'Smart' cereals for management of stemborer pests in staple cereals in Africa

Lead Research Organisation: Rothamsted Research
Department Name: Biological Chemistry & Crop Protection

Abstract

Stemborers are devastating insect pests of important food crops, maize and sorghum, in sub-Saharan Africa. They damage these crops by burrowing inside the stem causing the plants to collapse and die. Stemborer pests undermine smallholder cereal cultivation and threaten food security of the very high crop losses they cause. In previous research, we demonstrated that these losses can be prevented by changing the plant odours surrounding the crop. We used companion plants to release smells that repel the pest and attract natural enemy insects that attack the pest. The companion cropping system known as "push-pull" or "Sukuma-Vuta" in Swahili is very popular with smallholder farmers but this would be improved if the crop itself could release the appropriate odours when infested with pest insects. Recently we have found that certain farmer selected varieties of maize have a valuable defence trait not present in commercial hybrid maize. The trait involves release of odours, called semiochemicals, which are attractive to natural enemies of the pest after the stemborer lays her eggs on the plant. The semiochemicals released are the same ones released by companion plants in the push-pull system. The crop varieties with this trait, however, are lacking in other important agronomic traits, particularly yield and quality. To deliver this natural pest resistance to the farmer, breeding programmes are needed to move the trait from into improved crop varieties. This is a difficult process but would be greatly facilitated if genetic markers linked closely to the stemborer resistance trait could be identified. The goal of this project is to define genetic markers associated with the semiochemical production trait. We will achieve this by a comprehensive programme of experiments in which the semiochemicals emitted by different crop varieties after insect egg laying will be identified, insect responses to them measured and the underpinning genes associated with induced semiochemical emission mapped. We will use a state-of-the-art semiochemical identification platform available at Rothamsted Research (UK) and resources for genetic analyses at the Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa hub (BECA, Kenya) with a link to the Cornell University sequencing facility. Crops will be grown and trialled at the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe, Kenya) which has a proven track record of doing research that is relevant to the needs of smallholder farmers in Africa and makes a difference to their livelihoods.

Technical Summary

Stemborers are devastating pests of staple cereals in sub-Saharan Africa that reduce yields by up to 80%. Recently we have discovered that certain landraces of maize have an inducible indirect defence trait, not present in commercial hybrids, that involves release of semiochemicals attractive to natural enemies of the stemborer after eggs are laid on the plant. The same semiochemicals are released by companion plants in the push-pull companion cropping system. If this novel defence trait could be bred into cereal cultivars with other favourable agronomic characteristics, crop losses could be saved without having to grow companion plants to release semiochemicals. This project will develop molecular markers for the defence trait that will allow breeders to introgress it into improved lines of maize and sorghum. The project will start by growing many different lines of maize and sorghum from which headspace samples of volatiles will be collected and samples of DNA taken. Volatile profiles will be compared between plants with and without stemborer pest eggs and semiochemicals identified by GC-MS and GC linked to electrophysiology. Lines that show induction of semiochemicals after stemborer oviposition will be tested in bioassays with stemborer parasitoids (key natural enemies) and will be grown in field plot trials to assess stemborer infestation levels. Genotyping by sequencing and subsequent association mapping will be used to map the trait to the genes responsible. SSR and SNP molecular markers associated with semiochemical emission will be defined and used to screen germplasm. Gene sequences encoding synthases for the semiochemicals will be searched using bioinformatics. We also expect to identify genes involved in regulating the expression levels of the synthase genes following stemborer oviposition. We will also use bioinformatics approaches to search for orthologous genes associated with the trait between maize and sorghum genomes.

Planned Impact

The project will have a clear role in increasing and sustaining yields of staple cereals in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the IMF poverty reduction strategy reports, growth in the agricultural sector in SSA countries is essential to reduce poverty and ensure food security; this will benefit mainly poor cereal-livestock smallholders (about 80% of producers). Agricultural growth is achievable by reducing major constraints to productivity such as insect pests. These constraints, already cause high levels of food insecurity, malnutrition and poverty, and are responsible for SSA cereal crop productivity being the lowest in the world (around 1t/ha compared with 2.4t/ha in South Asia, 3.2t/ha in Latin America and 4.5t/ha in East Asia and Pacific). They are expected to increase during the next few decades as agriculture intensifies to meet the extra food demand from a growing population and as a result of climate change.

Scientific impact will be made in terms of publications in good journals and all three partners have a good track record in this. We also have considerable experience in translation of our scientific research into farmer practice from the Push-pull project (push-pull is now used by more than 40,000 smallholders). This project will create strong linkages and collaborations among stakeholders - farmers, plant breeders and seed suppliers - at an early stage as a key condition for efficient technology adaptation and its wider dissemination to smallholder farmers in the target areas later in the project (e.g. please see letter of support from Western seeds). We will use farmer-to-farmer technology dissemination methods because they are cost-effectiveness in reaching large numbers of farmers. This is particularly relevant where public extension is either insufficient or ineffective as is the case in SSA, and serves a shared information and learning function of achieving economies of scale in technology diffusion and system financial sustainability. Here, farmers are expected to influence fellow farmers to adopt new technologies and practices. We will optimize the use of field days, farmer teachers and farmer field schools, in which we shall train farmers through the participating NARIs and NGOs, and provide them with both technology information and technical backstopping. The project will also produce and distribute dissemination brochures, some of which will be translated into local languages, by NARIs and other stakeholders. Additionally, stakeholder workshops, meetings and farmer exchange visits will be organized and more farmers exposed to the technology. The overall aim of these activities is to create nuclei of farmers adopting the technology to allow a horizontal transfer and uptake of the technology in the target areas. In all cases, adoption of a technology within a community can start off with a few individuals. Indeed, experience from the current push-pull project shows that small groups of individuals in a community pioneering adoption of a technology constitute very effective nuclei for its horizontal transmission.

Publications

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Birkett M (2014) Prospects of genetic engineering for robust insect resistance in Current Opinion in Plant Biology

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Bruce T (2019) Editorial in Physiological Entomology

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Khan ZR (2014) Achieving food security for one million sub-Saharan African poor through push-pull innovation by 2020. in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

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Michelmore R (2017) Foundational and Translational Research Opportunities to Improve Plant Health. in Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI

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Mutyambai D (2014) Behaviour and biology of Chilo partellus on maize landraces in Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata

 
Description Stemborers are serious pests of staple cereals in sub-Saharan Africa causing very substantial yield losses. Any crop with better defence against stemborer would have good market potential, especially with smallholder farmers who do not have access to pesticides but who are responsible for the majority agricultural production in the region.
The 'Smart Cereals' project, based in Kenya and involving icipe, ICRISAT and Rothamsted Research, is designed to provide leads for genetic improvement of maize and sorghum for defence against stemborer pests. Specifically, we are investigating an indirect defence mechanism occurring at the very earliest stage of stemborer attack - when the pest lays her eggs on the crop. Certain plants start releasing smells that attract enemies of the pest as soon as eggs are laid on them. We originally discovered this trait in maize landraces but are now: 1. screening improved lines for the trait and 2. developing molecular markers for the trait that will allow MAS (marker assisted selection).
We have so far screened about 20 landraces and more than 60 improved hybrids. We have found the trait in South American landraces C-2101 (Cuba), H-2034 (Haiti) and B-3016 (Brazil) and African landraces OPV landraces 'Nyamula' and 'Jowi'. The trait is very rare in improved varieties. So far we have only found it in SC-Duma and the CIMMYT variety CKIR12001. All three parental lines of CKIR12001 have the trait (graph above). The parental lines are CML312, CML442 and CKSBL10027.
Good progress is being made towards developing molecular markers. Samples of DNA from all the plants being screened is being sent to Cornell University for genotyping by sequencing. We now have begun Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) to identify SNP markers that are significantly associated with the trait. We have a few candidates already but need to verify them.
Exploitation Route Three maize inbred lines with the egg induced defence trait have been discovered, in addition to our previous finding in the landraces. This has confirmed a real prospect of moving the trait into improved maize varieties and availing improved plants with the trait to female and male farmers in a short time. Female farmers will especially benefit from seeds better adapted to their agricultural needs.

The molecular markers developed through this research project will be employed to track the defence trait in OPVs and introgress the trait into improved lines of maize and sorghum. The outputs from the current study address an urgent need in most of rural Africa for crop varieties which can naturally defend themselves against pest attack where smallholder farmers cannot afford chemical pesticides to protect their crops. Moreover, the technology could provide an economical feasible and ecologically sound pest management approach which exploits induced plant volatile semiochemicals to prevent yield losses by crop pests and hence boost production. Will learn more about this in the field trials we have planned. Increasing production and productivity of maize crop as a result of our research outputs will contribute towards ensuring food security for millions of African smallholder farmers, who depend on maize as a staple food and cash crop. This will directly benefit farmers through provision of adequate nutrition available to their household and generation of further income from the sale of surplus maize harvest.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description We have met plant breeding organisations and made them aware of the benefits they will obtain from the project. Seed Co is particularly interested, especially as one of their varieties already has the egg-induced defense trait. We have identified one commercial hybrid line (from SeedCo, marketed as SC Duma 43 in Kenya and as SC407 in other African countries) which possesses the trait and is available immediately for farmers. Organisations such as icipe and seed suppliers are communicating this information to farmers. We have also identified a number of breeding lines with the trait which will allow development of further improved lines possessing it. The molecular markers we have identified will allow it to be bred into a larger proportion of the improved maize germplasm.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Creative Economy,Environment,Retail,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description BIS consultation about Innovation
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description COMMONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE - Secured New Government inquiry into "the role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity"
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Successfully securing this inquiry will have an impact in raising awareness and improving political will to use science and technology to address challenges to food security and biodiversity. Agriculture has been neglected since the last Green Revolution in the 1960s and 21st Century challenges need to be taken more seriously. The Commons STC is a high level committee overseeing delivery of science across all government departments. While the inquiry has not yet been launched, I am confident that it will make a difference to the areas highlighted above. Here is our University press release, which has more details: "Professor Toby Bruce has secured a full Government inquiry into the role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity, following his successful pitch to the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee in January. Professor Bruce's pitch was one of just four chosen to be taken forward as a full Government inquiry. The committee has combined Professor Bruce's recommendations on food security and crop protection with a related topic on gene editing techniques from Nicola Patron of the Earlham Institute. A report published this week by the Science and Technology Committee said: "Professor Toby Bruce suggested that we should hold an inquiry into food security, the environment and crop protection. He suggested that an inquiry could look at the tools available to farmers to protect crops against pests, weeds and diseases, how these had changed over time, what changes were needed to ensure food security in the future and research investment in crop protection. We will incorporate this into an inquiry into the role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity." Professor Bruce said: "I am delighted that 'My Science Inquiry' is being taken forward to a full inquiry and look forward to working with the Commons Science and Technology Committee. There is an urgent need for increased research and innovation to help improve food security and protect the environment. I hope that the forthcoming inquiry will be a catalyst for change and will help to address some serious limitations that currently impede our innovation system, particularly with respect to providing new options for protecting harvests from pests". During the presentation of his research, Professor Bruce said: "The choice we have at the moment is having to choose between food security and the environment, so we need to find a way forward in which we can safeguard our crops without environmental impact, partly through smarter regulation to bring more inventions into the market. There is a critical shortage of new treatments but there's also underinvestment in this area. It's a major challenge that we face this century, how do we feed the world without wrecking the environment in the process." The Commons Science and Technology Committee will launch their inquiry into the role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity within the next 12 months."
URL http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/science-and-technology-co...
 
Description Leaving the EU: implications and opportunities for science and research
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/science-and-technol...
 
Description Provided written evidence to the UK science spending review
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/science-and-technol...
 
Description Responded to Parliament Consultation on Science Budget
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://data.parliament.uk/WrittenEvidence/CommitteeEvidence.svc/EvidenceDocument/Science%20and%20Tec...
 
Description contributed to UNEP-IFAD report on smallholder agriculture
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Improved food security
 
Description Enhancing crop diversity and ecosystem services to promote biological control of fall armyworm in smallholder cropping systems
Amount £1,104,432 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R020795/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Title QTLs for stemborer egg induced indirect defence in maize 
Description The 'Smart Cereals' SCPRID project, based in Kenya and involving icipe, ICRISAT and Rothamsted Research, was designed to provide leads for genetic improvement of maize and sorghum for defence against stemborer pests. Specifically, we investigated an indirect defence mechanism occurring at the very earliest stage of stemborer attack - when the pest lays her eggs on the crop. Certain plants start releasing smells that attract enemies of the pest as soon as eggs are laid on them. In field trials we have found a significant two-fold to four-fold increase in parasitism of stem borers in maize lines with the trait. When a moth lays eggs on a plant it starts releasing smells that attract parasitic wasps. These wasps are important natural enemies of the pest and kill the stemborers by parasitizing them. We have found very strong attraction under laboratory conditions which has now been confirmed in field evaluation.We originally discovered this trait in a limited number of maize landraces (Tamiru et al., 2011) but have now: 1. screened 173 lines for the trait at icipe and 2. developed molecular markers for the trait that will allow MAS (marker assisted selection). Molecular markers were identified through a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) at ICRISAT using the Buckler Lab GBS platform (Cornell University). 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Breeding companies have access to the information for breeding maize with better indirect defences. Seed Co (http://www.seedcogroup.com) is particularly interested in making use of the QTLs in maize breeding. We have identified one commercial hybrid line (from SeedCo, marketed as SC Duma 43 in Kenya and as SC407 in other African countries) which possesses the trait and is available immediately for farmers. Organisations such as icipe and seed suppliers are communicating this information to farmers. We have also identified a number of breeding lines with the trait which will allow development of further improved lines possessing it. The molecular markers we have identified will allow it to be bred into a larger proportion of the improved maize germplasm. 
URL https://sites.google.com/site/tobyjabruce/home/scprid-bb-j011371-1
 
Title Phenotyping and genotyping of diverse maize lines for indirect defence against stemborers 
Description Information about volatile emission profile and insect response to a large number of maize lines coupled with genotype data available for individual plants as well as lines. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It will enable development of molecular markers for the indirect defence trait to allow marker assisted selection for it. Info on maize lines with the trait has already proven of interest to maize breeders 
 
Description Collaboration with Seed Co 
Organisation Seed Co
Country Zimbabwe 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution During the reporting period we initiated a new collaboration with SeedCo. This looks to be a very promising collaboration because they are a dynamic company particularly geared towards the African smallholder farmer market. They operate in 15 different African countries and the interaction with them will form an important part of our pathway to impact. Damaris Odeny, Rajneesh Paliwal, Amanuel Tamiru and Toby Bruce visited their base in Nairobi and discussed collaboration with Joseph Mito in Sept 2014. Further to that, we invited their Senior Maize Breeder, Dr Lenin Musindire, to the SCPRID workshop in Windsor in April 2015. There are opportunities for SeedCo to exploit outputs from the current SCPRID project ie. molecular markers for the egg induced volatile release trait and information about maize lines and varieties with the trait (this includes their hybrid, SC Duma, the only hybrid currently known to have the trait). There are also opportunities for collaboration in a related EU-project with icipe on companion planting with desmodium to suppress striga weed - this would be in terms of upscaling desmodium seed production.
Collaborator Contribution To use outputs from our research
Impact We are about to start a new AgriTech project with SeedCo
Start Year 2014
 
Description ICIPE 
Organisation International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of chemical samples, electrophysiological recordings from insect antennae, sharing of expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Insect bioassays and field trials, sharing of expertise.
Impact Ongoing scientific collaboration
Start Year 2006
 
Description Links to plant breeding organisations and companies 
Organisation International Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT)
Country Mexico 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Evaluation of maize lines for stemborer (insect pest) resistance via indirect defence (attraction of natural enemies). Development of molecular markers to allow marker assisted selection (MAS) for this trait
Collaborator Contribution Sharing information about requirements. CIMMYT has provided us with maize seeds.
Impact We have so far screened about 20 landraces and more than 60 improved hybrids. We have found the trait in South American landraces C-2101 (Cuba), H-2034 (Haiti) and B-3016 (Brazil) and African landraces OPV landraces 'Nyamula' and 'Jowi'. The trait is very rare in improved varieties. So far we have only found it in SC-Duma and the CIMMYT variety CKIR12001. All three parental lines of CKIR12001 have the trait. The parental lines are CML312, CML442 and CKSBL10027. Good progress is being made towards developing molecular markers. Samples of DNA from all the plants being screened is being sent to Cornell University for genotyping by sequencing. We now have begun Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) to identify SNP markers that are significantly associated with the trait. We have a few candidates already but need to verify them.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Links to plant breeding organisations and companies 
Organisation Kenya Seed Company
Country Kenya 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Evaluation of maize lines for stemborer (insect pest) resistance via indirect defence (attraction of natural enemies). Development of molecular markers to allow marker assisted selection (MAS) for this trait
Collaborator Contribution Sharing information about requirements. CIMMYT has provided us with maize seeds.
Impact We have so far screened about 20 landraces and more than 60 improved hybrids. We have found the trait in South American landraces C-2101 (Cuba), H-2034 (Haiti) and B-3016 (Brazil) and African landraces OPV landraces 'Nyamula' and 'Jowi'. The trait is very rare in improved varieties. So far we have only found it in SC-Duma and the CIMMYT variety CKIR12001. All three parental lines of CKIR12001 have the trait. The parental lines are CML312, CML442 and CKSBL10027. Good progress is being made towards developing molecular markers. Samples of DNA from all the plants being screened is being sent to Cornell University for genotyping by sequencing. We now have begun Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) to identify SNP markers that are significantly associated with the trait. We have a few candidates already but need to verify them.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Links to plant breeding organisations and companies 
Organisation Seed Co
Country Zimbabwe 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Evaluation of maize lines for stemborer (insect pest) resistance via indirect defence (attraction of natural enemies). Development of molecular markers to allow marker assisted selection (MAS) for this trait
Collaborator Contribution Sharing information about requirements. CIMMYT has provided us with maize seeds.
Impact We have so far screened about 20 landraces and more than 60 improved hybrids. We have found the trait in South American landraces C-2101 (Cuba), H-2034 (Haiti) and B-3016 (Brazil) and African landraces OPV landraces 'Nyamula' and 'Jowi'. The trait is very rare in improved varieties. So far we have only found it in SC-Duma and the CIMMYT variety CKIR12001. All three parental lines of CKIR12001 have the trait. The parental lines are CML312, CML442 and CKSBL10027. Good progress is being made towards developing molecular markers. Samples of DNA from all the plants being screened is being sent to Cornell University for genotyping by sequencing. We now have begun Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) to identify SNP markers that are significantly associated with the trait. We have a few candidates already but need to verify them.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Links to plant breeding organisations and companies 
Organisation Western Seeds
Country Kenya 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Evaluation of maize lines for stemborer (insect pest) resistance via indirect defence (attraction of natural enemies). Development of molecular markers to allow marker assisted selection (MAS) for this trait
Collaborator Contribution Sharing information about requirements. CIMMYT has provided us with maize seeds.
Impact We have so far screened about 20 landraces and more than 60 improved hybrids. We have found the trait in South American landraces C-2101 (Cuba), H-2034 (Haiti) and B-3016 (Brazil) and African landraces OPV landraces 'Nyamula' and 'Jowi'. The trait is very rare in improved varieties. So far we have only found it in SC-Duma and the CIMMYT variety CKIR12001. All three parental lines of CKIR12001 have the trait. The parental lines are CML312, CML442 and CKSBL10027. Good progress is being made towards developing molecular markers. Samples of DNA from all the plants being screened is being sent to Cornell University for genotyping by sequencing. We now have begun Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) to identify SNP markers that are significantly associated with the trait. We have a few candidates already but need to verify them.
Start Year 2012
 
Description AAB conference - Knowledge exchange: from research to the food supply chain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce gave two talks - one about IPM in Africa and one about the CROPROTECT system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.aab.org.uk/images/knowledge_exchange_pro.pdf
 
Description AAB: Advances in IPM 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce - gave a talk, chaired a session and helped to organise the Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Advances in IPM 2016 conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.aab.org.uk/contentok.php?id=194&basket=wwsshowconfdets
 
Description AGRInet conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce - lecture at the AgriNet conference, 13 May 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.agri-net.net/events/agri-net-5th-international-plant-chemical-biology-conference
 
Description AgriTech REAP conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce attended conference and took part in discussion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.agritech-east.co.uk/reap-2015-roundup/
 
Description Agricology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Toby Bruce - serving on steering committee of Agricology, "Practical, sustainable farming regardless of labels". This is an important initiative to bridge the divide between organic and conventional farming and an opportunity to develop more evidence based approaches to sustainable agriculture. Toby is responsible for discussions relating to crop protection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Agricology blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Toby Bruce - Blog post - TACKLING THE FOOTPRINT OF PESTS, WEEDS & DISEASES IN OUR FOOD SYSTEM
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.agricology.co.uk/tackling-footprint-pests-weeds-diseases-our-food-system
 
Description Association of Applied Biologists: Advances in IPM conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised and chaired Association of Applied Biologists: Advances in IPM conference Organised and chaired
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Association of Applied Biologists: IPM the 10 year plan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce gave a talk, "Current state of the agricultural research community in the UK and its ability to deliver new and
novel techniques to the production industry"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.aab.org.uk/images/ipm_2015_pro.pdf
 
Description Biopesticide Summit, Swansea, 2-3 July 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a keynote, invited talk: "The role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://biopesticidesummit.com
 
Description CPM magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Toby Bruce featured as the "On farm innovator" in Crop Production Magazine, April 2016 issue
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.cpm-magazine.co.uk/2016/04/11/on-farm-innovator-crowd-sourced-science/
 
Description Chinese Delegation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Two lectures on Crop Protection to a high level panel of Chinese academics and government policy advisers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Ecomodernism launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I was invited by Owen Patterson MP and Mark Lynas to attend the Ecomodernism launch. It was an interesting event and I took part in the discussion. It was about environmentalism making use of technology. I agreed that technology could be useful but not that we can fully decouple from nature.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.uk2020.org.uk/events/eco-modernism-restoring-science-environment-policy/
 
Description Farmers Weekly Ag Careers Live event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Toby Bruce - presented research and careers in agricultural research at a Careers Fair in Birmingham
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.fwi.co.uk/ms/events/ag-careers-live/
 
Description GFS workshop - Alternatives to Pesticides 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Toby Bruce attended GFS (Global Food Security) workshop - Alternatives to Pesticides organised by Tim Benton (former GFS Champion). Toby gave a talk and participated in discusssions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gates - Grand Challenges 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Toby Bruce took part in the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation "Grand Challenges 2016" meeting. He contributed to discussion in the Crop Research stream
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gates Workshop - Plant Communication for Agricultural Innovation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation organised a workshop, described as follows: "The goal of this convening is to bring together leading scientists working in plant-plant and plant-pest communication to discuss the current state of research in this area, consider how recent advances may be leveraged to improve agricultural productivity, and to brainstorm prospective research areas worthy of future exploration. Although we do not currently have approval to fund such research, we hope this meeting will serve to inform our thinking on possible future investment areas."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Gordon Research Conference - Plant volatiles 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce gave an invited lecture - Plant volatiles in Biocontrol
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.grc.org/programs.aspx?id=15108
 
Description Guest Lecture - University of Nottingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Gave a lecture to M.Sc. students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Guest Lecture at University of Nottingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact My invited talk formed part of the World Agroecosystems course and had information about our current research in Africa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Innovate UK Biopesticides event, Invited plenary lecture, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Innovate UK Biopesticides event, Invited plenary lecture, London, 12 April 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Plenary Lecture at SIP 15, 15th International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 19 Aug 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received and stimulated discussion

a request to write a paper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www2.unine.ch/sip15
 
Description Invited Seminar at Newcastle University (3 April 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Seminar at Newcastle University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Seminar at University of Warwick (2 May 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Seminar at University of Warwick (2 May 2019)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description JIC visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce - Visit to the John Innes Centre for discussion and to give a talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description News Item in The Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact News Article about pesticides and crop protection in The Guardian
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/nov/14/miniature-robots-could-cut-pesticide-use-on-farm...
 
Description Nuffield students visit to Rothamsted 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce organised and took part in Nuffield farming scholarship students visit to Rothamsted
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to British Herbs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Toby Bruce gave a talk about crop protection during visit of British Herbs to Rothamsted
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Royal Holloway lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Toby Bruce - talk about protecting harvests with fewer pesticides
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SCPRID Connections workshop (Windsor) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This workshop, organised by the Gates foundation, drew together the SCPRID project teams to discuss connections between projects and pathways to impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Shamba Shape Up, the leading TV programme for farmers in Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our project has featured several times on Shamba Shape Up, the leading TV programme for farmers in Kenya. It has a reach of 5 million viewers across Africa and aims to educate and help viewers.

Please see links to video:
• Feature 1: https://vimeo.com/388205962
• Feature 2: https://vimeo.com/388206820
• Feature 3: https://vimeo.com/388208129
• Feature 4: https://vimeo.com/388209102
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://vimeo.com/388205962
 
Description Syngenta - Good Growth Plan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Toby Bruce attended a discussion meeting with Syngenta about their Good Growth Plan and collaboration with Rothamsted
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description UK-US Plant Health Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Toby Bruce attended a discussion meeting at the UK embassy in Washington DC to discuss Plant Health and write a whitepaper with other delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://blogs.fco.gov.uk/stefaniadimauronava/2016/10/13/blog-at-the-root-of-it-all/
 
Description Visits to plant breeding organisations and seed companies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussions made intended beneficiaries aware of the project outputs and how it could help them and also gave us a chance to discuss their requirements

After my visits companies were aware of the project benefits and we are working with them to ensure uptake of project outputs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
 
Description • Society of Experimental Biology Annual Meeting, Manchester, UK. "Chemical communication between insects and plants - dynamic and complex interactions that have evolved over millions of years but act in milliseconds" 3-4 July 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk was well received and stimulated questions

Invited to write a paper in JXB about the talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.sebiology.org/meetings/Past_Meetings/Manchester/Manchester.html