Exploiting sources of resistance to Turnip yellows virus for deployment in oilseed rape.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Warwick
Department Name: Warwick HRI

Abstract

- The virus, Turnip yellows virus is found every year infecting most oilseed rape crops in the UK. In some crops, every single plant is infected. The virus has been shown to reduce the seed yield of oilseed rape crops in the UK by up to 30%. - The virus is spread by greenfly and growers use insecticides to try to stop the greenfly spreading the virus to oilseed rape crops; the insecticides are not always particularly effective at stopping spread of the virus. - We have identified a number of different plant lines with natural resistance to Turnip yellows virus. - The different resistance sources we have identified will be evaluated against genetically different Turnip yellows virus isolates. - The purpose of our research is to produce tools (markers) that will allow plant breeding companies to incorporate the natural virus resistance we have found in to their commercial oilseed rape varieties. - Once the seed and markers have been handed over to seed companies, we will support them in incorporating / breeding the resistance in to their commercial oilseed rape varieties. - The ultimate aim is to provide farmers with virus resistant oilseed rape varieties that will not become infected by the virus, or will tolerate some virus infection with minimal loss of yield. - This will increase production whilst at the same time reducing inputs and energy costs / consumption. It will also reduce the farmers' dependence on insecticides and provide an environmentally friendly, sustainable means of increasing oilseed rape yields.

Technical Summary

The virus, Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) is found every year infecting most oilseed rape (Brassica napus) crops in the UK. In some crops, there is 100% infection. The virus has been shown to reduce the seed yield of rape crops in the UK by up to 30% and our experiments on a current revealed a seed yield loss of 45%. TuYV is spread by aphids and growers use insecticidal treatments to try to stop aphid transmission to oilseed rape crops; the insecticides are not always particularly effective in stopping spread of the virus. We have identified an oilseed rape cultivar with quantitative resistance to TuYV (infected plants accumulated significantly less virus than 25 B. napus lines from the Warwick HRI Diversity Fixed Foundation Set ). The seed yield of infected plants was not significantly less than that of uninfected plants in this cultivar. We have also identified complete resistance (no virus infection detectable) to TuYV in some Brassica oleracea lines and Brassica rapa lines. The different resistance sources we have identified will be evaluated against genetically different Turnip yellows virus isolates from the UK. We will take a twin track approach and map the QTLs associated with the quantitative resistance in B. napus and also map the gene(s) controlling the extreme resistance in B. oleracea and B. rapa. Molecular markers for the resistances will be developed that will allow the quantitative resistance to be incorporated in to commercial rape varieties by conventional marker-assisted breeding and the extreme resistance to be incorporated via a resynthesised B. napus route. Once the seed and markers have been handed over to seed companies at the end of the project, we will continue to support them in incorporating the resistance(s) in to their commercial rape varieties. The ultimate aim is to provide farmers with virus resistant oilseed rape varieties in order to increase yields and reduce inputs .

Planned Impact

The new plant genes providing natural resistance to an important virus with allele-specific markers for crop improvement will benefit the breeding companies initially. High levels of TuYV infection of oilseed rape have been seen in recent years. Estimates of yield losses due to TuYV in the UK range from 9-30%. Experiments we have carried out on a current cultivar indicate the losses could be much greater than this (45%) in years of high infection. Consequently, virus-resistant oilseed rape lines will have an advantage in the market place, provided they are otherwise competitive. The use of marker-assisted selection to introgress the virus resistances in to current oilseed rape varieties should minimise linkage drag. The delivery of three different natural sources of resistance to breeders will provide options for combining the genes (pyramiding) or deploying separately and prolonging the useful life of the resistances in the field. The farmers will also be major beneficiaries as they will be able to reduce crop losses in an environmentally and economically sustainable way. Resistance to the major virus in oilseed rape (TuYV) will remove the dependence on and need for insecticidal treatments aimed at controlling the virus (the aphids that transmit the virus are not a major problem in oilseed rape in their own right; growers use the autumn insecticidal treatments primarily in the hope of controlling the virus). This will have environmental as well as economic benefits. The reduction in pesticide usage will also reduce the selection pressure for aphid biotypes with insecticide resistance. The general public will benefit from the research in that it will contribute to food security by providing control measures for a widespread and important crop virus, where currently there appear to be no viable control measures. The academic beneficiaries are listed in the 'Academic Beneficiaries' section.
 
Description Objective 1. Exploiting quantitative resistance to TuYV that we have identified in oilseed rape cultivar Yudal, parent of a Brassica napus mapping population. 0 - 30 months

• An F1 population was produced with Yudal as the female parent that gave consistent results when assayed for TuYV by ELISA. Plants from this F1 population were backcrossed with Darmor (we previously analysed the Yudal backcross) to generate a segregating B1 population.
• This B1 population was assayed for resistance to TuYV by ELISA and genotyped using the Infinium B. napus 60k chip. The chip provides the genotype at over 50,000 SNPs in the B. napus genome, of which ~15,000 are informative in the Darmor/Yudal population.
• This data was used for QTL analysis, in combination with data previously generated, and identified a major QTL with an interval of 8cM (1LOD), accounting for over 50% of the observed variation, as well as two minor QTL which accounted for 9% and 7% of the observed variation.

This fine mapping of the resistance QTL that has been achieved in the project will facilitate the introgression of the quantitative resistance into commercial OSR varieties by the plant breeding industry using marker-assisted selection.

Objective 2. Exploiting complete resistance to TuYV that we have identified in a B. oleracea line from the Warwick DFFS. 0 - 42 months

• A B1 population has been assayed for resistance and a subset of the population was genotyped utilising the Infinium B. napus 60k chip, having identified 3 potential chromosomes of interest. The entire population (200 individuals) was then genotyped with KASP markers targeted to the three target chromosomes.
• A major QTL was identified with an interval of 12.5cM, which accounted for 35% of the observed variation.
• Although beyond the scope of the current project, a further round of recombination will further reduce the mapped interval allowing fine mapping of the gene(s) involved. Resistant plants from the B1 population that contained the resistant parent genotype at the intervals of interest have been crossed again to produce B2 populations. These populations will provide a resource for further phenotyping and genotyping, if further funding can be obtained.

Objective 3. Exploiting resistance to TuYV in B. rapa as a further source of resistance alongside the B. oleracea from objective 2, for the resynthesised B. napus introgression route. 0 - 48 months

• Genotyping of a subset of the B. rapa B1 population has been carried out using the Infinium B. napus 60k chip.
• Mapping indicated one major QTL accounting for 22% of the observed variation and two minor, interacting QTL. Markers spanning a 15 cM interval have been identified for the major QTL.
• This will facilitate the tracking and maintenance of the resistance in backcrossing programmes aimed at introgressing the B. rapa and B. oleracea resistances into commercial B. napus backgrounds.
• Further funding would be required to genotype the remainder of the B1 population in order to narrow down the intervals identified in the project and improve the efficiency of the introgression.

Objective 4a. Determining the virus-resistance specificity of the different resistance sources. 0 - 3 & 18 - 21 months

• TuYV has previously been categorised into three phylogenetic groups: common, less-common and rare.
• The quantitative resistance in Yudal has been confirmed against isolates from each of these three phylogenetic groups.
• The resistance in B. rapa has also been confirmed against isolates from each of these groups.
• The extreme resistance identified in B. oleracea has been confirmed against isolates from each of these groups.

The confirmation of the effectiveness of each of the three brassica resistance sources against all groups of the virus will ensure that the plant material available to CIRC members has as broad a spectrum of resistance as possible and is potentially durable.

Objective 4b. Produce the resynthesized B. napus. 0 - 18 months.

• Crossing of our resistant B. rapa with the resistant B. oleracea has been achieved.
• Embryo rescue was used to produce plantlets from the cross; following culture on agar media, the most advanced plants are currently in the glasshouse growing well in compost.
• Vegetative propagation of these plants via cuttings has begun, this will allow some plants to be challenged with TuYV to measure synergies between the two resistance sources.
• Ploidy testing has been carried out on the more advanced plant material, confirming that the plants are in fact B. rapa / B. oleracea hybrids.

Production of these resynthesised plants will result in the introgression of the extreme resistances identified in B. oleracea and B. rapa into B. napus and provide characterised new sources of resistance with associated molecular markers for the plant breeding industry to introgress in to commercial OSR varieties.
Exploitation Route It would be beneficial to identify the genes underlying the QTL for each of the resistance sources in order to develop within-gene markers and better understand the resistance. To date no genes providing resistance against any member of the virus family (Luteoviridae) TuYV is classified in have been identified. The next step in this process will be fine mapping of the QTL utilising the materials from the current CIRC project. Further targeted crosses have been carried out, or are underway, in order to obtain and identify further informative recombination events and thus link genetic markers more closely to the gene(s) of interest.

A BBSRC iCASE studentship with Limagrain has been awarded and started on 1st October, 2015. The project aims to investigate Limagrain's TuYV resistance sources and characterise and develop further new sources of resistance from diploid brassicas.

The CIRC PhD student associated with this project, Max Newbert has been awarded a University of Warwick, Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS) Fellowship to continue some aspects of his research and write up papers from his PhD. He has also been awarded an Impact Fellowship by the University of Warwick. The University recently won some funding, known as the Impact Acceleration Account, from the BBSRC, to help maximise impact from BBSRC research and embed an impact awareness culture within BBSRC funded departments.

Negotiations with four plant breeding/seed companies to commercialise the outputs of the project were undertaken. Eventually the four plant breeding/seed companies agreed to provide financial (£75,000) and in-kind support (£187,291) for a three year BBSRC LINK proposal that was submitted by Walsh, Barker and Teakle at the University of Warwick in 2017. The proposal was not successful. Subsequently Walsh, Barker and Teakle, with financial and in-kind support from the four plant breeding/seed companies submitted a proposal in 2019 for a BBSRC Follow-on Fund project proposal which was successful. This new project commenced in February 2020 and aims to provide the plant breeding/seed companies with plant material and molecular markers to facilitate the exploitation of resistance to Turnip yellows virus in oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://bbsrc.ukri.org/research/grants-search/quicksearch/
 
Description Max Newbert and John Walsh gave presentations on the problems of TuYV infection of oilseed rape to Agronomists in Cambridgeshire, Shropshire, Gloucestershire and Hampshire and to farmers in Oxfordshire. Limagrain commissioned a survey of TuYV infection of oilseed rape across Europe with us. A display on the CIRC project was presented at the University of Warwick Open Day. There are permanent exhibits on our research describing the effect of TuYV on oilseed rape at Syngenta Innovation Centres. Articles on our CIRC project have been published in the popular press and featured on Limagrain's TuYV website: http://www.tuyv.co.uk/ An exhibit describing the research and outcomes of our CIRC-funded project was presented at the Velcourt exhibit at 'Cereals 2015'; we also had exhibits on the Limagrain and AHDB stands. We have been working with the Rothamsted Research Insect Survey team and utilising the large amount of sequence information of TuYV generated by the CIRC studentship (Max Newbert), a molecular test has been developed to detect TuYV in single aphids caught in Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) Suction Traps. The test allows TuYV to be distinguished from the closely related Beet mild yellowing virus. Incidences of TuYV in the main aphid vector Myzus persicae have been determined in RIS suction traps in Lincolnshire and Warwickshire throughout 2015. Very high incidences of TuYV in M. persicae in both counties have been detected. The data has been made available online on two different websites. There were 3,601 page views of one of these sites up to the end of October this year with a peak of 557 in July. Plants are in the ground and have been infected with TuYV for a display on the Velcourt stand at Cereals 2016. The display at Cereals 2016 was manned for the duration of Cereals 2016. A paper has been published on part of this work. A BBSRC Follow-on Fund project has been funded to exploit the outcomes of the project involving four commercial companies.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description I was invited to and participated in the UK-US Plant Health Workshop organised by BBSRC, USDA, UK Science & Innovation Network, Research Councils UK United States and the US National Institute of Food and Agriculture in the British Embassy on 19-21 September, 2016. The workshop produced a white paper 'Foundational and Translational Research Opportunities to Improve Plant Health', Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 30 (7).
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/MPMI-01-17-0010-CR
 
Description Invited to and participated in the Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund Workshop - Agricultural Productivity held in Solihull on 15 August, 2017 attended by industry representatives, BBSRC, NERC, academics, levy boards etc.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Invited to and reviewed the Scottish Government's portfolio of strategic research, 2015.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description BBSRC iCASE studentship
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description BBSRC-IAA
Amount £4,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/IAA/Warwick/15 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 07/2016
 
Description CIRC PhD studentship
Amount £92,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2011 
End 09/2015
 
Description Delivering important virus resistance
Amount £202,397 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T004193/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2020 
End 02/2022
 
Description Perry Foundation Grant to support PhD stundentship
Amount £4,000 (GBP)
Organisation Perry Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2011 
End 09/2015
 
Description School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Pump priming fund
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Warwick 
Department School of Life Sciences
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
 
Description University of Warwick Institute of Advanced Study
Amount £5,800 (GBP)
Funding ID IAS/ECF/250407/15 
Organisation Princeton University 
Department Institute for Advanced Study
Sector Academic/University
Country United States
Start 10/2015 
End 07/2016
 
Description Warwick Impact Fund
Amount £45,643 (GBP)
Funding ID 15LFHF02 
Organisation University of Warwick 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 07/2019
 
Description Article in Cropproduction cpm magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Our research on TuYV was featured in an article in Cropproduction cpm magazine, August 2017, pages 32-33.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cpm-magazine.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/CPM-August-2017.pdf
 
Description CIRC dissemination 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Max Newbert and John Walsh gave presentations on the problems of TuYV infection of oilseed rape to Agronomists in Cambridgeshire, Shropshire, Gloucestershire and Hampshire and to farmers in Oxfordshire.

Limagrain commissioned a survey of TuYV infection of oilseed rape across Europe with us.

A display on the CIRC project was presented at the University of Warwick Open Day.

There are permanent exhibits on our research describing the effect of TuYV on oilseed rape at Syngenta Innovation Centres.

Articles on our CIRC project have been published in the popular press and featured on Limagrain's TuYV website: http://www.tuyv.co.uk/

An exhibit describing the research and outcomes of our CIRC-funded project was presented at the Velcourt exhibit at 'Cereals 2015'; we also had exhibits on the Limagrain and AHDB stands.

We have been working with the Rothamsted Research Insect Survey team and utilising the large amount of sequence information of TuYV generated by the CIRC studentship (Max Newbert), a molecular test has been developed to detect TuYV in single aphids caught in Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) Suction Traps. The test allows TuYV to be distinguished from the closely related Beet mild yellowing virus. Incidences of TuYV in the main aphid vector Myzus persicae have been determined in RIS suction traps in Lincolnshire and Warwickshire throughout 2015. Very high incidences of TuYV in M. persicae in both counties have been detected. The data has been made available online on two different websites. There were 3,601 page views of one of these sites up to the end of October this year with a peak of 557 in July.

Plants are in the ground and have been infected with TuYV for a display on the Velcourt stand at Cereals 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description Fascination of Plants Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We had an exhibit at the Fascination of Plants Day on May 18th 2017 at our campus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://warwick.ac.uk/study/outreach/news/celebrating_fascination_of/
 
Description Innovate UK Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund Workshop - Agricultural Productivity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I participated in Innovate UK's Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund Workshop - Agricultural Productivity at the Ardlen Hotel, Solihul on 15 August, 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Advances in Plant Virology conference (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A poster presented by PhD student Shannon Easterlow at this international conference focussed on advances in virus research at which I was a member of the organising committee.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.aab.org.uk/images/virology_2016_ann_pbf.pdf
 
Description Invited presentation at the Oilseed RapE Genetic Improvement Network (OREGIN) stakeholder meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was an invited speaker at the Oilseed RapE Genetic Improvement Network (OREGIN) stakeholder meeting held in York on 22nd November, 2017 and gave a talk on Turnip yellows virus resistance in brassicas to an audience comprising industry and academia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Oral conference presentation at SGM / AAB Advances in Plant Virology meeting, ICC, Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.aab.org.uk/images/advinvirology_pbf.pdf
 
Description Plant Quantitative Genetics meeting, from Theory into Practice 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Dieter Hackenberg presented a poster at the Plant Quantitative Genetics meeting, from Theory into Practice, organised by the Genetics Society, at Edgbaston Park Hotel, University of Birmingham, 7th November, 2019.

Abstract at https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ThbfkPOz3aWq2r9PZT4qQZTWwwFGxb_S/view
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://genetics.org.uk/events/plant-quantitative-genetics-from-theory-into-practice/
 
Description Poster conference presentation at SGM / AAB Advances in Plant Virology meeting, ICC, Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A poster presented at the international meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.aab.org.uk/images/advinvirology_pbf.pdf
 
Description Presentation at and organisation of 3rd Wild Plant Pathosystems Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of Scientific Organising Committee, Session Chair and Invited presentation for 3rd Wild Plant Pathosystems Conference, Frankfurt/Main and Scmitten, Germany, 16-19 September, 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://wppc3.eventcreate.com/
 
Description Public engagement event Gibbet Hill 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A display at School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick public engagement event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/lifesci/outreach/next/
 
Description Talk at International Advances in Plant Virology meeting, Rome, Italy. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation at International Advances in Plant Virology meeting, 29-31 October, 2019, Rome, Italy. Co-author of two other presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.audiencify.com/conference/international-advances-plant-virology-2019
 
Description UK-US Plant Health Workshop to discuss plant health and develop a white paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact the UK-US Plant Health Workshop held in the British Embassy, Washington DC was held to discuss biotic challenges to plant health and develop a white paper for future directions of research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/full/10.1094/MPMI-01-17-0010-CR
 
Description UK-US Plant Health Workshop, British Embassy, Washington DC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A UK-US workshop to:
- facilitate new collaborations and build on existing links
- increase community knowledge for international research collaborations
- inform future funding priorities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description University visit (Saga University, Japan) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Visit to Saga University, Japan, 18-24th May, 2019. Lecture to undergraduate and post-graduate students and discussions with postgraduate (MSc and PhD) students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Video for laypeople, YouTube 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A video describing the outcomes of this BBSRC funded project, aimed at the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jKPy4V14X6w&t=25s
 
Description Video open day, Max, YouTube 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A video recorded for open day on the outcomes of the CIRC PhD studentship
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VHKXsf9ZHDo&t=28s
 
Description Video release, Industry, YouTube etc. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A video to describe the outcomes of this BBSRC funded research targeted at industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wu6IPBocxa8
 
Description Video, open day JW YouTube 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A video to highlight the outcomes of the BBSRC funded projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Virology conference, Haarlem, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An oral presentation by PhD student Max Newbert at the international conference focussed on virus disease of legumes and vegetables at which I was the president of the group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.plant-virology.nl/IWGLVV2015/
 
Description Virology conference, Haarlem, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A poster presented by postdoc Adam Baker at the international conference focussed on virus disease of legumes and vegetables at which I was the president of the group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.plant-virology.nl/IWGLVV2015/