3D histologically-detailed reconstruction of individual beating hearts: tools and application

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: RDM Cardiovascular Medicine

Abstract

The heart is an electrically controlled mechanical pump, whose dysfunction is incompatible with life. Both normal and disturbed activity are closely related to the fine architectural detail of the tissue that makes up the heart. Thus, the electrical signals that initiate contraction must first travel along every single of the millions of muscle cells in the heart, before each individual cell will shorten at its prescribed timing. Similarly, the forces produced by individual cells interact with, and are transmitted through, cell chains often referred to as muscle fibres. These muscle fibres are ordered in complex three-dimensional (3D) arrangements, joined together by non-muscle 'connective' tissue. This assembly is fundamental to healthy cardiac function, allowing the muscle not only to shorten, but also to thicken, in order to push blood out of the cardiac chambers and into the arteries that supply all organs of the body. A precise understanding of detailed cardiac tissue architecture would be of great importance for diagnosis of cardiac diseases, prediction of their progression, identification of useful treatment approaches, and even for doctors' teaching and training (the heart is one of the organs where 'learning by mistake' is not a viable option!). This clinical relevance is contrasted by the fact that, traditionally at least, establishing the architecture of any tissue meant 'slicing it up'. The study of cadaver organs, while historically fundamental in establishing anatomical insight, is equally not helpful to determine the properties of the beating heart. Recent improvements in non-invasive techniques, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), allow increasingly detailed insight into structure and function of internal organs. Even though these recordings are not yet sufficiently detailed to reliably identify fibre orientation in a patient's heart, the technology is moving in that general direction, and it is important that we start now to develop the tools required to handle the vast amount of data that doctors will be able to extract. This represents a major challenge, as it requires a combination of skills and expertise not usually present in a single lab or clinic. These include: advanced MRI techniques to explore the fine-structure of heart muscle while beating; automated image analysis and alignment of data from multiple sources; creation of computationally usable three-dimensional (3D) data sets and characterisation of their changes over the cardiac cycle (3D+Time); comprehensive validation of these techniques by comparison to the current gold-standard of histology for the whole organ; 3D+T visualisation and user-interaction; application of all of the above to an individual within a time-frame that makes 'clinical sense' (hours, not months). This project undertakes to develop exactly these technologies by combining the expertise of leading teams in cardiac MRI (Cardiovascular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital Oxford), bio-medical studies (Oxford University Department of Physiology, Anatomy & Genetics), and image analysis and computational modelling (Oxford University Department of Engineering Science). These teams will jointly implement and validate the whole range of tools required to efficiently reconstruct individual beating hearts from entirely non-invasive imaging techniques, based on proof-of-principle work in small rodents, but taking care that all algorithms are scalable to be adapted, in future, to human heart sizes. The longer-term vision is that after a clinically-indicated cardiac MRI, doctors will be able to look at a 3D+T representation of the patient's heart, zoom-in on any relevant detail (a coronary vessel blockage or a damaged part of tissue), assess treatment options, and predict outcomes for the specific individual before the patient even enters the operating theatre. Much of this vision is still far ahead. Nonetheless, this proposal will make an important step towards this goal.

Technical Summary

Tissue structure is a key determinant of cardiac mechano-electric function in health and disease. Knowledge of individual 3D cardiac histo-architecture and its dynamic alteration during the cardiac cycle (3D+T) would offer significant benefits for basic research, clinical application, and teaching. This study proposes: to establish Diffusion-Tensor (DT) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for non-invasive structural characterisation of living myocardium at different mechanical states; to develop image processing tools to efficiently analyse and combine data from anatomical, functional and DT-MRI with cross-validation by whole-heart serial histology; and to apply these techniques to one test case of regional tissue inhomogeneity (infarct). Image analysis will include the development of suitable registration and segmentation algorithms to combine imaging scans and to generate realistic finite element meshes to be used in computer simulations of electro-mechanical heart action. Image acquisition will focus initially on characterisation of Langendorff-perfused hearts ex vivo, arrested in two different mechanical states (slack, contracture), before moving on to gated acquisition of data in the beating heart. We will implement an image acquisition pipeline, starting with the whole animal in vivo, followed by ex vivo and in vitro MRI, and concluded by histological reconstruction of 6 hearts each for control, sham and infarct (half fixed in systole, the rest in diastole). Sham and infarct (the test case for local tissue anisotropy; induced by permanent occlusion of the left coronary artery) rats will be scanned longitudinally (before and at 3 time points post-intervention). The developed methods will provide a validated tool-box as proof-of-principle before application to larger hearts (contributing to the technological basis for future patient-specific tools), and comprehensively validated datasets and models for individualised beating hearts in norm and disease.

Planned Impact

Several areas/groups of beneficiaries of the proposed project can be identified: Firstly, the project will facilitate and benefit pre-clinical research. Given the multi-disciplinary nature of the project, the three PIs and their Departments represent large sections of this group, including basic bio-research, image analysis/modelling of biological systems, cardiovascular medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the PIs have strong collaborations at national and international levels (as partially reflected in this proposal). The outcome of this proposal is of direct relevance for the research of our teams and their collaborators in areas such as structure-function studies, mechano-electric interactions research, cardiac pump function, arrhythmias and defibrillation modelling (for an illustration, see lists of publications of the PIs). Secondly, in the longer run, the project will serve the medical community by paving the way for development of tools and models to aid the diagnoses, planning of interventions, and tailoring of treatments and, hence, help to improve prognosis for patients with heart disease, whether congenital or acquired. Computer models developed under this proposal will further contribute to education and training of medical practitioners by providing mechano-electrical information, combined with structural, anatomical and functional data of the heart, in 3D+T. More specifically, (patho-)physiological processes can be illustrated to explore conditions found clinically in cardiac patients. Thirdly, the project embraces the concept of the 3Rs (Reduction, Refinement, and (partial) Replacement of animal-based research). Advancing MR techniques to be applicable, non-invasively, to high-fidelity structure-function studies enables a reduction in the number of animals required for research. This finds reflection in our study design, where each heart serves as its own control (imaging multiple mechanical states; using multiple imaging modalities; going from in vivo to ex vivo and in vitro), where disease development is studied in a partially longitudinal design, and where (in as far as possible) non-biological phantoms are used for method development. Stringent intra-individual control and validation provides for more powerful statistical analyses in an otherwise highly inhomogeneous biological model. The development and cross-validation of computer models further helps to reduce the use of animals for research, development, and teaching. Fourth, it is clear that there is significant potential for commercial benefit. This includes manufacturers of imaging devices (e.g. see Letter of Interest from the Agilent Technologies MR Imaging group) who will be able to assess the benefit of newly developed MRI techniques; providers of biomedical image analysis and visualisation software who will have access to new image alignment and structure extraction tools; and - in the longer run - pharmaceutical companies who will eventually benefit from the availability of new technologies to test the efficacy and side effects of drugs using either the newly developed imaging techniques or the computational models that will arise. Last but not least, considering the burden heart disease places on the individual and their families, the economy, and the social and health systems in the developed world, the techniques and tools provided by this proposal will be of general societal benefit, as the outcome of this work will fundamentally contribute to the understanding of normal and patho-physiological mechano-electrical activity of the heart.

Publications

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Berger L (2016) A poroelastic model coupled to a fluid network with applications in lung modelling. in International journal for numerical methods in biomedical engineering

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Bueno-Orovio A (2016) Anomalous Diffusion in Cardiac Tissue as an Index of Myocardial Microstructure. in IEEE transactions on medical imaging

 
Description MR
- We have developed a novel and optimized RF-coil design and setup for MR investigations of isolated living rat hearts. This allowed us to characterize microstructural changes between relaxed and contractured state of the heart with a significantly improved accuracy and precision.
- Furthermore, we assessed and improved long-term ex-situ cardiac preparation maintenance
- Building of theoretical models, we have proposed a novel mode of cardiac tissue deformation (sheetlet intersection angle changes) to explain the discrepancy between ventricular deformation in real life and in structurally-detailed computer models, and reconfirmed this experimentally.
- Careful analysis of structural data has allowed us to 're-discover' the third coronary artery as a largely forgotten but common and potentially relevant anatomical feature in mammalian heart.

Functional studies:
- We developed a single-sensor system for spatially resolved, continuous, and multiparametric optical mapping of cardiac tissue that will be used in the follow-up grant

Structural studies
- we perfected 3D histological data gathering, which is now high quality, high data, high throughput
- In particular, for automated serial histology section integration, we designed, implemented and refined a system to obtain 'block-face' images before slicing, matching their corresponding high-resolution histology slices

Modelling
- We built tools to assess cell type distribution, based on MR data, that will be highly relevant for follow up research
- We optimized fibre orientation modelling for electro-mechanical simulation and assessed quantitatively the relevance of micro-structure for whole heart modelling - relevant for next grant.
- We built (a rabbit-specific) ventricular model of cardiac electrophysiological function including specialized conduction system, which will be used in the follow-up grant
- We analysed the relationship between cell orientation and left ventricular contraction using a high-resolution computational model of electromechanics, highlighting limitations of current models and helping to establish the importance of laminar structure.

Image analysis
- We developed methods for spatial correspondence of hearts from different subjects, using a novel mesh parametrization method that preserves distances between surface points
- We built methods for the realignment of histology slices into a consistent three-dimensional volume, incorporating block-face images and a new mathematical framework which we have named Transformational Diffusion Smoothing.
- We have developed methods to extract endocardial trabecularions, the free-running Purkinje network, and vessel trees, thus allowing their characterization as well as the definition of models with different levels of complexity.
- We have proposed a new way to characterize cell and sheet orientation using a local coordinate system, which reduces the effect of shape differences between samples. This will be refined and validated in follow-up work.
Exploitation Route MR
The developed, optimized MR hardware might be reproduced by other groups to improve MRI / MRS investigations on perfused rat hearts. Our MR data integrated with histological validation und analysis represent "ground-truth" measurements of cardiac microstructure, against which other groups can compare and validate their findings obtained under less optimized conditions, or for which no histological data are available. They may also be used to inform / validate existing computational models of the heart.

Histo data integration & analysis
The system for acquisition of histology slices and reconstruction into a three-dimensional dataset has applications beyond the study of the left ventricle realized in this project. We have started to apply this technology on atrial tissue samples for a study on atrial fibrillation, and will aim to continue expanding the applications of the technology, either in our group or in others.

Image analysis
Methods for the coregistration of histology slices will be expanded to include coregistration to MRI (for which preliminary results are already available), achieving a complete 3D histology/MRI representation. This will allow further investigation of novel MRI technologies, by providing a voxel-wise correspondence between MRI measurements and histological structure.
We will continue the study of cardiac structures such as the microvasculature or trabeculations, using the methods developed in the project.

Computational modelling
Our advances in the modelling of cardiac electromechanics are part of the Chaste code and available as open source code. Following up from this grant, we have started a collaboration with the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre, with support from the Royal Society, to work on computational aspects of the model and work towards human heart simulations.
Sectors Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_9-4-2013-14-17-44
 
Description Member of Finnish Academy funding committee
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Advice on research funding
 
Description BHF Project Grant
Amount £137,480 (GBP)
Funding ID PG/15/110/31936 
Organisation British Heart Foundation (BHF) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2019
 
Description ISMRM educational stipend
Amount $375 (USD)
Organisation International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 05/2014 
End 06/2014
 
Description Researcher Links programme
Amount £1,150 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 05/2014
 
Description Royal Society International Exchanges
Amount £11,342 (GBP)
Funding ID IE150478 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 11/2017
 
Title 3D histology reconstruction 
Description Image acquisition and analysis methods to reconstruct whole hearts from histology slices 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Publications from our groups 
 
Title Electromechanical model 
Description Computer model to simulate cardiac electromechanics including cell orientation 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publications 
 
Title Montecarlo model of Diffusion MRI 
Description We have developed and validated a methodology to simulate Diffusion MRI acquisition in geometries simulating healthy and pathological myocardium 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Not applicable yet 
 
Title Novel similarity metrics for medical image registration 
Description Novel similarity metrics for medical image registration 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publications 
 
Title High resolution interspecies cardiac images 
Description A database containing multimodality (microCT, MRI and 3d histology) images of various mammalian species (mice, rat, rabbit, goat, human) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact No actual Impacts realised to date 
 
Description Arteriogram / MRI fusion 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Methods for image registration
Collaborator Contribution Clinical imaging
Impact BHF grant funded in 2016
Start Year 2015
 
Description Biobank UK 
Organisation UK Biobank
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution CMR imaging datasets: discussions on quality control
Collaborator Contribution CMR imaging datasets: discussions on quality control
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description CMR in acute myocardial infarction 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Acute Vascular Imaging Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Image analysis methodologies for co-registration of longitudinal CMR studies
Collaborator Contribution Image acquisition, clinical methodology, clinical guidance.
Impact Presentations at conferences: Computing in Cardiology 2014, Society of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 2014
Start Year 2012
 
Description Cardiac microstructure 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Reconstruction of small animal hearts at paracellular resolution
Collaborator Contribution Images, data, knowledge on MRI and physiology
Impact Papers, grants listed elsewhere
 
Description Development of double diffusion encoding MRI for cardiac tissue characterisation 
Organisation Hvidovre Hospital
Country Denmark 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Project initiation, expertise in cardiac MRI, preparation of hearts, MRI data acquisition and analysis, paper writing
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in double diffusion encoding methods, software for MRI data acquisition and analysis, simulations, paper writing
Impact One abstract accepted for oral presentation at ISMRM 2016. The collaboration brings together expertise in diffusion MRI in the brain and heart.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Fractional Diffusion 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Computer Science
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Image analysis
Collaborator Contribution Fractional diffusion models
Impact Publications to come
Start Year 2014
 
Description Industrial Collaboration Rapid Biomedical 
Organisation Rapid Biomedical
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development and characterization of dedicated in situ RF-coil
Start Year 2009
 
Description MIT_2017 
Organisation Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Department Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided high-resolution cardiac diffusion MRI data
Collaborator Contribution Used these data for novel computational simulations of the heart
Impact Conference abstract and manuscript submitted
Start Year 2017
 
Description Structure tensor synchrotron imaging of the heart 
Organisation Diamond Light Source
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Project initiation, preparation of hearts, MRI acquisition and image reconstruction, development of structure tensor methods, data analysis, paper writing
Collaborator Contribution Synchrotron imaging, image reconstruction of SI data, paper writing
Impact One abstract accepted for presentation at ISMRM 2016. The collaboration is multi-disciplinary and involves MRI and synchrotron imaging of the heart.
Start Year 2015
 
Title Gerardus 
Description Matlab and C++ code produced for the segmentation and multi-modality registration of cardiac images (MRI and histology) 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2009 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact No actual Impacts realised to date 
URL https://code.google.com/p/gerardus/
 
Title Gerardus 
Description Open source computational biology and biomedical image analysis scripts and programs. It contains all software developed in our research group at the Institute of Biomedical Engineering, part of it from BHF funding (in particular, the code for reconstructing three-dimensional structures from histological slices). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The code is under continuous development but will be used in subsequent publications related to the grant. 
URL https://code.google.com/p/gerardus/
 
Title Improved MR compatible perfusion rig 
Description The Langendorff perfused heart represents an intermediate step between in vivo and fixed heart in the development of novel cardiac magnetic resonance imaging strategies as it allows significant control over cardiac motion (from arrested to paced or freely beating hearts), without respiratory motion. We have previously used a MR compatible in-house built perfusion rig, which employed an RF coil outside the tube enclosing the heart, resulting in a poor filling factor, to non-invasively assess myocardial fiber architecture. We have modified the set up to include the coil inside the perfusion rig closely around the heart thus improving the receiver sensitivity. Changes have also been made to provide oxygen-enriched, albumin-containing buffer at body temperature to the heart placed inside the MR bore. For that purpose, a bubble trap was built into the perfusion head, with active buffer/air discharge allowing rapid turnover of the solution and thus better temperature control. The physiological buffer is first preheated in water-jacketed reservoirs, where it is also bubbled. The solution is then pumped inside the MR bore, using pulsation-free pumps (Bartels Mikrotechnik GmbH, Dortmund, Germany) and water-jacketed tubing. Finally, the insertion of a balloon (home made, cling film) in the left ventricular cavity has been made possible, allowing further control on the heart motion. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact No actual Impacts realised to date 
 
Title MR volume resonator for perfused rat heart examinations 
Description The Langendorff perfused heart represents an intermediate step between in vivo and fixed heart in the development of novel cardiac magnetic resonance imaging strategies as it allows significant control over cardiac motion (from arrested to paced or freely beating hearts), without respiratory motion. We have previously used an in-house built MR compatible perfusion rig to non-invasively assess myocardial fiber architecture. This system employed an RF coil (for MR signal reception) placed outside the container surrounding the heart, providing a poor filling factor and hence poor sensitivity. To overcome this limitation, a reduced diameter volume resonator (internal diameter: 20mm) has been designed to be placed inside the perfusion setting closely around the heart. This RF coil is a fixed tune-and-match, quadrature-driven volume resonator, with high filling factor and optimized SNR. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact No actual Impacts realised to date 
 
Description Aberdeen_JES_14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Pushing the boundaries of preclinical cardiac MR - Invited Lecture at CV Progamme, University of Aberdeen, December 9th 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BC_ISMRM_2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited keynote lecture on preclinical cardiac MRI; sparked interest and discussions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Building a detailed anatomical model of the rat heart 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Workshop 'Mathematical and computational modelling in cardiovascular problems' 15-17 April 2014, Moscow

No impact yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description CRE_ML_2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented poster on Characterizing cardiac structure with advanced diffusion MRI, British Heart Foundation CRE Annual Symposium, 30 Sep 2013

Dissemination of knowledge, stimulation of discussion, raising profile of research and funding sources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description InAug_Lect_2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Inaugural lecture as Chair in Biomedical Imaging
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited internal Seminar in Computer Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion, which improved understanding across disciplines

No notable impact as yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited talk at Oxford Centre for Doctoral Training in Biomedical Imaging 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description LICAMM_Seminar_2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an invited seminar at the Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, which was attended by local scientists. This sparked an increased interest in preclinical (cardiac) MR.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description LICAMM_Seminar_2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar on preclinical cardiac MR & MRS; sparked interest and discussion in this subject
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Leeds_CBiol_Seminar_2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited Seminar on preclinical cardiac MR; sparked interest and discussion in this modality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MedIm_Oslo_15_JES 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture at MedIm Conference for PhD Students, Oslo, November 16&17, 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Medical Image Analysis (MedIAN) cardiovascular workshop, speaker and organiser 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised a day-long workshop and gave a talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Medical conference (Oxford) - RDM_2016_McClymont 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation at the Radcliffe Department of Medicine Annual Symposium on 2 Feb 2015 at Said Business School, Oxford. The poster was entitled Assessing non-Gaussian Diffusion in Cardiac Tissue and was authored by Darryl McClymont, Irvin Teh, Hannah Whittington, Vicente Grau, and Jürgen E. Schneider
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Medical conference (Oxford) - RDM_2016_Teh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation at the Radcliffe Department of Medicine Annual Symposium on 2 Feb 2015 at Said Business School, Oxford.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Newcastle_JES_14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Advanced MRI Measures of Heart Function in Small Animals - Invited Lecture at the CIVI Research Imaging Day, University of Newcastle, December 1st 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description OCMR Study Day 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Darryl McClymont gave a presentation at the Oxford Centre for Magnetic Resonance's study day on 26 September 2014 entitled Assessing the microarchitecture of the heart using Diffusion MRI techniques.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description OCMR study day 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Irvin Teh gave a presentation at the Oxford Centre for Magnetic Resonance's study day on 20 March 2015, entitled High resolution cardiac diffusion MRI ex vivo.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description OIBN_ML_2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Attended Oxford Interdisciplinary Bioscience Networking Event

no impact yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description OIF_JB_2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented poster on The effect of the b-value on cardiac diffusion MRI, Oxford Imaging Festival, 23 Oct 2014

Dissemination of knowledge, stimulation of discussion, raising profile of research and funding sources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description OIF_ML_2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented poster on Characterizing cardiac structure with advanced diffusion MRI, Oxford Imaging Festival, 29 Oct 2013

Dissemination of knowledge, stimulation of discussion, raising profile of research and funding sources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Preclinical Seminar (DM 25/9/2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Darryl McClymont gave a talk in the Oxford pre-clinical seminar series, entitled Acceleration of Diffusion MRI using Compressed Sensing with Adaptive Dictionaries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Preclinical seminar (DM 25/2/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Darryl McClymont gave a presentation in the Oxford pre-clinical MRI seminar series entitled Non-Gaussian modeling of cardiac diffusion MRI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description RDM_ML_2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented poster on Characterizing the structure of chronically infarcted rat hearts with diffusion MRI, RDM Annual Symposium, 3 Feb 2014

Dissemination of knowledge, stimulation of discussion, raising profile of research and funding sources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SCMR_16 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Lecture on 'Myocardial Microstructure: What Is There To See'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SCMR_2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk on diffusion MRI at the Annual Meeting of the SCMR to an audience consisting of Clinicians & Basic Scientists. This technique becomes increasingly more relevant in both clinical and basic science research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SCMR_WorkingGroup_2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Participation in the SCMR Cardiac Diffusion Working Group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SCMR_WorkingGroup_2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Participation and formal presentation at the SCMR Cardiac DTI Working Group; I will take a leading role in in the Working Group and coordinate the development of a phantom to standardise clinical cardiac DTI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scientists visualise the scars left by heart attacks 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBSRC anniversary blog, http://bbsrc.tumblr.com

No impact yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Stavanger_0317 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture on cardiac MRS at the NORHEART course 'Cardiac Imaging in Research'; NORHEART is a Norwegian PhD School for heart research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at University of Xian, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk to University audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Wuerzburg_2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Seminar at the University of Wuerzburg, Department of Experimental Radiology, which sparked discussion and interest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018