Multiple Herbicide Resistance in Grass Weeds: from Genes to AgroEcosystems

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Sch of Natural Sciences & Env Sciences

Abstract

In the advanced agricultural production systems of Northern Europe, weed control in cereal crops has become one of the greatest challenges to sustainable intensification, accounting for higher yield losses and greater input costs than all other biological constraints (pests and diseases). The most problematic weeds in cereals in Northern Europe are the wild grasses, notably black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides), which has become steadily more difficult to control over the last 30 years due to the evolution of herbicide resistance. This resistance assumes two forms: 1) Target site resistance (TSR), whereby the weeds become highly tolerant of herbicides due to mutations in the proteins targeted by these chemicals rendering them less sensitive to inhibition by that herbicide mode of action. 2) Metabolic or multiple herbicide resistance (MHR) where weeds become more tolerant of a broad range of herbicides, irrespective of their chemistry or mode of action, due to a general enhancement in the ability to detoxify crop protection agents. While TSR is now quite well understood and can be countered by the rotational use of herbicides with differing modes of action, the molecular basis and evolutionary drivers which promote MHR are poorly understood and the associated grass weeds very difficult to control using conventional methods. In this 4 year project, we propose to use a combination of molecular biology and biochemistry, ecology and evolution, modeling and integrated pest management to develop better tools to monitor and manage both TSR and MHR in black-grass under field conditions. The project represents a novel agri-systems approach, linking our latest understanding in the molecular biology of herbicide resistance to on farm monitoring and modeling based on a quantitative genetics approach to define the effectiveness of different intervention measures. Through a multidisciplinary consortium, we will integrate knowledge about MHR and TSR at the molecular and biochemical levels and relate this fundamental understanding to resistance phenotypes observed in the field. Selection and breeding experiments will examine the dynamics of selection for resistance, with the intention of determining the genetic architecture of MHR for the first time and its relation to other stresses and life history traits. Data from field monitoring and glasshouse studies will be integrated in ecological, evolutionary and management models with the ultimate aim to design novel management to prevent, delay or mitigate the evolution of herbicide resistance. Finally, the environmental and economic impacts of novel management will be explored. The project therefore has the primary goal of using state of the art approaches spanning molecular biology, weed science, modeling and agronomy to provide new resistance control measures within the life of the programme.
The project is divided into 5 integrated work packages which will address the following questions
1. What are the molecular mechanisms that underpin the evolution of metabolic herbicide resistance?
2. What is the extent of the herbicide resistance problem in UK black-grass populations and what impacts is resistance having on black-grass populations and crop yields?
3. What are the genetic, ecological and agronomic factors that promote and constrain the emergence of herbicide resistance?
4. How can applied evolutionary models be used to manage herbicide resistance?
5. What are the economic and environmental consequences of novel weed and resistance management strategies?
The major outputs will be:
1. A rapid diagnostic toolkit for the on-farm characterisation of herbicide resistance.
2. A resistance audit for the extent and distribution of resistance to the major herbicide modes of action in black-grass.
3. A suite of models to address key questions in the emergence and management of resistance.
4. Management recommendations, together with an analysis of their impacts.

Technical Summary

Our overarching aim is to provide solutions for urgent weed management issues in UK agriculture. Focussed on black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides), the project will improve our understanding of the evolutionary and agronomic factors underpinning the evolution of multiple herbicide resistance (MHR) induced by enhanced metabolism. We propose to study MHR at all levels, from its molecular genetic basis, through its inheritance, relationship to other weed characteristics, and ultimately its effects on weed numbers, farm management and the wider environment.
We will address 5 major questions
1. What are the molecular mechanisms that underpin the evolution of metabolic herbicide resistance? We will develop molecular techniques that us to characterise MHR in the field and use this as the basis for forming the link between MHR evolution and management.
2. What is the extent of the herbicide resistance problem in UK black-grass populations and what impacts is MHR having on black-grass densities and crop yields? We will use large-scale farm surveys and assess the degree of MHR using molecular tools.
3. What are the genetic and ecological factors that promote and constrain the emergence of herbicide resistance? Quantitative genetic techniques will be used to determine the heritability of MHR and the covariance of this with other life-history characteristics.
4. What are the expected eco-evolutionary dynamics of black-grass populations under different management scenarios? We will develop new models that allow us to explore the possibilities for reducing the rate of evolution of resistance.
5. What are the economic and environmental consequences of novel weed and resistance management strategies? Using tools develop for environmental risk assessment, we will generate predictions for management that account for environmental and economic functions of agricultural systems.

Planned Impact

This project places a strong emphasis on the translation of its science content to tangible benefits to the sustainability of UK arable agriculture, with the impact of new strategies for weed resistance management being delivered within the life-time of the grant. In a recent comprehensive industry review conducted by the Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA), weed control was identified as a key area with 89% of growers and 93% of advisors identifying it was a high or medium priority. The project is therefore directly addressing a major problem in UK agriculture as recognized by the user community. Building on this link to the real benefits of this programme, an understanding of the practical and socioeconomic needs of end users when developing new solutions is central to effective science translation and for these reasons the project will engage from its start with stakeholders. These interactions will steer the development of the applied outputs of the project, such as the development of practical 'in-field' diagnostics, setting the modeling scenarios for resistance management and understanding the wider consequences of new control measures.
Who will benefit from this research ? By better understanding herbicide resistance in grass weeds and how to counteract it, stakeholders who will benefit from this project are the arable farming industry and related professional bodies, policy makers struggling with controlling herbicide resistance in the face of EU directives limiting agrochemical availability and non-government organizations (NGOs) interested in the consequences of sustainable intensification in arable agriculture and associated effects on the environment. An applied output of the work will be to develop new and rapid field diagnostics for different classes of resistance. In addition to the direct effect this will have on UK farmers having better decision making tools in addressing weed control issues, the development of these diagnostics has commercial potential for the development of further products which can be used globally to counteract resistance. The other major impact of the programme will be raising the profile of UK weed research at a time when the respective plant science community is being encouraged to find new practical outlets for its work as well as increasing the awareness of resistance management in agriculture to both funding and policy setting bodies.
How will these benefits be delivered ? Consortium members already have strong links with the prospective stakeholder beneficiaries. Throughout the project, full use will be made the links with the industrial sponsor of the project, the Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA), with its broad ranging interactions with the arable farming community. As such, the HGCA will be a primary portal to allow the practical benefits of the project to be rapidly disseminated to end users on a continuous basis through a range of activities including regular 'blogs' . The consortium will also carry out a series of engagement activities with the farming community at agricultural dissemination forums, such as the annual Cereals event and has plans for a conference for stakeholders in the third year to directly disseminate progress on the project. Finally, the effectiveness of these engagement activities will be monitored n an annual basis through regular meetings of the consortium with its stakeholder group to assess the external impact of programme outputs.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The programme has delivered all the projected outputs associated with the individual work-packages (WPs). Importantly, it has also delivered some high level outputs in forming a community of researchers who have delivered the BlackGrass Herbicide Resistance Initiative (BGRI). The BGRI have raised the profile of weed science both nationally and internationally, an output that can only assist the UK's reputation as a centre for agricultural innovation in the future. The BGRI have delivered an impressive set of academic and outreach activities (see annex) and specific outputs of more applied value include.

1)The development of a commercial diagnostic BReD, a pocket device to detect non-target site resistance (NTSR) in black-grass. A world first in herbicide resistance testing, BReD represents a 12 minute simple semi-quantitative test for NTSR in blackgrass (and other grass weeds) and is based on the detection of the protein AmGSTF1, discovered to be a NTSR functional biomarker of NTSR in grasses. The status of AmGSTF1 as intrinsically linked to NTSR in diverse populations of blackgrass collected across the UK has been validated as part of the resistance audit (see 3). BReD will continue to be developed and commercially available to the arable industry following the end of the project through its commercialisation by partner company MoLogic (https://www.mologic-bred.co.uk/) .

2) The generation of intellectual property, through the filing of patent WO 2018/138498A1 by the Newcastle group in 2018 detailing the identification of a new generation of herbicide resistance biomarkers that can serve as the basis of both new diagnostics and targets for chemical inhibition by herbicide synergists.

3) A national audit of resistant blackgrass populations linked to previous management practice. Repeated annual field-surveys have resulted in the creation of a database documenting blackgrass density for ~200 UK fields over 2014-2018, with associated field management data back to 2004. The resistance status of 132 of these surveyed fields was measured through assaying for herbicide resistance, identifying the current widespread extent of resistance to the herbicides 'Atlantis' (mesosulfuron), 'cheetah' (fenoxaprop), and 'laser' (cycloxydim). Statistical analysis linking the management histories with resistance status from WP2.1 has confirmed that there is a strong positive relationship between the historic intensity of herbicide use, and both current blackgrass population density, and herbicide resistance. This has been published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution (DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0470-1).
We have additionally measured the density of blackgrass in over 5000 locations from 2015-2017 allowing us to build up a national scale picture of the distribution of the weed. This work has allowed us to correlate the density of blackgrass with rainfall, land use and soil type. This then allows us to identify areas at risk of future spread of blackgrass. This work has been submitted to the journal Ecology Letters for publication.

4) The research resource of a characterized collection of herbicide resistant blackgrass populations. The BGRI project has generated a unique collection of ca. 200 wild blackgrass populations with extensive data on the phenotypic, genotypic and mechanistic basis of herbicide resistance. These characterised populations have been pivotal to outcomes reported in 3) and 5). Access to these populations has facilitated a CASE PhD studentship with Bayer to explore the diversity of MHR mechanisms, as well as studies to explore population genetics of black-grass, informing the extent of gene flow (dispersal) within- and between-populations. In addition, aunique set of 400 pedigreed blackgrass seed families were created and screened for herbicide resistance and plant life-history / fitness characteristics. Results have been used to quantify the additive genetic-variance underpinning variation in sensitivity to herbicides (including glyphosate), and to calculate the heritability and genetic correlations underpinning ecological traits including flowering times and reproductive fitness. This is a unique blackgrass genetic resource, and is facilitating further experiments into the genetic architecture of NTSR at Rothamsted Research.

5) Underpinning knowledge that can help reduce the likelihood of resistance evolution Statistical approaches have been developed to combine data on molecular mechanisms of resistance, herbicide tolerance status and the history of weed management status. Analyses show that whereas target site resistance (TSR) mutations are significantly associated with intensive use of individual herbicide MOAs, application of herbicide mixes containing multiple MOAs are significantly associated with markers of NTSR. Taken together (with results in 3), these results clearly establish that herbicide diversity alone is not sufficient to mitigate evolution of MHR in blackgrass. Resistance screening has been further extended to the herbicide glyphosate (beyond the original project scope and objectives). Results highlight significant variation in glyphosate sensitivity amongst populations, with some populations showing survivors at field rate application doses (540 g ha-1). Analysis has shown that current glyphosate sensitivity has a heritable genetic basis for selection to act upon, and is significantly correlated with the historic intensity of glyphosate use in these populations. These results suggest that blackgrass populations are evolving resistance to glyphosate and add urgency to current calls for glyphosate stewardship to minimise risks of evolution of resistance.

6) Converting predictive models of herbicide resistance to on farm decisions
We developed predictive models of the evolution of TSR and NTSR, and blackgrass density, in response to different control strategies (e.g. herbicide, cultivation, crop rotation). We used these models to find optimal integrated weed management strategies over a 10 year time horizon. This allowed us to convert our understanding of blackgrass population ecology and evolutionary dynamics to practical, economically sustainable, management strategies in the face of evolving resistance. We show that cost effective management requires knowledge of how blackgrass affects crop yields, an important piece of ongoing work we are addressing using our farm management and blackgrass density database. We also show that as resistance evolves optimal weed management strategies should rely more on non-chemical, agronomic control to maximise long-term profitability.

7) Environmental and economic valuation of cost and mitigation of resistance. We developed a new model to allow us to estimate national-scale yield loss and economic cost due to herbicide-resistant blackgrass. The annual winter wheat yield loss across England is 1 million tonnes and the annual cost to the farming community is £0.5bn. This is being submitted to the journal Nature Sustainability. We also developed a new modelling framework to allow concurrent estimation of productivity and economic outcomes as well as environmental end points. This modelling framework is being used in ongoing work assessing trade-offs and synergies using our farm management and blackgrass density database and also for future blackgrass mitigation scenarios.

8) Community of practice. The BGRI has established stakeholder and farmer focus groups and met frequently with those groups to discuss project outcomes in a range of workshop type events. The establishment of a national blackgrass monitoring network has been integral to the success of the BGRI and has depended on close collaboration and participatory research with UK farmers. The BGRI team have attended and presented annually at the Cereals event and at a number of industry, farmer and agronomist events, including the Association of Independent Crop Consultants annual conference (2017 and 2018), and NFU workshop on resistance management and many others (see Annex). Internationally, members of the BGRI consortium were active contributors to the Global Herbicide Resistance Challenge meeting, presenting and helping to organise workshops, raising the profile of the UK as a centre of agricultural research.

9) Predictive tools: the data from the monitoring programme has allowed us to develop a series of models that predict the density of blackgrass as a function of management (e.g. rotation, herbicides, cultivation). Using these models we can better evaluate the effectiveness of alternative management strategies. We have found, for example, that techniques such as spring cropping can be spatially and temporally extremely variable in terms of their effectiveness. This work has been published in Pest Management Science (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ps.4759).
Exploitation Route Access to a commercialised herbicide resistance diagnostic and decision system. This part of the project is currently under development and will be co-created with agronomists and farmers. In support of this objective the herbicide resistance diagnostic BReD was commercially launched in June 2018.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals

URL https://www.mologic-bred.co.uk/
 
Description The project has used a combination of cutting edge foundational research to underpin new understanding of herbicide resistance and its evolution in the field, that has then allowed us to develop new practical tools for black-grass management and to exchange this knowledge with the arable farming industry on a continuous and participatory basis. The key outcomes from the programme are: 1. Identification of key proteins that are causatively linked to MHR and new understanding of how their functions in resistance could be disrupted in future. 2. Evidence for sub-types of MHR linked to specific herbicide chemistries. 3. The characterisation of latent viruses in blackgrass that could be of value in future biocontrol programmes 4. That epigenetic mechanisms are unlikely to be an evolutionary driver of MHR inheritance 5. The first evidence for active roles for transporter proteins functioning in MHR and their coupled function with detoxifying enzymes. 6. Practical diagnostics for MHR in black-grass that can be used to detect resistance in the field in 10 minutes 7. A national audit of resistant blackgrass populations linked to previous management 8. The research resource of a characterized collection of herbicide resistant blackgrass populations 9. Underpinning knowledge that can help reduce the likelihood of resistance evolution 10. Converting predictive models of herbicide resistance to on farm decisions 11. Environmental and economic valuation of cost and mitigation of resistance.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals
Impact Types Economic

 
Description BBSRC CASE studentship funded by industry partner Bayer Crop Science
Amount £22,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P504786/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description BBSRC DTP (Nottingham)
Amount £123,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description BBSRC Industrial CASE studentship (with Bayer)
Amount £171,965 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M016420/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 10/2019
 
Description GCRF Impact Accelerator Award
Amount £46,430 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description GCRF Impact Accelerator Award
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description GCRF Impact Accelerator Award (17/18)
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2018
 
Description SWBio DTP
Amount £95,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Syngenta Strategic Funding
Amount £350,000 (GBP)
Organisation Syngenta International AG 
Department Syngenta Ltd (Bracknell)
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2014 
End 06/2017
 
Description BBSRC PhD CASE studentship with the Food and Environment Research Agency 
Organisation Fera Science Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution The outputs of the grant helped initiate a collaboration with Fera to develop a diagnostic for herbicide resistance in weeds
Collaborator Contribution Provided glass house growth facilities and diagnostics development services
Impact This was the starting point of our black grass diagnostics programme
Start Year 2012
 
Description BBSRC USA-UK partnering award: Harnessing next-generation sequencing technologies for eco-evolutionary studies of herbicide resistance and weed biology 
Organisation Colorado State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Regular joint lab meetings with Gaines lab. Visits by Neve to CSU and hosting of CSU staff at Rothamsted. A number of joint initiatives, including working together on a GCRF-IAA funded project, co-organisation of a working group and workshop towards establishment of an international consortium for weed genomics. Joint publications. Work towards establishing a collaborative USA-UK black-grass genome project.
Collaborator Contribution As above
Impact Joint papers. Weed genomics workshops.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Bayer Crop Science: Neve/Edwards 
Organisation Bayer
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Neve applied for a BBSRC Industrial CASE studentship. The student is based at Rothamsted Research (Neve as PI), and registered for at Newcastle University (Edwards as co-supervisor). The studentship title is "exploring the evolutionary dynamics of non-target site resistance (NTSR) in Alopecurus myosuroides". The student's work is a direct outcome of previous work completed as part of this grant. We are exploring, the expression of a panel of over-expressed genes that underpin NTSR in a broad set of populations collected during the BGRI project. This work is providing validation for those expression-based markers of NTSR in a broad range of wild, herbicide resistant populations, exploring the co-segregation of markers with various cross-resistance phenotypes in pedigreed black-grass populations and addressing the question 'is the genotypic basis of NTSR similar across a range of populations?'
Collaborator Contribution Bayer are CASE partner, providing scientific and financial support. The student spends a 2-3 month period each year at Bayer's Weed Resistance Competence Centre in Frankfurt, Germany, where she is provided with training and access to equipment, resources and expertise.
Impact No outputs as yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Beta testing herbicide resistance diagnostics 
Organisation Frontier Agriculture Ltd
PI Contribution Field testing of beta type diagnostic for herbicide resistance in black grass
Collaborator Contribution Providing field access and staff to conduct trial
Impact Agronomy and biotechnology. Commercial appraisal- confidential
Start Year 2017
 
Description CASE studentship with Croda 
Organisation Croda Europe Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Our research and expertise on the control of herbicide resistance using novel chemistries
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in herbicide formulation and advice on creating a spray testing facility at our research farm
Impact Work in progress
Start Year 2015
 
Description CASE studentship with Syngenta 
Organisation Syngenta International AG
Department Syngenta Crop Protection
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Through developing skills in herbicide metabolism we were approached by Syngenta to host this studentship
Collaborator Contribution Radiochemical supplies and expertise in regulatory affairs relating to pesticide registration
Impact Work in progress
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Bayer Crop Science 
Organisation Bayer
Department Bayer CropScience Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Following on from the meeting in 2014 a follow up visit to workshop participant Dr Roland Beffa, Bayer Crop Science in Frankfurt was arranged.
Collaborator Contribution The ensuing collaboration resulted in the funding of a BBSRC CASE studentship supported by Bayer Crop Science. 'Basis of herbicide resistance and safening in broad-leaf weeds'
Impact Work in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description PhD: Getting to the roots of black-grass control: Crop-weed allelopathic interactions in Alopecurus myosuroides 
Organisation Hutchinson H L Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Principal PhD supervisor
Collaborator Contribution Co-supervisors and for Hutchinsons, provision of student training and placement opportunities
Impact Work in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description PhD: Getting to the roots of black-grass control: Crop-weed allelopathic interactions in Alopecurus myosuroides 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Biosciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Principal PhD supervisor
Collaborator Contribution Co-supervisors and for Hutchinsons, provision of student training and placement opportunities
Impact Work in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description PhD: Rewinding the tape: experimental evolution of resistance to herbicides in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Principal PhD supervisor
Collaborator Contribution PhD co-supervisors
Impact Work in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description PhD: Rewinding the tape: experimental evolution of resistance to herbicides in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 
Organisation University of Exeter
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Principal PhD supervisor
Collaborator Contribution PhD co-supervisors
Impact Work in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description Pharmacodynamics of herbicide metabolism in crops and weeds 
Organisation Waters Corporation
Department Waters Corporation Centre of Mass Spectrometry Excellence
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in herbicide metabolism studio in crops and weeds
Collaborator Contribution Access to new technologies in ambient and high resolution mass spectrometry.
Impact Involves analytical chemists and biochemists woking together. Outcomes in progress
Start Year 2018
 
Description Second level beta testing of resistance diagnostics 
Organisation Association of Independent Crop Consultants Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of diagnostic kits and expertise in their use
Collaborator Contribution Testing of black grass field samples
Impact Agronomy and biotechnology. Outputs in progress
Start Year 2018
 
Title Herbicide resistant weeds 
Description Identification of biomarkers of non-target site herbicide resistance in grass weeds 
IP Reference WO2018138498 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact Commercialisation of a diagnostic for herbicide resistance in black grass
 
Title Methods and means relating to multiple herbicide resistance in plants 
Description The identification of a target for chemical intervention to counteract non-target site resistance in grass weeds and a chemical series able to act on that target. 
IP Reference WO2009034396 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2009
Licensed No
Impact The work on the protein has allowed us to develop it as a functional biomarker of herbicide resistance in diagnostics applications.
 
Description A farmer focus group meeting was held in November 2017 in Cambridgeshire, UK. A total of 26 people attended, including 14 farmers and 5 people from relevant industries. BGRI project members presented their research findings in order to disseminate information to practitioners and other stakeholders. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact One of the aims of the meeting was to encourage best-practice by sharing the most up-to-date findings. Farmers and other stakeholders alike were very enthusiastic about the project findings presented and they were keen to find out more about how they could implement best practice.

The meeting also sought stakeholder input to the project: attendees were presented with some of the project findings and then asked to design management strategies in response. The farmers found the exercise useful as it allowed them to discuss and debate best practice amongst themselves and with industry people and researchers. The strategies created are being used in some of the scenario modelling currently being undertaken. The outcomes will then be fed back to farmers in a subsequent meeting and their input sought to further refine the strategies in light of the new information presented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description AICC Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Memebr of BGRI Lola consortium Richard Hull talked on "Herbicide resistance: current status and future threats" at the AICC (Association of Independent Crop Consultants) annual conference, with approximately 150 agronomists in the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description American Chemical Society (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rob Edwards: Plenary Speaker at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Crop Environment and Public Health Protection Technologies for a Changing World, San Francisco. ACS-AGRO/IUPAC sponsored session: Modes of Action and Resistance Management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Association of Independent Crop Consultants annual conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paul Neve presented a talk on the BGRI project. Talk resulted in follow up media interest and an invitation to speak again in 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Association of Independent Crop Consultants annual conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paul was an invited speaker and gave a talk entitles "Managing glyphosate resistance: risks and responses in global cropping systems and lessons for the UK"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BGRI informal advisory board meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact During the occasion of the 2015 pesticide resistance meeting held at Rothamsted Research, the BGRI took the opportunity to convene a small meeting with internationally recognised academics to discuss the project; it's objectives, approaches and anticipated outcomes. The group were impressed by the scope and ambition of the project, which in unrivalled internationally, and made a number of useful suggestions for taking the project forward.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bayer Crop Science herbicide resistance meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Bayer Crop Science organised a global meeting to address herbicide resistance problems, responses and solutions. Academics and practitioners were invited from all parts of the world. Neve attended. At this meeting, Neve met with Todd Gaines from Colorado State University, and Neve and Gained resolved to write a successful BBSRC USA-UK partnering award. Neve also had discussions with Chinese scientists engaged in herbicide resistance research, and this has resulted in submission of a joint research proposal via the joint Rothamsted - Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Centre for the Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture (pending).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description British Ecological Society annual meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presented a poster on the economic impacts of black-grass resistance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description British Ecological Society annual meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Hicks, Freckleton and Neve took part in a special session which explored ecological and evolutionary challenges facing agricultural production. The workshop was convened by Hicks and Freckleton. Neve contributed a talk on herbicide resistance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cereals 2015 workshop (Lincoln) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Speaker for BBSRC hosted Breakfeast Seminar 'Black-grass resistance research initiative'10th June 2015, Cereals 2015, Lincoln.

Presentation of latest Lola consortium results to the farming sector and stakeholder group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cereals Show 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attendance by a number of members of the BGRI at the annual Cereals industry event. In 2014, the BGRI team presented poster boards outlining the aims and scope of the project. A major outcome from attendance was the recruitment of a number of farmers for the BGRI farm network and farmer focus group. In subsequent years, the team have presented updates to farmers as poster boards and also through a series of annual stakeholder and farmer presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
 
Description Crop Production Magazine / Agrii panel discussion: Black-grass question time 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paul Neve acted as a panel member for a farmer focused discussion panel. A media article that summarised the discussion and its outcomes was produced. The meeting was attended by ca. 50 farmers and industry representatives
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description European Commission: workshop on agronomic, economic and environmental aspects of genetically-modified herbicide tolerant crops 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Paul Neve gave a presentation on the risks of evolution of weed resistance to glyphosate in systems with heavy reliance on glyphosate-tolerant crops. These insights were considered in respect of ongoing discussions about the introduction of GM crops in the EU.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description European Weed Research Society: Herbicide Resistance working group symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A three-day symposium, bringing together researchers, industry and practitioners to discuss herbicide resistance problems across Europe. Symposium was convened by Neve and attended by Neve and Edwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Farmer focus workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A farmer focus workshop was held to disseminate research findings and to obtain farmer input into the next stage of the research. 9 farmers and 3 industry people took part.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Global Herbicide Resistance Challenge conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talks and poster were given by a number of the BGRI team (Comont, Onkokesung, Neve, Hull, Crook). Neve organised a workshop on weed genomics for weed management. This workshop and other related follow on activities has led to the establishment of an international weed genomics consortium, including well-advanced plans to generate a reference genome for black-grass.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interdisciplinary workshop on resistance challenges in agriculture and healthcare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paul Neve organised an international workshop in Barcelona, Spain to bring together researchers in herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-helmintic and anti-cancer resistance. Also attended by Freckleton and Childs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description International Weed Genomics Consortium: follow-up meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Paul Neve co-organised a meeting of the International Weed Genomics Consortium at the Weed Science Society of America annual meeting. At this meeting further steps were taken towards the establishment of a coordinating committee for this global efforts towards generating genomic resources for the world's most important weed species.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Weed Science Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paul Neve presented a keynote presentation in the herbicide resistance session at the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview on 'Food Unwrapped Episode 7 featuring stories on Wheat, Lard and Apple Juice' Aired Channel 4, 26th February 2018, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact TV interview with Paul Neve and Rob Edwards on our black grass work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.channel4.com/programmes/food-unwrapped
 
Description Invited Speaker 58th Annual Meeting of the Weed Science Society of America, 'Herbicide metabolism in crops and weeds: a revisit, current understanding and new insights'. Crystal Gateway Marriott, Arlington, Virginia. 29th Jan-1st Feb 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on our resistance project at the Weed Science Society of America Annual meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited annual David Staniforth Lecture, Iowa State University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paul Neve was invited to this annual, memorial lecture entitled "Weed science: running to stand still?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited presentation at the Nordic-Baltic Resistance Action Group. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Paul Neve was invited to make a presentation "Proactive and Reactive Approaches for Managing Herbicide Resistance in Global Cropping Systems." Neve also took part in a subsequent question and answer session. Participants were particularly interested to hear the UK experience of dealing with a current epidemic of herbicide resistant black-grass, as this species and associated resistance problems are increasing concerns in Nordic and Baltic countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker Global Herbicide Resistance Challenge 2017, Denver, Colorado May 14-18, 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk by group at international resistance conference following invitation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited speaker and demonstrator at BBSRC Innovation Hub, Oxford Farming Conference, Oxford 3rd January 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited demonstration of black grass resistance diagnostics at BBSRC innovation hub
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker and panellist at Crop Protection Seminar, CropTec, East of England Showground, Peterborough, 29th November 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited presentation at practical seminar series on latest innovations in crop protection
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited speaker at Velcourt Annual Conference, 'Black-grass herbicide resistance mechanisms and diagnostics' Oxford Belfry, Thame, Oxon 11th January 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented work on agridiagnostics to national Velcourt conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker, Global food Security Institute, University of Saskatoon, Canada, 22nd March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact UK-Canadian researcher meeting on agritech opportunities for joint working sponsored by IUK and FCO
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description KTN Conference (Birmingham) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Plenary speaker at The Knowledge Transfer Network 'Sensors in Agriculture' meeting, Birmingham, 23rd February 2016.
Disseminating practical outcomes of BBSRC Lola grant in terms of development of diagnostics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Latin American Weed Science Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paul Neve was invited to give a plenary, invited lecture at this conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He reported on the 'gene to landscape' approaches for studying herbicide resistance that have been developed by the BGRI project. Neve made a number of contacts and has continued discussions about potential future collaborative projects in Latin America. One GCRF-IAA project was funded as a result of links made at this event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description NFU pesticide resistance workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The National Farmers Union convened a meeting at their Stoneleigh HQ to discuss the current national situation relating to insecticide and herbicide resistance. Experts shared perspectives on the current extent of resistance in the UK and on current best management recommendations. There was a particular focus on establishing mechanisms for effective and consistent communication, particularly in relation to current threats of glyphosate resistance. Paul Neve presented on risks of glyphosate resistance. Stephen Foster (Rothamsted) on current knowledge and management recommendations relating to resistance to pyrethroid insecticides.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Northern Farming Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Plenary Speaker Northern Farming Conference, Hexham 11th November 2015, 'Crop Protection; from a reactive to a proactive approach'

Influencing farming industry into changing pesticide resistance management practice
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Oxford Farming Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact BGRI Lola consortium member Paul Neve gave an overview of the BGRI project at a BBSRC event during the Oxford Farming Conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plenary Speaker, 'New Applications for Mass Spectrometry in Crop Protection', American Society of Mass Spectrometry, Indianapolis, 3rd June 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation on recent advances in using MS to characterise herbicide resistance types
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Plenary speaker 'Advances in IPM 2017. Re-inventing agriculture to reduce dependency on pesticides.' Association of Applied Biologists, Harper Adams University, Newport. 25-26 September 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk to industry and applied practitioners working in crop protection on advances in weed resistance management
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public Lecture (Newcastle) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Cameron -Gifford Public Lecture, 'Crop Protection in 21st Century Agriculture', Newcastle University, 3rd March.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stakeholder Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The BGRI hosted our inaugural Farmer Focus Group with a small group of participating farmers who will contribute to the project throughout the 5 years. Rob Freckleton, Helen Hicks and Paul Neve gave project updates and led discussions around approaches to black-grass management and future directions for research. February 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stakeholder group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Lola BGRI held its first stakeholder meeting at ZSL in London. It was attended by representatives from 14 organisations. The day included research updates from each part of the project and discussion groups in the afternoon. See our news article, First BGRI stakeholder meeting, on the news page for more details.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk at industry event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited workshop speaker at 'Crop Protection' session, The CropTec show November 28-29th 2018, East of England Showground, Peterborough.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at industry forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited plenary speaker 'AgChem and Technology Europe,' Novotel West ,20th- 21st November, Novotel West, London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop (Great Yorkshire Show) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Host and speaker for Great Yorkshire Show Breakfeast Seminar 'Black-grass resistance research initiative' 16th July 2015, Yorkshire Agricultural Society, Harrogate
Latest outcomes for Lola grant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Zoo Nights - public-facing evening event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I ran a science stand at an evening event at London Zoo. I engaged with visitors, telling them about the project and, more generally, about the impact of agriculture on the environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018