An effective vaccination programme for the eradication of foot-and-mouth disease from India

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: Livestock Viral Diseases

Abstract

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a global social and economic burden. Worldwide, ~3 billion doses of vaccine are used. The Indian Government plans to use ~800 million doses of trivalent vaccine annually and the UK has a policy encompassing emergency vaccination in case of FMD outbreaks. However, vaccination is constrained by lack of or incomplete inter and intra serotype cross-protection and by cost and vaccine production capacity.

Our scientific aims address (1) the problems of narrow-spectrum antigenic protection elicited by FMD vaccines and (2) the need to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programmes and to target vaccine use.

Our objectives are to develop new approaches to (a) improve predictions of the need for and value of new vaccine strains; (b) produce more broadly cross-reactive vaccines; (c) monitor viral circulation in vaccinated areas, and (d) evaluate vaccine performance in the field and target vaccine use.

This will be delivered by bringing together FMD research and control expertise in India and the UK. The Project Directorate on FMD (PDFMD) is responsible for surveillance, diagnosis and epidemiology of FMD in India and Indian Immunologicals (IIL) is the largest Indian FMD vaccine producer. The Pirbright Institute (PIR) is a leading centre for FMD research and diagnosis and collaborates extensively with the University of Glasgow (UoG) to benefit from expertise in quantitative epidemiology and antigenic modelling, and with the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale in Brescia (IZSLER) who have renowned monoclonal antibody (mAb) collections.

1. Overcoming the problems of narrow-spectrum antigenic protection elicited by FMD vaccines. The antigenic determinants of FMDV that elicit protective antibodies are on the virus surface. We hypothesise that as with other antigenically variable viruses, the dominant epitopes here act as decoys, subverting the immune response from recognition of conserved features. We will generate a model to understand the dominance of antigenic sites, and infer antigenic relationships between viruses for vaccine strain selection. Secondly, we will use cross-reactive mAbs to help identify conserved epitopes for incorporation into new, more broadly protective vaccines. PDFMD will undertake serological and sequencing studies of their extensive virus collections with help from UoG for data modelling. IZSLER will provide existing mAbs augmented by new ones prepared and selected with automated hybridoma screening technology at IIL. PIR will provide reverse genetics to test epitope findings and will quantify antibody-virus cross-protection.

2. Monitoring the effectiveness of the vaccination programme and evaluating targeted vaccine use. We will develop systems to accurately measure virus circulation in the field and identify the impact that vaccination is having on this. Systems for detecting antibodies and for detecting and characterising viral RNA in milk using type/strain-specific assays will be established along with methodologies to infer the extent of continuing virus circulation from the genetic diversity that is revealed from sequencing these viruses. Longitudinal field studies and sample collections will be targeted to areas at different stages of FMD control. These unbiased approaches will be combined with existing and new field data to inform future models to identify the spatial and temporal distribution of specific serotypes of FMDV in the country. This work will be carried out by PDFMD with technical support from PIR and UoG.

Technical Summary

A reverse genetics approach will be used to establish the relative immunodominance of established and putative capsid surface epitopes of serotype A viruses which exhibit the highest antigenic diversity of FMDV in Europe and Asia. Preliminary data obtained from modelling the correlation between capsid variability and serological cross-reactivity for 56 serotype A viruses and 7 virus-specific antisera will inform the design of capsid protein substitutions and mutations. Incorporation of additional sequence and serological data from India will focus the model on the current situation there. The impact of the changes made on seroreactivity will build up a more detailed understanding of the antigenic relationships between residues across the virus surface and provide the basis for an improved antigenic prediction model and more effective vaccine strain selection.

Work with influenza and human immunodeficiency viruses has led to the hypothesis that even antigenically variable viruses possess conserved, antibody eliciting epitopes, but that they are weakly immunogenic. Such cross-reactive mAbs have already been developed for FMDV and we will focus on characterising the binding sites of those that target the external virus surface, and on investigating their protective capabilities.

We will establish tests for FMDV antibodies and genomes in individual and bulk milk samples and investigate their application to detection and characterisation of virus circulation within vaccinated populations. Pilot field studies in India will investigate the use of these techniques and the efficacy of vaccination.

Planned Impact

Summary - this project will contribute to major priorities of disease control and scientific research. Improved FMD control is a top animal health, food security and national and international socioeconomic priority. Meanwhile, developing broadly protective vaccines against highly mutable pathogens is a major, unfulfilled research goal in biological sciences. This and approaches to measure the burden of unrecognised infection through detection and characterisation of virus in milk have applicability beyond FMD.

Details - Better tools to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are needed. FMD remains endemic in developing countries that do not control borders and animal movements, nor vaccinate systematically on a large scale. It is often the biggest constraint to trade in livestock and their products, limiting access to markets and stunting livestock sector investment. FMD may be reintroduced, costing billions of pounds (e.g. UK, 2001; Japan, 2010; Korea 2011). A progressive FMD control strategy has been designated a global public good, benefiting rich and poor countries[1]. At the launch of this initiative, the PI of this proposal gave the plenary talk on research needs[2].

Antigenic diversity is a feature of several highly significant pathogens affecting man and livestock. This flexibility helps them avoid elimination by adaptive arms of the immune response including antibodies. Influenza and FMDV are prominent examples where vaccination is of great importance. The need to adapt vaccines to emerging threats contributes to the resource intensive requirement to monitor for emergence of new variants and for the spread of known variants into new regions. Vaccination is key to FMD contingency plans for the UK and those for control and eventual eradication in India. It is predicated by growing aversion to large-scale slaughtering to control disease spread, something doubly unacceptable in India where cattle are sacred. Better vaccines and their use will assist the global FMD control strategy; e.g. Africa has great diversity of FMDV but few tailored vaccine strains, making vaccine strain selection a priority. Better prediction of vaccine efficacy will help decide whether and where to apply emergency vaccination in the face of new FMD incursions. More broadly protective vaccines would greatly simplify vaccine development, production and delivery.

Huge sums are invested in vaccine production and implementation of vaccination. Little is often dedicated to monitoring vaccination programmes. This can result in failure to correct and identify problems that would have saved resources (e.g. better targeting of vaccination) and/or improved programme effectiveness (e.g. use of inappropriate vaccine strains). Monitoring is also essential to demonstrate the success of vaccination to trading partners.

Therefore the research in this proposal will have impact at a number of levels.
1. Improvements in the way that vaccine strains are selected leading to more optimal vaccines, developing new vaccine strains in a timely fashion when needed and contributing to informed decisions on when and where to vaccinate.
2. Improvements in the way that vaccination programmes are monitored so that failure to control virus circulation can be detected and quantified, improved strategies implemented and trading partners reassured.
3. A better scientific understanding of how mutable viruses avoid elimination by host antibody responses.
4. Candidate epitopes that can be evaluated as a basis for development of vaccines to better protect against a wider diversity of FMD serotypes and strains.
5. Improved capability of scientists in UK and India to conduct research, diagnosis and surveillance and to advise policy makers on optimal disease control strategies.

[1]:http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/an390e/an390e.pdf
[2]: http://www.ars.usda.gov/GFRA/files/Paton%20Research%20Paraguay%20240609.pdf

Publications

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Peacock TP (2018) The molecular basis of antigenic variation among A(H9N2) avian influenza viruses. in Emerging microbes & infections

 
Description The use of next generation deep sequencing has recently become established as a powerful, unbiased approach to investigate the evolution of viral populations. Since the project was first proposed, the use of next generation deep sequencing to investigate sub-consensus level variation in viral populations has become firmly established at Pirbright. Our initial studies have therefore used these approaches to inform objective 1 (Testing the immunodominance of antigenic sites) and objective 2 (To investigate whether or not cross-serotype reactive antibodies to the capsid surface can be found). In brief, we have developed experimental protocols for growth of FMDV in the presence of sub-neutralising concentrations of monoclonal antibodies and homologous polyclonal antisera, and have developed NGS deep sequencing protocols to analyse the effect of such antibody pressure on the evolution of antigenic sites on the FMDV capsid. We have applied these approaches to a previously characterised virus and matching panel of sera and mAbs. This work has identified a panel of amino acid substitutions which the virus appears to sample at sub-consensus level in the viral population before some substitutions become dominant and fixed. This approach is therefore already providing novel fundamental information to inform models of how viruses evolve in the face of immune pressure. Interestingly, some of the amino acids have not been previously reported to be involved in immune escape and may therefore represent novel antigenic sites. Experiments are underway to characterise these amino acid substitutions by conventional virus reverse genetics and neutralisation testing. Work is also underway to further investigate the immunodominance and cross-reactive nature of these novel antigenic sites using accelerated evolution experiments in which adapted viruses are grown in escalating concentrations of neutralising antisera and analysed by deep sequencing at each passage. Our work has also used specific peptide ELISAs to further characterise the epitopes of cross-reactive antibodies that target the virus surface. In addition, antibodies against conserved epitopes have been identified and purified from the serum of vaccinated animals and characterised. An unexpected finding from this project was the identification of a monoclonal antibody that has reactivity against a conserved epitope which has potential to be used in a new assays to assess FMDV vaccine quality (i.e., intact viral particles) during manufacture and before administration. This work forms the basis of a new project funded by Genomia that will be undertaken at Pirbight by the project investigators.

[papers are in preparation to describe these findings]
Exploitation Route Further characterisation of antibody binding sites and the ability to generate immunogenic responses in animals to these sites is underway and is the focus of several ongoing projects at Pirbright.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description The overall aim of this project was to improve the effectiveness of vaccination programmes specifically for the control of FMD in India. These findings are relevant for India, where there are ~450 million FMD susceptible cattle and buffalo. The results from this study also have wider potential for application upon the control of FMD in other endemic countries in Asia and Africa. Work with other viruses such as influenza and human immunodeficiency viruses has led to the hypothesis that viruses with high degrees of antigenic variability possess conserved, antibody eliciting epitopes, but that they are weakly immunogenic. During the course of this project, we have identified and characterised the binding sites of cross-reactive antibodies that target domains (epitopes) that are present on the external virus surface, as well as new sites that are present on "internal" proteins of the FMD virus capsid that were previously thought to be hidden from the host immune system. These novel findings have direct relevance for the rational design/selection of new vaccine master-seed strains and also raise the possibility to develop new serological tests that have defined inter and intra-serotypic reactivity.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Genomia Project Grant
Amount £174,052 (GBP)
Organisation Genomia fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2020
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Botswana Vaccine Institute
Country Botswana 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Department of Livestock Development
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation FGBI Federal Centre for Animal Health
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute
Country China 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Lombardy and Emilia Romagna Experimental Zootechnic Institute (IZSLER)
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation National Agri-Food Quality and Health Service (SENASA)
Country Argentina 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation National Centre for Foreign Animal Diseases (NCFAD)
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (Panaftosa)
Country Brazil 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description OIE/FAO Laboratory Network for FMD 
Organisation Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Institute currently coordinates a global network of fourteen International Reference Laboratories for FMD.
Collaborator Contribution The Network of OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratories has been established with two principal goals: 1) To understand global virus distribution patterns and use these data to inform vaccine recommendations and 2) To harmonise and improve the quality of laboratory testing carried out by international and national reference laboratories. These activities require sharing and joint evaluation of surveillance information from laboratory diagnosis, serotyping, genetic characterisation and vaccine matching tests and harmonisation of standards for diagnostic procedures.
Impact Outputs from the network provide vital information to international organisations involved in the control of FMD (such as OIE and FAO), as well as specific regional and national programmes to control FMD
Start Year 2006
 
Description PDFMD Mukteswar 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Department Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme
PI Contribution Received 187 field viruses and antisera against existing vaccine viruses (O,A and ASia1). r1 value were obtained from 2D virus neutralisation assay. The joint publication has been made.
Collaborator Contribution Field sample provision
Impact Joint publications
Start Year 2012
 
Description 2 FMD workshop in Arusha, Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact FMD diagnosis, sample collection and control by vaccination had been discussed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Invited Talk: Indian Veterinary Institute, Bareilly, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SP delivered a talk at faculty on FMD vaccine strain selection in South East Asia including India
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk on Efficacy FMD vaccine using TLR adjuvants at NVRQS, South Korea 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Satya Parida was invited to deliver a talk on FMD vaccine using TLR adjuvants. Since 2010 South Korea is facing FMD outbreak and preparing themselves to prepare their own FMD Vaccine. As we have identified TLR 3 is a good adjuvant for stimulating humoral and cell-mediated response I received sparked questions and discussion afterwards. Recently I have received queries for providing details about the adjuvants so that they can include this adjuvant to their vaccine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited talk on new generation FMD vaccines at NIAB faculty 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Delivered an invited talk on new generation FMD vaccines to inform the collaborator how TLR III adjuvant lingers the duration of immunity. The talk initiated sparking questions after the talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description JN - University of Glasgow-The Pirbright Institute joint research day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Research data from the initial immune escape experiment was presented to an audience of peers including PhD students, post-docs and PIs at the University of Glasgow and The Pirbright Institute. The main purpose of the event was to showcase the work of each institution to the other and see where there were opportunities to collaborate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2016
 
Description Lecture to students - Cambridge University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Provided a lecture to undergraduate vet/med students at the University of Cambridge - on FMD and tools to control the disease
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Organised workshop on FMD Epidemiology 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact A workshop was organised at PD-FMD (Mukteswar, India) to review the FMD situation in India and the impacts of the National vaccination policy. Participants included researchers from The Pirbright Institute (UK) and Indian Colleagues from Project Directorate for foot-and-mouth disease (PD-FMD, India).
Two "focus groups" considered (i) the design and implementation of new surveillance tools and (ii) rational design of improved FMD vaccines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description PPR eradication meeting organised by FAO and OIE at Rome and talk has been delived on Development of DIVA vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Satya Parida is working as an expert to PPR eradication and he is being invited for few of FAO/OIE meetings. The meetings discussed about roadmap, vaccine production capacity and eradication policy.
Satya also presented work on PPR DIVA vaccine and DIVA tests developments and their evaluation in goats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Project close meeting at TANUVAS, Chennai July 2018- Delivering talk on outcome of the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team held their final workshop at TANUVAS, which concluded a four year Farmed Animal Disease and Health (FADH) grant joint funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Indian Government's Department of Biotechnology (DBT). "This grant has enabled us to collaborate with four organisations across India, and ensured that our research can be applied in the field to aid the campaign for PPR global eradication", said Professor Parida.The project covered many areas of research which are essential for understanding PPR and creating tools to help control and prevent the disease. The team have now filed a patent application for their newly developed PPR vaccine, which is the first to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) - a quality that enables livestock owners to protect their animals whilst continuing to trade.
The team have also investigated how the PPR virus (PPRV) infects sheep and goats and how their immune systems respond. By inserting green fluorescent protein into virulent PPRV and administering the modified virus to goats, they demonstrated that PPRV primarily infects the tonsils, challenging the earlier belief that the virus first replicates in the respiratory tract epithelial cells. The collaborative project has also generated better diagnostic tests for use in the field and laboratory, and preliminary research has identified why some Indian breeds of goats and sheep are resistant to the disease, which could help scientists to create PPRV resistant breeds in the future.
Project partners, scientists from the University and 40 field veterinarians have joined the meeting. An awareness training has been conducted on PPR disease and eradication for these field veterinarians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Workshop on improved FMD vaccine at Institute Biologique, SaoPaulo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact PI delivered talk on FMD vaccine using new generation adjuvants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017