Combined use of novel diagnostic tools and strategic vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in endemic areas

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Veterinary College
Department Name: Clinical Sciences and Services

Abstract

Brucellosis is an infectious disease of animals that also affects people (a zoonosis). It is one of the most common zoonoses worldwide and it imposes a vast burden on livelihoods as a result of human disease and impaired livestock productivity as infected animals can experience infertility, abortions and low milk yield. However, brucellosis is rarely prioritized by health systems and as a result the World Health Organization (WHO) includes it as one of its seven neglected endemic zoonoses. Although Great Britain is free from Brucellosis a constant effort is needed to ensure that cattle and sheep remain free from the disease and to be able to detect it as soon as possible in the event of its introduction. More than a million tests per year are conducted for that purpose in GB. In India brucellosis is endemic and recent reports suggest its incidence may be increasing. In this project UK-based and India-based scientists will work together in an area (Punjab) where Brucellosis is endemic among cattle and buffalo. Control of ruminant brucellosis has been achieved with different degrees of success in several settings by applying a range of diagnostic and vaccines. Previous work carried out by the research team suggests that control programs based on targeted, strategic vaccination of some groups of animals may be a cost-effective way of significantly reducing the prevalence in endemic areas wen resources are limited and animal movement between infected and non-infected herds cannot be fully avoided. However, although vaccines are effective at protecting animals from infection and reducing the prevalence of disease in the long term, an important problem of the use of vaccination is the inability to differentiate between truly infected and vaccinated animals with conventional diagnostic tests. In this project our aim is to carry out a detailed study of the epidemiology of brucellosis in bovines and humans in Punjab, including the use of novel diagnostic tests that can differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. We will use the results to create computer models that we could use to simulate the effect of a control strategy that incorporates the use of these tests. The project will also study the economic impact of the infection, so that we can propose to the veterinary and public health services a control strategy that is realistic and truly benefits local livestock keepers and the population as a whole. The lessons that we will learn with regard to the laboratory testing of infected animals may eventually benefit countries that are free from the disease, such as GB, but have to spend considerable resources in testing animals to ensure that they remain free from infection.

Technical Summary

Brucellosis imposes a vast burden on livelihoods as a result of human disease and impaired livestock productivity. Studies carried out by Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University have found seroprevalences of human brucellosis higher than 20% in selected populations in Punjab and show the need for integrated control of the disease. Control of ruminant brucellosis has been achieved with different degrees of success by applying a range of diagnostic and prophylactic tools. Researchers from The Royal Veterinary College have shown the potential impact of sustained and strategic use of existing vaccines in endemic settings and how critical it is to adapt the strategy to the level of infection and extent of animal movement. A limiting factor of vaccine-based control programs is the inability of standard diagnostic tools to differentiate between antibodies acquired as a result of natural infection or vaccination. In the proposed research we combine a detailed epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in Punjab-including validation of novel diagnostic techniques with simulation modelling to generate evidence based on which sustainable control programs for bovine brucellosis could be designed. We will also assess incidence of human infection and economic impact of the disease through animal health economics and transactional cost economics. The results of the field studies will be used to parameterize disease transmission models and to simulate, in silico, the potential impact of different types of vaccination strategies on prevalence reduction. Field studies will also be used to evaluate conventional and novel diagnostics. Specifically, we will study a novel diagnostic strategy using assays measuring response to rLPS antigen. Overall, our work will provide evidence to inform the design and implementation of realistic and sustainable strategies for the reduction of the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and, as a result, human brucellosis, in endemic areas.

Planned Impact

Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, imposing a vast burden on livelihoods as a result of human disease and impaired livestock productivity. Brucellosis is endemic in India and its incidence may be increasing. Some estimates suggest that in Punjab 10% of the bovines are seropositive and that among selected populations the seroprevalence of human brucellosis is higher than 20%. We propose to address brucellosis control from a holistic perspective, bringing together complementary teams of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, diagnosis and control of the infection in animals and humans as well as economists. By approaching the problem from such a multidisciplinary perspective we expect to be able to propose a program for the control bovine brucellosis in Punjab that is suitable, sustainable and cost-effective.
The main potential beneficiaries of our research are local livestock keepers and the local population as a whole - as consumers of livestock products. They will directly or indirectly benefit from increased livestock productivity and herd performance as well as safer locally-produced dairy products and reduced infection risk. To ensure that our outcomes benefit all livestock keepers, our project does not only focus on commercially-oriented producers; in addition to commercially-oriented producers we also consider, explicitly, small-scale household production.
State veterinary services, animal health and public health policy makers in India will be involved in the project and will benefit from its results. The project will provide sound evidence on which multi-sectoral control programs for bovine brucellosis could be based. This will benefit the way in which this and other livestock diseases that pose similar challenges are controlled and will promote science-based policy formulation for the control of livestock diseases.
The preparatory work to the FADH call identified the need to build capacity in veterinary epidemiology in India. The proposed research will link Indian partners with leading institutions in research and teaching in veterinary epidemiology (RVC), medical epidemiology and public health worldwide (LSHTM). In relation to Veterinary Epidemiology, the RVC has recently been designated a Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Reference Centre in Veterinary Epidemiology; currently one of only two such centres in the world. GADVASU will also benefit from expertise in state-of-the-art brucellosis diagnosis from another world reference centre (AHVLA - OIE/FAO/WHO Reference & Collaborating Centre for Brucellosis).
The collaboration will benefit UK-based partners by strengthening their position as leading institutions in international programs for the control of diseases affecting the sustainable production of safe food worldwide. In the UK, the project will contribute to the maintenance of the highest levels of brucellosis diagnostic capacity, which is an essential component of current surveillance activities to ensure freedom of disease and allow early detection in the event of introduction. A member of the research team (McGiven) is leading Defra-funded work to improve diagnosis of brucellosis; the insights with respect to the performance of novel tests that can be gained from large field studies in an endemic setting such as Punjab can result in improve diagnostic testing in Great Britain, where each year more than 1 million brucellosis serological tests are performed.

The collaboration of veterinary and medical institutions with involvement of two leading public health institutions in the UK (LSHTM) and India (PGMIER) will promote trans-disciplinary collaboration much needed for the success of control programs targeting diseases such as brucellosis that require integrated, multi-sectoral control programs. Such trans-disciplinary collaboration will be fully aligned with the current one-health agenda supported by major national and international agencies.
 
Description Comprehensive surveys of human and bovine brucellosis have been conducted in 40 villages in the study areas. A total of 1,832 cattle and buffalo were sampled from 427 dairy farms. Individual milk samples were collected from all animals and individual serum samples (n=480) were collected from a subset of animals in order for diagnostic test comparison. Individual animal and farm-level seroprevalence (% testing positives for antibodies for the disease) is estimated at 16.8% (95% CI: 15.0% to 18.8%) and 39.6% (95% CI: 34.3% to 45.2%), respectively showing that the disease is widespread in dairy cattle and buffalo in the study area. Older animals and cows (compared to buffalo) had increased odds of testing positive for brucellosis. Further, seropositive animals had 2.20 (1.28 to 3.66) times the odds of abortion indicating the disease may be responsible for economic losses in the study area. At farm-level increasing number of cows was a risk factor for farms testing positive and the study identified hotspots in terms of sub-districts and villages that had high prevalence. A total of 595 farm workers were sampled during the course of this study and 39 (6.6%) were positive for antibodies against brucellosis. With persons assisting with an abortion in a cow/buffalo in the last year having a high risk of brucellosis. A higher percentage of persons that do not always boil raw milk or drank raw milk in the past tested positive however these results were not significant. A total of 1801 individuals from 1084 households were enrolled in the study in the general population. The overall prevalence of brucellosis was 2.24% (95% CI: 1.61-3.11). Similar associations between assisting with calving and being exposed to brucellosis were found in the general population, suggesting exposure to disease via direct contact may be the primary transmission route in this setting. Bulk milk samples were collected from 422 households owning cattle/buffalo recruited in the general population study. From these samples, 40 (9.5%) households had bulk milk samples positive for brucellosis. Suggesting that people are also at risk of exposure to brucellosis from animals kept in their household - although the risk in household herds is lower than dairy farms.

New diagnostics assays were developed and optimized from sera stored within the serum bank at the OIE Brucellosis Reference Laboratory (APHA, Weybridge), and those obtained from project partners. These tests have been applied on animal sera collected during the cross-sectional study. In addition, 70 samples were collected from vaccinated animals from an organised dairy farm in Ludhiana in order to further investigate test performance. These tests are showing higher specificity than routine diagnostics for brucellosis which are currently used and may reduce the risk of false positives during routine surveillance. This is being investigated further and being used to inform routine surveillance for the disease.

India is a unique setting as cattle slaughter is culturally unacceptable, therefore the productive-life of cattle is much longer than in other countries. This complicates the control of the disease as cattle are kept in the herd for a longer period of time and test and slaughter campaigns are prohibited. A within-herd transmission model of brucellosis in dairy farms has been developed. The model is being used to simulate the effectiveness of different vaccination strategies using a range of transmission parameters. The model results suggest that the age of Indian cattle would mean vaccination campaigns would need to run longer before elimination was achieved in this setting (compared to standard European production systems). This work has also been expanded further and between-herd transmission models developed in order to inform policy decisions regarding publically funded brucellosis control campaigns. This part of the modelling component suggests that targeted vaccination of high-risk areas or herds (such as larger commercial herds) may be a more cost-effective control strategy, compared to mass vaccination. However reducing risk in households with cattle is important for the rural population's safe access to milk. It is also hoped that the tools developed by this project can be adapted to other endemic settings.
The results of the study suggest brucellosis is common in bovines in the study area and people are regularly exposed, in particular those with occupational contact with cattle and buffalo including at the household level where involvement in calving and abortions is a risk.. These results will be disseminated to animal and public health officials who are fully engaged with the project and we are drafting recommendations for the control of the disease.
Exploitation Route The results and field protocols have been shared with public health officials in the State Department of Public Health, who are extremely interested in the findings and very engaged with the project. The findings will be used by public and animal health authorities in order to assess the relevance of brucellosis as a public and animal health issue in the study area. Data from the risk factor analyses will allow them to identify those most at risk. Additional information from the modelling and socioeconomic components has been used to provide information on control options for the disease. The results are being used by an Expert Committee for brucellosis control in India. Further, they are being used by the OIE brucellosis reference laboratory (APHA) to inform diagnostics and UK-surveillance programmes for the disease.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description • Results have been shared with the Punjab State Department for Public Health who are extremely interested in these findings and very engaged with the project. In addition, we have provided them with the protocols for fieldwork so that other research groups planning to conduct surveys of brucellosis in other districts can use a standardised protocol to obtain results that are comparable. • We have engaged with Animal Husbandry Departments from the beginning of this project and are sharing all results and discussing potential future control options for brucellosis in Punjab with them. The results are being compared with surveillance conducted by Animal Husbandry Departments. Given the importance of Brucellosis for India, the project is likely to have impact beyond Punjab. • Engagement of farmers and veterinary officers. The results from the cross sectional studies were communicated to farmers and vets and information on the disease given. • Stakeholder workshops have been conducted in milk safety and brucellosis control and possible areas to improve this have been identified with policymakers (see engagement activities) • Diagnostic test performance and use of novel diagnostics as part of brucellosis control programs is one of the main areas of focus of our research and is currently being discussed across India. Contact has been established with the Indian Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals, who are carrying out an assessment and standardization of brucellosis diagnostic testing across India. The results of this component are also informing surveillance for brucellosis in the UK • Significant capacity building has been conducted with our Indian partners, with two academics from GADVASU now enrolled on a Distance Learning Masters in Veterinary Epidemiology taught at the Royal Veterinary College and training in serodiagnostics and epidemiology provided by UK researchers employed on the grant. • The PI of this project has been invited to join an Expert Committee on brucellosis for the establishment of Brucella free villages in India. Based on the results of Committee Meetings and this project a village level programme on pilot scale to demonstrate implementation in villages in at least in ten states in phased manner for effective management of Brucellosis.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Brucella diagnostics
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact As a result of this project participating Indian institutions received training in appropriate serological techniques and laboratory procedures for Brucella diagnostics in both humans and animals. This has lead to a standardised approach being used at Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University and Post-graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. As well as being research institutes, these are also associated clinics/hospitals and diagnostic laboratories and both institutes receive many referral cases and samples form animals and humans throughout the State.
URL http://www.gadvasu.in/matter.asp?MainCatID=4&SubCatID=66&Catname=Broad+Areas+of+Operation
 
Description Meetings and sharing of findings with Dr Gagandeep Grover, State epidemiologist, Public Health Department
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Dr. Gagandeep Grover who works for the State Public Health Department was added as an official collaborator on the Indian side of the project. All findings have been shared with Dr. Gagandeep's department and he has provided valuable insight to contextualise the results. Sharing these results has resulted in brucellosis being brought to the attention of Public Health policy makers. At the beginning of the study many senior-level practitioners did not think there were cases in the State and all the village-level healthcare workers were unfamiliar with the disease. The cross-sectional study has shown that brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease in the region and a working group on brucellosis diagnostics in humans has been put together by our partners at LSHTM to develop best-practice diagnostics and aims to include brucella on official guidelines for investigation of pyrexia of unknown origin.
 
Description Workshop for Indian/Sri Lankan Distance Learning MSc Veterinary epidemiology students
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact During the course of this project two lecturers at our Indian partners (GADVASU) were enrolled onto a Distance Learning Masters in Veterinary Epidemiology at the RVC through a commonwealth programme. The researcher employed on this grant (Hannah Holt) led a workshop in Sri Lanka attended by students enrolled in this masters (working in academia and as government veterinarians) and academics in the vet faculty at the University of Peradeniya in Sri Lanka. The workshop provided training in epidemiology, public health and surveillance to revise topics with students enrolled on the masters and to help improve the delivery of these subjects by Indian and Sri Lankan lecturers.
URL https://london.ac.uk/courses/veterinary-epidemiology-and-public-health
 
Description Commonwealth Commission - Split site PhD scholarship
Amount £27,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Commonwealth Scholarship Commission
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Title Questionnaire developed in Open Data Kit and training of research fellows 
Description During the course of the project, questionnaires to gather risk factors on brucellosis have been designed and translated into electronic data collection forms using Open Data Kit (https://opendatakit.org/). Research fellows in India have been trained in the use of these forms using tablets and it has greatly aided data collection, management and sharing. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The use of these tools has enabled the timely back-up of data on SharePoint servers and reduced errors in data collection and hence, time spent data cleaning. These data tools have been shared with colleagues and adapted for use in another brucellosis project in West Africa (https://zelsbrucellosis.wordpress.com/). Further, following training, colleagues in India are now using tablet data collection for other field surveys. 
 
Title Dairy herd database - Punjab, India 
Description This database includes data on farm management and herd health, as well as the marketing of milk collected from farms in rural Ludhiana selected to take part in the cross-sectional study of brucellosis. Data has also been collected on the characteristics of individual animals sampled such as breed and reproductive performance. The results of the laboratory testing of milk and serum samples collected as part of this study were also added into this comprehensive database. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database was used to identify risk factors for herds and individual livestock testing positive brucellosis. It also informed the modelling and socioeconomic components. Once this project has finished, the database will also be a useful resource for future projects. 
 
Title Database - diagnostic test comparison 
Description This database contains the results of screening of paired serum and milk samples by multiple diagnostics for brucellosis. Including the results of testing using novel diagnostics which are under development by the OIE reference laboratory for brucellosis - the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), UK. This database is securely stored on the RVC SharePoint sever and has been shared with the APHA. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The results of the analysis for this component will be used to inform UK surveillance programmes for brucellosis and will make important contributions to the field of Brucella diagnostics worldwide. 
 
Title Databases - Human studies 
Description Two databases for information on individuals sampled during the cross-sectional studies: one for the general population and one for farm workers. The database stores information on contact with livestock and consumption practices with regards to milk and dairy products. An additional database collects information at household-level on socioeconomic and the purchasing and processing of milk and dairy products. This data was collected on tablets, exported as .csv files to an SharePoint server hosted at the RVC and imported into an Access database. All databases for the project are stored securely on this SharePoint server. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The was used to perform risk factor analysis and modelling of transmission of the disease from livestock to humans. 
 
Title Model of Brucella transmission within a herd 
Description A disease transmission model was developed to simulate within-herd transmission of brucellosis and then extrapolated to simulate the spread between multiple herds. The model model was used to test key assumptions regarding transmission of brucellosis and simulate the potential effects of farmer-based control strategies on disease transmission. The model is an SEI model and within farms, adult cattle could be in one of three infection states susceptible (S), infected (E) or infectious (I) and young animals could only be susceptible (S_ca) or infected (E_ca). Additional compartments for vaccinated animals (V and V_ca) was also included. Stochasticity is incorporated into the model where the transition between compartments follows a random process. Instead of a fixed fraction of animals migrating in each time step, if the variable takes one the animal changes compartment, otherwise they stay put. This was considered more appropriate for the small herd sizes in Punjab. The model utilised the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) implemented in the R package GillespieSSA. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The model After publication the model will be shared with other researchers and adapted to work in other settings. 
 
Description Commonwealth Split-site PhD Scholarship - Epidemiological analysis of antibiotics and their resistance genes in dairy cattle farm waste and surface water around farms in Punjab, India 
Organisation Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
PI Contribution Application for Commonwealth split site scholarship under co-supervision of India - UK researchers in this award (Bedi and Guitian). Working together in the application which has been successful.
Collaborator Contribution Application developed together by UK - India researchers in this grant.
Impact No outputs yet, the PhD student has recently started his project.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Department of biotechnology (DBT) - Network Project on brucellosis 
Organisation Ministry of Science and Technology India
Department Department of Biotechnology, India
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution All results have been disseminated to this agency over the course of the project. The project PI Javier Guitian has now had several meetings with this agencies and continues to work with them to discuss way forward for brucellosis control in India.
Collaborator Contribution Partners at DBT have provided information on the control of brucellosis in India. These data have been very useful for the modelling and social components.
Impact This partnership has aided in dissemination of our results to relevant stakeholders. Indian partners on this project were funded by this agency.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Dr Gagandeep Grover, State epidemiologist, Public Health Department 
Organisation State Public Health Department, Punjab, India.
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Dr Gagandeep Grover, who has been named a co-investigator on the Indian component of the project is a State epidemiologist for the Public Health Department. All findings and protocols have been shared with him and he is using the information to inform public health policy on brucellosis and other cattle zoonoses.
Collaborator Contribution This partner has helped gain cooperation from district and village-level health workers which has allowed the fieldwork to be conducted smoothly. Without this valuable assistant it would be extremely difficult to get these health workers and the general population to engage with the study.
Impact Report to the State Public Health Department on the findings from the study.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Dr. KG Tirumurugaan, Program Head (Diagnostics), Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals, Chennai. 
Organisation Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals
Country India 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Contact was established with Dr. KG Tirumurugaan, Program Head (Diagnostics) from the Indian Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals, which are carrying out an assessment and standardization of brucellosis diagnostic testing across India in the coming months. As we are performing similar assessments the comparison of results will be interesting.
Collaborator Contribution This collaboration may provide additional information for test evaluation, provide information on most appropriate testing strategies in India to allow us to assess the potential impact of improved diagnostics in latter stages of the project. It will also be useful to discuss the demand for new diagnostics in India, including the potential uptake of findings in our project.
Impact Sharing of results of diagnostic test comparison will help inform guidelines for diagnostics in India.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Dr. Manmeet Kaur, Associated Professor of Health Promotion, PGIMER School of Public Health 
Organisation Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr. Rajesh Kumar has been working closely with Dr. Kaur in order to give her an overview of the rationale and background to the project. A teleconference was conducted with all co-investigators in order to discuss the logistics for the project and the role that Dr. Kaur could play in the project. Dr. Pauline Allen who is working on the socio-economic component in the UK has supervised this component and Dr. Kaur will spend some time at LSHTM, in London in March. The team at the RVC responsible for the animal component advsedon the relevant questions for stakeholders.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Kaur has been leading the socioeconomic component of the project, she has a wealth of experience working on public health issues including HIV and alcohol use, with a particular focus on health service utilisation and evaluation. Dr. Kaur helped design and implement the study on human brucellosis in the region and participated in all planning meetings. Dr. Kaur trained the social scientists in India undertaking the fieldwork in observational techniques to assess opportunistic tendencies in order to estimate the impact of these issues. She has also conducted all focus groups with animal owners and persons in charge of dairy processing, in addition to key informant interviews with the heads of relevant departments.
Impact The results of this component were presented at the international brucellosis research conference and were well received. In addition, persons in charge of policy requested further information from this component. M. Kaur, P. Allen, H. R. Holt, P. Mangtani, S. Bharati, V. Sagar, A. Kulashri, J. Guitian and R. Kumar. Brucellosis Prevention & Control: Institutional Barriers & Facilitators. Brucellosis 2016 International Research conference, Nov 2016.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Dr. Pauline Allen, Head of the Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Health 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution UK PI's have met with Dr. Allen on several occasions and have discussed the project in detail and detailed the desired outputs from the project. Dr. Allen is working with Dr. Manmeet Kaur from the Post-graduate Institute of Medical Education Research on the socioeconomic component of the project. The results from stakeholder workshops and cross-sectional studies have been shared to aid the design of this component.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Pauline Allen is assisting in the socio-economic component of the project looking at transactional cost economics. Dr. Allen provided training for those involved in the project in in transactional cost economics and will help design observational studies to collect relevant data and capture opportunistic behaviour. Dr. Allen has monitored the focus groups and key informant interviews with regular contact with Dr. Kaur. The final report and publications for this component are being finalised during a workshop beginning 18th March when the Indian partners are due to visit London.
Impact An abstract from this work was presented at the international brucellosis conference. M. Kaur, P. Allen, H. R. Holt, P. Mangtani, S. Bharati, V. Sagar, A. Kulashri, J. Guitian and R. Kumar. Brucellosis Prevention & Control: Institutional Barriers & Facilitators. Brucellosis 2016 International Research conference, Nov 2016.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Engagement with private and public stakeholders in Punjabi dairy industry (Representatives from Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development board, the Food and Drug Administration and the private sector (cooperatives and milk union) 
Organisation Government of Punjab
Department Department of Animal Husbandry
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution These stakeholders have been engaged through activities such as stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with department directors. Further, focus groups with dairy producers and consumers have been conducted. It has also opened up a channel of communication for dissemination of results to relevant stakeholders.
Collaborator Contribution Engagement with these partners has allowed barriers currently precluding the control of the disease to be identified which will inform the modelling component of the project.
Impact - Stakeholder workshop on milk safety (food safety, animal husbandry, private sector representatives + veterinary public health, microbiology and dairy science researchers) (used to inform milk safety paper) - Stakeholder workshop on brucellosis control (food safety, animal husbandry, public health and private sector representatives + researchers from multiple disciplines) (report disseminated) - Dissemination of results of field studies
Start Year 2016
 
Description Engagement with private and public stakeholders in Punjabi dairy industry (Representatives from Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development board, the Food and Drug Administration and the private sector (cooperatives and milk union) 
Organisation Government of Punjab
Department Department of Animal Husbandry
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution These stakeholders have been engaged through activities such as stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with department directors. Further, focus groups with dairy producers and consumers have been conducted. It has also opened up a channel of communication for dissemination of results to relevant stakeholders.
Collaborator Contribution Engagement with these partners has allowed barriers currently precluding the control of the disease to be identified which will inform the modelling component of the project.
Impact - Stakeholder workshop on milk safety (food safety, animal husbandry, private sector representatives + veterinary public health, microbiology and dairy science researchers) (used to inform milk safety paper) - Stakeholder workshop on brucellosis control (food safety, animal husbandry, public health and private sector representatives + researchers from multiple disciplines) (report disseminated) - Dissemination of results of field studies
Start Year 2016
 
Description Engagement with private and public stakeholders in Punjabi dairy industry (Representatives from Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development board, the Food and Drug Administration and the private sector (cooperatives and milk union) 
Organisation State Public Health Department, Punjab, India.
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution These stakeholders have been engaged through activities such as stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with department directors. Further, focus groups with dairy producers and consumers have been conducted. It has also opened up a channel of communication for dissemination of results to relevant stakeholders.
Collaborator Contribution Engagement with these partners has allowed barriers currently precluding the control of the disease to be identified which will inform the modelling component of the project.
Impact - Stakeholder workshop on milk safety (food safety, animal husbandry, private sector representatives + veterinary public health, microbiology and dairy science researchers) (used to inform milk safety paper) - Stakeholder workshop on brucellosis control (food safety, animal husbandry, public health and private sector representatives + researchers from multiple disciplines) (report disseminated) - Dissemination of results of field studies
Start Year 2016
 
Description Grant proposal submitted - GCRF Foundation Awards - Modelling exposure to milk-borne hazards in the Punjabi dairy chains to inform food safety policy 
Organisation Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
PI Contribution Leading the preparation of a research proposal submitted to the call: GCRF Foundation Awards for Global Agriculture and Food Systems Research
Collaborator Contribution Contributing to the preparation of a research proposal submitted to the call: GCRF Foundation Awards for Global Agriculture and Food Systems Research
Impact Successful pre-proposal, full proposal submitted and unsuccessful.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Grant proposal submitted - GCRF Foundation Awards - Modelling exposure to milk-borne hazards in the Punjabi dairy chains to inform food safety policy 
Organisation Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leading the preparation of a research proposal submitted to the call: GCRF Foundation Awards for Global Agriculture and Food Systems Research
Collaborator Contribution Contributing to the preparation of a research proposal submitted to the call: GCRF Foundation Awards for Global Agriculture and Food Systems Research
Impact Successful pre-proposal, full proposal submitted and unsuccessful.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Grant proposal submitted to ESRC involving RVC and PGI investigators: Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction 
Organisation Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Grant proposal led by University of Bristol in response to a joint UK - India initiative on antimicrobial resistance. The proposal involves UK (Guitian) and India (Kaour) researchers who started working together as a result of this award. The proposal is currently being evaluated.
Collaborator Contribution Both Guitian and Kaour contributted to the development of the proposal.
Impact A proposal being submitted and currently under consideration.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Grant proposal submitted to MRC GCRF Foundation Awards call: Leptospirosis in Northern India: a study of burden, determinants, perceptions and control policies in a changing ecology 
Organisation Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
PI Contribution Collaborator in the proposal - contribution to developing the proposoal.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator in the proposal - contribution to developing the proposoal.
Impact Preproposal prepared and submitted by the collaborators in this award - unsuccessful.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Grant proposal submitted to MRC GCRF Foundation Awards call: Leptospirosis in Northern India: a study of burden, determinants, perceptions and control policies in a changing ecology 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborator in the proposal - contribution to developing the proposoal.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator in the proposal - contribution to developing the proposoal.
Impact Preproposal prepared and submitted by the collaborators in this award - unsuccessful.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Grant proposal submitted to MRC GCRF Foundation Awards call: Leptospirosis in Northern India: a study of burden, determinants, perceptions and control policies in a changing ecology 
Organisation Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborator in the proposal - contribution to developing the proposoal.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborator in the proposal - contribution to developing the proposoal.
Impact Preproposal prepared and submitted by the collaborators in this award - unsuccessful.
Start Year 2016
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Department ICAR - Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
Country India 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation Institute of Life Sciences
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation National Institute for Animal Biotechnology
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation Royal Holloway, University of London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation The Center For Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation University of Delhi
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Description UK PI selected as one of 20 UK participants in UK India Sandpit on Antibiotic Resistance and joint collaborative proposals developed as a result 
Organisation University of the Arts London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Participation in a one-week sandpit in New Delhi with Indian and UK researchers, during which a number of project ideas were developed resulting in the submission of 3 proposals for consideration by ESRC and Indian Department of Biotechnology: "Zonal Ecology of AMR: Local integration of social, biological and systems knowledge for targeted AMR reduction (ZEAL)", "Chicken or Egg: Drivers for Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry in India (DARPI)" and "Smart regulation of antibiotic use in India: Understanding, innovating and improving compliance". The three proposals are currently under consideration.
Collaborator Contribution Team work in the development of the proposals.
Impact 3 collaborative grant proposals submitted, involving UK and Indian researchers.
Start Year 2017
 
Title Improvement of serological testing technique for brucellosis 
Description Dr John McGiven of APHA has been looking to utilize the field testing from this project to improve diagnostic protocols. He says; 'The situation with the milk ELISA presents a strong and specific example of tangible benefits these projects bring back to GB. There is some concern in GB that the ever increasing number of animals contributing to bulk milk samples presents a risk that individual infected animals will not be detected. The best way to study this is to try the milk ELISA in a situation where brucellosis is present in some herds and where we can test individual milk samples (and sera ideally) for the animals contributing to the bulk tank. This is clearly not possible in the UK but has been achieved in the India project. A redesign of the milk ELISA aimed at increasing sensitivity and robustness whilst maintaining specificity that will directly address the concerns related to the sensitivity of the surveillance of the GB dairy can now be evaluated in the field though the India project as described.' 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Non-Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2018
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact Further enhanced the collaboration with ZELS BBSRC- initiative who are using the same techniques. 
 
Description Expert Committee Meeting on Brucella Free Village Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Following an invitation to join a high-level committee for brucellosis control in India, the PI for the project (J. Guitian) will attend the 5th anniversary meeting of this committee in Delhi at the beginning of April. The purpose of the meeting is to design and develop control programmes and surveillance activities for brucellosis to be adopted in phases by at least 10 Indian States, including Punjab. The results of this project will be shared at this meeting and will play a role in informing the design of control programmes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.dbtbrucellosis.in/
 
Description International brucellosis conference, Delhi, Nov 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Preliminary project results were disseminated at this meeting, which brings together Brucella experts from all over the world. The meeting also contained several discussions on the sustainable control of the disease in India. The PI for this project (J. Guitian) gave a keynote speech and chaired a panel discussion on the control of brucellosis. Key persons involved with brucellosis control (both India- and world-wide) are now aware of the project. Such a strong presence in this high profile event was a great platform to give visibility to the project, share some of the findings with the international research community and discuss the practical implications of our preliminary results for the future of brucellosis control in India. After the conference, a number of researchers from India and elsewhere have been in contact with the research team to discuss possible collaborations and request assistance mostly for the design of epidemiological studies and the analysis of epidemiological data. This includes a request to provide support to the design of a potential field trial for the evaluation of a Brucella vaccine in India.

The following presentations directly linked to this project were given:

Oral presentations:

P. Kaur, H. R. Holt, N. S Sharma, J.S Bedi, J. McGiven, A. K Arora, M. Chandra, J P S Gill and J. Guitian. Sero-prevalence studies on brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes in Ludhiana district of Punjab, India. Brucellosis 2016 International Research conference, Nov 2016.

M. Kaur, P. Allen, H. R. Holt, P. Mangtani, S. Bharati, V. Sagar, A. Kulashri, J. Guitian and R. Kumar. Brucellosis Prevention & Control: Institutional Barriers & Facilitators. Brucellosis 2016 International Research conference, Nov 2016.

P. Mangtani, W. Beauvais, H. Holt, A. Kulashri, S. Bharti, V. Sagar, J.S Bedi, M. Kaur, J. Guitian, G.S Grover and R. Kumar. Sero-prevalence and risk factors for human brucellosis in Ludhiana district in Punjab, India Brucellosis 2016 International Research conference, Nov 2016.

Poster presentations:

J.S Bedi, H. R. Holt, J.P.S. Gill, Paviter Kaur, Prabhdeep Kaur, N.S. Sharma, J. Guitian and P. Mangtani. Epidemiology of Brucellosis in an Occupationally Exposed Group in Punjab, India. Brucellosis 2016 International Research conference, Nov 2016.

H. R. Holt, W. A. Beauvais,, P. Kaur, J.S. Bedi, N.S. Sharma, R. Kumar, J.P.S. Gill, M. Kaur, P. Mangtani & J. Guitian. Development of disease transmission models for bovine brucellosis in India. Brucellosis 2016 International Research conference, Nov 2016. (Won 1st place poster price).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.dbtbrucellosis.in/brucellosis2016/invitation.php
 
Description PI Interviewed as part of an article published in the International Animal Health Journal (Vol. 4, Issue 2) entitled "Innovation and Collaboration: Combating the Endemic Threat of Brucellosis". 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interviewed in relation to the threat posed by brucellosis and the challenges associated with its control in LMICs. The interview took place in the context of an international initiative aimed at promoting the development of improved vaccines for their deployment in low income settings with funding from a range of donors and under the AgResults Initiative.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://issuu.com/mark123/docs/iahj_may_2017_web
 
Description Poster and presentation at the Royal Society: A New Era in Brucellosis Diagnosis and Control. J. McGiven, L. Duncombe, L. Howells, P. J. Hogarth, A. Dell, S. Haslam, P. Hitchen, N. V. Ganesh, S. S. Mandal, S. Sarkar, J. M. Sadowska, D. Bundle'. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dissemination of challenges related to brucellosis control and new opportunities for improved control informed by recent scientific developments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Stakeholder workshop - brucellosis control Nov 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A workshop between State-level livestock, public health and food-safety stakeholders was organised around the theme of brucellosis control. The workshop was held in Chandigarh, Punjab, India on the 21st November 2016. The main objectives of the workshop were to ascertain what is being done to control brucellosis in Punjab, identify opportunities to improve control and share project results with stakeholders. Nineteen participants attended the meeting, representing the main institutions involved in zoonosis control in Punjab, including Departments of Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development and Health and the Food and Drug Administration. In addition, public and animal health researchers, clinicians and representatives from the private sector (cooperatives and milk union) were present. The workshop covered three themes (current efforts to control the disease, barriers to the control of the disease and mapping solutions to identified barriers). All of which are used to form future recommendations of the project. Attendees of the meeting were keen to participate in future activity. They further suggested technical expert group should be formed to develop State-level, and maybe even countrywide, guidelines for the diagnosis of brucellosis and management of cases (both human and animal). This group should also facilitate inter-sectoral communication on action to improve and deliver control measures. This was followed up in a later meeting around best practice guidelines for diagnosis and treatment in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Stakeholder workshop - milk safety Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Animal health and dairy experts from both the private and public sector were invited to attend an expert opinion workshop conducted at Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences University. Structured elicitation was performed to corroborate the results of a literature review used to populate a risk assessment on milk safety and in an attempt to fill some of the identified knowledge gaps. A total of 19 participants took part in the workshop, three were veterinary officers representing state animal husbandry department, six were animal health researchers, four were researches in dairy sciences, three were veterinary public health experts and three were representatives from the dairy industry. In addition, a large processor from the formal sector was contacted and key personnel interviewed regarding dairy procurement and processing in this sector. It provided information on the likelihood of exposure to brucellosis in humans via the foodborne route. It also aided population of a risk assessment framework which allowed us to identify important milkborne hazards in the dairy industry, for with there was no prior information. This will inform our future research in the area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Brilliant Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Brilliant Club is a charity whose aim is to increase the number of pupils from under-represented groups progressing to highly selective universities. The charity places PhD students with high performing pupils in low performing schools to expose them to University style learning based on the PhD students programme. Hannah Holt, employed as a research assistant/part-time PhD student on this grant has designed and delivered a course called "Disease Detectives" based on zoonotic diseases and using case-studies from this project to a total of 48 students (KS2, KS3, KS4 and A-level). She has also been working with the teachers in these schools to influence the way scientific curriculum is delivered. The A-level students taking part have already progressed to University, using this programme as part of their UCAS applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL http://www.thebrilliantclub.org/