more diseases and socio-economic subjects so project more readily received by participants and results provide a more complete picture of the systems studied. Increased project efficiency by pooling material and human resources. Improved networking opportunities for students and post doctoral researchers
Impact Ducrotoy et al, 2014; Okello et al, 2014; Okello, Welburn and Smith, 2014; Santirso-Margaretto et al, 2014; Okello, Majekodunmi et al, 2014; Nnabuife et al,2013. Multidisciplinary collaboration: molecular diagnostics, epidemiology, One-Health, trypanosomiasis, brucellosis, animal health care delivery, social systems and governance
Start Year 2010
 
Description Investigating Networks of Zoonosis Innovation (INZI) 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Access to wide network of contacts Participation in project planning activities Participation in data analysis
Collaborator Contribution Access to wide network of contacts Participation in project planning activities Participation in data analysis Joint supervision of CIDLID PhD student
Impact Majekodunmi 2012; Badejo, 2013
Start Year 2011
 
Description Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research 
Organisation Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research
Country Nigeria 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provided training and experience for staff on multidisciplinary projects Widened scope of research to include more diseases and socio-economic subjects so that the project was more readily received by participants and results provide a more complete picture of the systems studied. Provided access to wide network of contacts and collaborations
Collaborator Contribution Main collaborator facilitating research with local knowledge, contacts, facilities, and government credibility Provided staff time and expertise for field-work, planning, analysis and writing. Provided transport and field and lab equipment and facilities
Impact 5 papers in preparation; 10 published articles; 15 conference papers/posters; 5 engagement activities with pastoral communities, press, policy makers and stakeholders . Disciplines include entomology, parasitology, epidemiology, molecular diagnostics, population genetics, pastoral livelihoods, agricultural economics, conflict studies, animal health care delivery and disease and vector control.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Nigerian Veterinary Research Institute 
Organisation National Veterinary Research Institute, Nigeria
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Enabled partnerships between Nigerian researchers in close proximity,encouraging One Health and the removal of institutional barriers to collaboration Provided opportunity for fieldwork resulting in 1 MSc qualification and publication Provided training and field experience for staff in multidisciplinary research
Collaborator Contribution Provided staff time and expertise for field-work, planning, analysis and writing. Provided shared use of transport and field and lab equipment and facilities Provided access to important contacts, particularly extension agents and contacts in the Kachia Grazing Reserve
Impact DUcrotoy et al, 2014; Santirso-Margaretto et al, 2014; NNabuife et al, 2013; Okello, Majekodunmi et al, 2014
Start Year 2010
 
Description OH-NEXTGEN 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Team members provided case study material, time and expertise to training courses
Collaborator Contribution Opportunities for networking and teaching experience
Impact Ducrotoy et al, 2014; Welburn, 2011
Start Year 2011
 
Description Stamp out Sleeping Sickness Uganda 
Organisation Co-ordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU)
Country Uganda 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Opportunity for further application/validation of outputs from Stamp Out Sleeping Sickness research
Collaborator Contribution Various team members visited Nigeria to share knowledge and experiences during engagement activities Contributed to project planning activities Participated in initial field studies
Impact Okello, Welburn and Smith, 2014; Okello, Bardosh et al, 2014; Lorusso, gruszka et al, 2013; Welburn, 2011
Start Year 2010
 
Description University of Ibadan 
Organisation University of Ibadan
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided PhD scholarship to recent Msc graduate Provided access to wide network of contacts, particularly Ugandan partners on Stamp out Sleeping sickness project Improved networking opportunities for post graduate students and junior faculty Strengthened collaboration between University of Ibadan and research institutes which improves opportunities for practical training for post graduate students
Collaborator Contribution Assisted in recruitment of PhD student Windsor Group activities
Impact Gender and Sustainable Livelihoods in a Pastoral System: Paper presented at the 5th Annual Medicine and the Social Sciences and Humanities Conference in Texas, February, 2013
Start Year 2010
 
Description University of Jos 
Organisation University of Jos
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided PhD scholarship to junior faculty member Provided access to wide network of contacts, particularly Ugandan partners on Stamp out Sleeping sickness project Improved networking opportunities for post graduate students and junior faculty Provided opportunity for recent MSc graduate on project field work. Strengthened collaboration between University of Jos and local research institutes which improves opportunities for practical training for post graduate students
Collaborator Contribution Assisted with recruitment of PhD student and field staff Provided access to wide network of local contacts
Impact 4 papers in preparation on entomology, parasitology, molecular diagnosis and population genetics
Start Year 2011
 
Description Utrecht University 
Organisation Utrecht University
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed knowledge and experience to teach summer school classes
Collaborator Contribution Provided training and experience in diagnostic techniques for tick-borne diseases
Impact Lorusso, Gruszka et al, 2013; Lorusso, Picozzi et al, 2013
Start Year 2011
 
Title Restricted application of Insecticide to cattle 
Description Application of 5% deltamethrin to tsetse and tick predilection sites only (legs, belly, ears) once a month has proved to be both effective and affordable for preventing trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases. This has been validated in controlled trials and field conditions in Uganda and now Nigeria. It is currently being promoted as a recommended preventinve method for these diseases and has acheived small-scale adoption amongst Fulani pastoralists in North-Central Nigeria 
Type Preventative Intervention - Physical/Biological risk modification
Current Stage Of Development Small-scale adoption
Year Development Stage Completed 2013
Development Status Actively seeking support
Impact Adoption leading to gradual change in disease control outlook of pastoralists from treatment to prevention 
 
Description Community Outreach, Jos Plateau, December 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Discussion brought about understanding of herder perceptions of disease and interventions desired by the community.


Established channels of communication between community and state and national government authorities which have been in use since
Feed and fodder shop post established with employment provided for 1 member of community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Community Outreach, Jos Plateau, June 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Established channels of communication between communities and state and national authorities
Obtained opinions and requests of target communities regarding project plans
Recordings made for national television program

Increased awareness of project aims and activities and willingness to participate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Community Outreach, Kachia Grazing Reserve, December 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Discussion brought about understanding of herder perceptions of disease and interventions desired by the community.


Established channels of communication between community and state and national government authorities which have been in use since then.
Feed and fodder shop established with employment provided for 1 member of community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Community Outreach, Kachia Grazing Reserve, June 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Established channels of communication between communities and state and national authorities
Obtained opinions and requests of target communities regarding project plans

Increased awareness of project aims and activities and willingness to participate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Press engagement day June 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Short presentation to journalists
Interviews with different stakeholders and project participants

publications in national press
Television and radio programs on national stations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Project meeting December 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Decisions made for project implementation

Opinions and requests of target communities incorporated in project working plans
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Project meeting June 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Review of background information. Plans made for 1st phase of project

Multi-disciplinary work ethic established amongst project partners and collaborators who have subsequently remained open to this way of working
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Project workshop June 2010 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentations from Stamp out Sleeping Sickness Uganda partners
Workshop activities to determine application within Nigeran context

Increased understanding and reception of One Health concepts amongst multidisciplinary partners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Utrecht University Summer School on "Molecular Recognition of Tick-borne Pathogens 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation generated questions and debate amongst students who then acquired skills during practical session

...
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012