The relationship between dietary iron and the gut microbiota. Can dietary iron regime be exploited to improve health?

Lead Research Organisation: University of Reading
Department Name: Sch of Biological Sciences

Abstract

The adult human gut is home to ~100 trillion microbes collectively known as the 'microbiota'. The gut microbiota is largely composed of bacteria and plays a key role in maintaining our wellbeing. The microbiota assists in processing food into favourable energy sources that sustain our health, and it also generates essential vitamins (e.g. vitamin K, folate, biotin), protects against gut infections and contributes to the development of our immune system. Over 1000 different types of bacteria reside within the gut, but composition varies between individuals and is subject to change. Importantly, it is now clear that alterations in our microbiota are linked to various diseases, e.g. allergy, anorexia, autism, Coeliac's disease, Crohn's disease/Ulcerative Colitis (IBD), obesity and diabetes. However, the manner in which disease state is influenced by our microbiota is poorly understood, as is the way in which diet affects the composition of our gut microbiota to influence disease.

Iron is a minor yet crucial dietary component required by virtually all lifeforms. Iron deficiency in humans is the most common form of malnutrition causing iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) affecting ~2.4 million adults and ~2.3 million children in the UK alone. IDA causes fatigue, poor concentration, weakened immunity and poor performance at school and work - representing a major economic and societal burden. IDA is treated by oral iron supplements and incidence may be reduced by iron fortification (e.g. white flour). However, iron supplements often cause undesirable gastrointestinal side-effects (nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea). In addition, there is mounting evidence demonstrating that dietary iron influences composition of the microbiota, with iron supplementation causing deleterious reductions in levels of beneficial commensals. Such changes are negative indicators of gut health. Indeed, extra iron provision in the diet can promote growth of pathogenic enterobacteria which may in turn provoke debilitating infectious diarrhoea. Currently, it is not clear how iron enhances these populations and diminishes the protective resident microbiota, nor is it understood how dietary iron influences the gut microbiota in general. However, it is likely that a major component of such iron-induced alterations in the microbiota is due to differences in the way in which the distinct types of bacteria within our gut respond to iron. Unfortunately, the relationship between dietary iron, gut microbiota and health/disease remains little explored, and so the potential for positive manipulation of the gut microbiota through dietary-iron regime cannot yet be exploited to promote our health and combat disease.

This project will employ controlled in vitro models of our large intestine (where most gut microbiota reside) and human trials to investigate how the composition and metabolic activity of the microbiota are influenced by iron, and the impact that this has on health-related outcomes. We will explore different iron sources as well as dietary components that enhance or decrease iron availability. The ability of prebiotics to reverse unfavourable iron-induced alterations in the gut microbiota will also be investigated. In addition, the impact of iron on the gut microbiota during weaning will be examined, as this crucial period involves a dramatic increase in dietary iron content and availability, along with major changes in the gut microbiome. Increases in dietary-iron provision may be key in the development of an 'adult'-like microbiota upon weaning, a possibility that remains unexplored. We will thus shed new light on the relationship between our microbiota, and diet & health, allowing us to inform key interest groups such as nutritional scientists, the food & drink industry, government and the general public so that the effects of dietary iron on the status of our microbiota can be incorporated into current thinking to improve health.

Technical Summary

Previous work indicates a major role for iron in dictating the makeup of the gut microbiome, showing that colonisation by specific bacterial species is governed by their iron-acquisition capacity. However, no systematic analysis has been performed that allows sound understanding of the manner in which forms and amounts of dietary iron affect the profile and metabolic output of the entire gut microbial community, and the consequence of such effects upon health. Our aim is to close this information gap by using in vitro gut systems that allow us to reveal the impact of a wide range of iron regimes on the gut microbiota in a controlled fashion.

Gut cultures will employ faecal inocula from healthy adults with a re-formulated 'low iron' gut-model medium (see preliminary data). This will be supplemented with a range of relevant iron compounds that may alter the microbiota composition during growth. We will test other relevant factors including iron chelators and reductants affecting iron speciation, as well as prebiotics that may ameliorate negative impacts caused by iron supplements. Various analyses of culture samples will be performed to test Fe-regime impact: NGS-community profiling, SCFA, NH3, Fe redistribution, metabonomics, total bacteria (FISH-Flow) and cytotoxicity. We will also compare faecal inocula from pre-/post-weaned infants to determine how the pre-weaned microbiota community is modulated by iron regime. Data collected will be used to design regimens for continuous-culture gut-model systems to explore the effect of switching from low to high iron availability (and vice-versa), which will reveal whether the microbiota can recover from iron perturbation. Double-blind human intervention studies will be used to test the effect of iron-supplementation and chelators on the gut microbiota, gut-health and iron-status. In both cases, the additional impact of prebiotics will determined.

Planned Impact

The proposed project matches the needs of the food & drink industry since it will provide new knowledge assisting the selection of guidelines for healthier products. Also, the proposed metabolomics work could identify novel biomarkers for those subject to low or high iron diets. The proposed work will promote our understanding of how iron nutrition (including fortification and supplementations) can best support life-long health and wellbeing, and will further establish in vitro cultures as applicable models for studies on the influence of micronutrients on the microbiota. It could also contribute to developing strategically-important dietary intervention strategies for public-health conditions (e.g. type-2 diabetes, obesity, IBD). By determining how different dietary-iron components influence the gut microbiome (and the potential impact that this has on health), our proposed research will provide a unique perspective on how dietary iron can be manipulated to support and maintain a healthy digestive tract.

The outputs from the project would include publications in peer-reviewed open-access scientific journals and presentations at national/international conferences (e.g. the Gut Microbiota For Health Summit, Wellcome Trust Annual Microbiome Conference, International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, UK Nutrition Society meetings, European Iron Club, European Nutrition Conference). We will engage with the Food & Drink Industry (e.g. through DRINC Club workshops and our own contacts) to promote our work and findings - making use of the experienced Communications and Media Office facilities at our institutions, and good links with the London Science Media Centre for targeted press releases of significant findings to audiences including policy makers such as BNF, DoH, EU, FSA, ILSI, NHS, NS. The applicants are frequently approached by the media for comments on latest research and have a wide range of contacts in this area (e.g. BBC, Channels 4 and 5, CNN, ITV, Sky TV; national, local and international radio outlets; influential health writers in the UK). These provide multiple routes for engagement with the public. Moreover, we are active in public dissemination programmes such as University public lecture series, Royal Society of Chemistry's public event series Uo3rd Age, Women's Institute, Café Scientifique, Universities week at the Natural History Museum, Royal Berkshire Show, University Public Lectures and the STEM Network. We also have a collaborative demonstration with the London Science Museum throughout 2015, the theme of which is entirely relevant to this project - this will be viewed by >4m visitors. This will transfer to the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry in 2016.

The main routes for implementing these benefits will be initially through dissemination and further research. Dissemination activities in the form of publications in high impact journals and international conferences will increase the opportunities for further funding and collaboration. We recognise the importance of dissemination to industry, other users and consumers, so publications will be made through partners' newsletters and websites, and published findings highlighted via press releases. We will host a dissemination workshop at the end of the project for relevant stakeholders (e.g. nutritionists, food & drink industry, DRINC Club members). The project will be promoted by establishing a web page summarising the relevance of the research, and its objectives, findings and conclusions. To ensure that maximum impact arises from our work, any potentially useful intellectual property will be referred to the University Intellectual Property Management and the Research & Enterprise Development teams. Both patentability and commercial value will be considered, and where relevant possible commercial partners will be sought using our current connections with the Food & Drink Industry.

Publications

10 25 50

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Iddrisu I (2021) Malnutrition and Gut Microbiota in Children in Nutrients

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Jenkins A (2018) Obesity, diabetes and zinc: A workshop promoting knowledge and collaboration between the UK and Israel, november 28-30, 2016 - Israel. in Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS)

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Julien LA (2019) The anti-bacterial iron-restriction defence mechanisms of egg white; the potential role of three lipocalin-like proteins in resistance against Salmonella. in Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine

 
Description 1. Gut model culture experiments indicate that an increase in dietary haem levels results in reduced microbiota diversity, a significant increase in Enterobacteriaceae and lower short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. These are all deterimentl health impacts suggesting that high levels of dietary haem are unhealthy. Also, these findings may provide an insight into mechanisms associated with dietary-haem-induced colorectal cancer
2. We have modified the in vitro batch culture system (by employing a low inoculum together with a low-iron gut-model medium) which has improved our capacity to investigate the relationship between iron and the gut microbiota
Exploitation Route 1. We wish to further understand the negative effect that haem has on the gut microbiota and are particularly interested in a potential role of the observed gut microbiota changes on colorectal cancer risk. We are carrying this work forward in collaboration with colleagues in Food & Nutritional sciences (PhD student has been recruited). Other researchers may also be interested in further study of this effect.
2. The gut models are shown to be a useful tool for understanding how different iron supplements and iron chelators influence the infant gut microbiota. Such models could be usefully employed by others (nutrionists, food/drink industry, food supplement developers, gut microbiologists) with an interest in understaninding how micronutrients influence the gut microbiota
3. Other suggestions will be indicated once the remaining objectives have been complete
Sectors Agriculture

Food and Drink

Healthcare

Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Commonwealth
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Scholarship number GHCS-2017-149 
Organisation Government of the UK 
Department Commonwealth Scholarship Commission
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Company of Biologists Travel Fund
Amount £450 (GBP)
Organisation Society for Experimental Biology (SEB) 
Sector Academic/University
Country Global
Start 04/2017 
End 05/2017
 
Description Control of Campylobacter by CRISPR/CAS systems
Amount £71,431 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2020 
End 06/2021
 
Description Deciphering the role of rmpA and siderophore genes in hyper-invasive hypervirulent K. pneumoniae and evaluating clonal types in carbapenem resistant CRKP strains from Pakistan
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 27836167 
Organisation Government of the UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 10/2019
 
Description Development of lung in vitro model to assess antimicrobial activity
Amount £6,500 (GBP)
Organisation Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments 
Sector Hospitals
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2022 
End 08/2022
 
Description EU
Amount € 1,500 (EUR)
Organisation Erasmus + 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 01/2018
 
Description EU
Amount € 1,500 (EUR)
Organisation Erasmus + 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 05/2018
 
Description EU
Amount € 1,500 (EUR)
Organisation Erasmus + 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description Feo - the major ferrous iron transporter of bacteria
Amount £1,880 (GBP)
Funding ID GA001372 
Organisation Microbiology Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 09/2019
 
Description IBIS Travel Bursary Award 2017
Amount $800 (USD)
Organisation International BioIron Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 04/2017 
End 05/2017
 
Description ISAPP Students and Fellows Association (SFA) Travel grant
Amount £200 (GBP)
Organisation International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics 
Department ISAPP Students and Fellows Association
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 04/2019 
End 05/2019
 
Description ISAPP Students and Fellows Association (SFA) Travel grant
Amount £450 (GBP)
Organisation International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics 
Department ISAPP Students and Fellows Association
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 05/2020 
End 06/2020
 
Description Microbiology Society Travel Grant 2017
Amount £750 (GBP)
Funding ID TG17/43 
Organisation Microbiology Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 05/2017
 
Description SRUK Winter studentship
Amount € 2,400 (EUR)
Organisation Society of Spanish Researchers in the United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2020 
End 07/2020
 
Description The influence of iron regime on the human gut microflora - an in vitro batch culture approach
Amount £750 (GBP)
Organisation Microbiology Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2020 
End 04/2020
 
Description Can the reduction of iron availability caused by tea consumption change the gut microbiota composition? 
Organisation Unilever
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Our expertise, intellectual input,, training of staff. Also include access to data, equipment and facilities.
Collaborator Contribution Their expertise, intellectual input and access to materials
Impact 1. A granted ethics application 2. An MTA 3. Provision of required materials by Unilever 4. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05019573
Start Year 2019
 
Description Exploring the impact of intravenous iron formulae on the propagation of bacterial pathogens in blood, serum and/or plasma 
Organisation Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our expertise, intellectual input and the training of staff. Also access to equipment or facilities
Collaborator Contribution Their expertise, intellectual input and access to data and materials.
Impact Funding provided by the Joint Academic Board Innovation Fund - £22,000 with Dr Doug Barker (Consultant Anaesthetist) and Dr Claire Seeley
Start Year 2018
 
Description Exploring the impact of iron deficiency and different types of iron supplementation in infancy on growth, blood parameters and metabolite production using a piglet model 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Cambridge Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution my expertise, intellectual input and the training of staff
Collaborator Contribution expertise, intellectual input, training of staff. access to facilities
Impact An accepted ethics approval One manuscript published; one in preparation Multidisciplinary - immunology with microbiology Lipidomics
Start Year 2018
 
Description Exploring the impact of iron deficiency and different types of iron supplementation in infancy on growth, blood parameters and metabolite production using a piglet model 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford Hub
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution my expertise, intellectual input and the training of staff
Collaborator Contribution expertise, intellectual input, training of staff. access to facilities
Impact An accepted ethics approval One manuscript published; one in preparation Multidisciplinary - immunology with microbiology Lipidomics
Start Year 2018
 
Description Exploring the impact of iron deficiency and different types of iron supplementation in infancy on growth, blood parameters and metabolite production using a piglet model 
Organisation University of Reading
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution my expertise, intellectual input and the training of staff
Collaborator Contribution expertise, intellectual input, training of staff. access to facilities
Impact An accepted ethics approval One manuscript published; one in preparation Multidisciplinary - immunology with microbiology Lipidomics
Start Year 2018
 
Description Hepcidin and iron-mediated regulation of adaptive immunity 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine (WIMM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our expertise, intellectual input and the training of staff, and data, equipment and facilities
Collaborator Contribution Their expertise, intellectual input and the training of staff.
Impact One ethics application accepted One manuscript published: Med (N Y) . 2021 Feb 12;2(2):164-179.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.medj.2020.10.004.
Start Year 2019
 
Description IMPACT READY-TO-USE THERAPEUTIC FOOD (RUTF) ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND GUT MICROBIOTA OF MALNOURISHED CHILDREN IN GHANA 
Organisation Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)
Country Ghana 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution our expertise, intellectual input and the training of staff. Also access to equipment or facilities.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise, intellectual input and access to data, facilities and study group
Impact 1. MOA 2. Ethics approval 3. Iddrisu, I., Monteagudo-Mera, A., Poveda, C., Pyle, S., Shahzad, M., Andrews, S.C. and Walton, G.E. Malnutrition and Gut Microbiota in Children. (2021) Nutrients. 13, 2727; DOI: 10.3390/nu13082727
Start Year 2018
 
Description Impact of iron and lactoferrin on the preweaned gut microbiota 
Organisation Danone, France
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise, technology, manpower
Collaborator Contribution Expertise, funding agreed, materials
Impact Multidisciplinary: microbiology, food technology/food science, nutrition and health
Start Year 2020
 
Description Impact of zinc deficiency on composition and activity of the human gut microbiome; a missing link in malnutrition? 
Organisation Khyber Medical University
Country Pakistan 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution expertise, intellectual input
Collaborator Contribution their expertise, intellectual input and access to relevant population/study site
Impact 1. An application for funding to support the research - a GCRF partnership award 2. One MoA between UoR and KMU 3. Two internal grants awarded (one at each institute) of ~£5000 each. 4. Visiting Research Fellow status and visiting Professor status awarded 5. Muhammad Shahzad, Zia Ul Haq, Simon C Andrews (2021) Exploring the Role of Microbiome in Susceptibility, Treatment Response and Outcome among Tuberculosis Patients from Pakistan; Study Protocol for a Prospective Cohort Study (Micro-STOP). MedRxiv. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.11.10.21266176 6. Saeedullah, A., Khan, M.S., Andrews, S.C., ...Iddrisu, I., Shahzad, M. (2021) Nutritional status of adolescent Afghan refugees living in Peshawar, Pakistan. Nutrients, 2021, 13(9), 3072
Start Year 2019
 
Title Can inhibition of iron absorption by tea consumption disrupt host body-iron status and change the gut microbiota composition? 
Description Iron is a requirement of many microorganisms, as such changes in iron availability can also have an impact on the gut microbiota. This long-term controlled human intervention will investigate the effect of tea-tannins on iron status and inflammation and the effect on gut microbiota composition. This will be a randomised, double-blind (subject/investigator), placebo controlled, parallel study design with 15-20 subjects (min-max) per treatment with normal haemoglobin (12 g/dl female, 13 g/dl male) and normal serum ferritin levels (30-300 mcg/ in males and 15-200 mcg/L in females). The study will consist of two intervention treatments of 4 weeks (tea and placeo group). Blood, urine and faecal samples will be collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention for further analysis. This project was delayed by Covid-19 - now due to start in April. Required placebo and tea-powder products have been kindly provided by Unilever. 
Type Preventative Intervention - Nutrition and Chemoprevention
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2020
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact This trial will answer the following research questions: Can inhibition of iron absorption by tea consumption disrupt host body-iron status? Monitoring body-iron status indicators in response to tea consumption and non-consumption will allow us to observe any impact on body iron status parameters during the course of the study. Can the reduction of iron availability caused by tea consumption change the gut microbiota composition? We hypothesise that tea-tannins found in black tea can affect the gut microbiota composition and that this effect would be caused (in part at least) by iron chelation. Using Next-Generation DNA Sequencing (NGS) technology, we will compare the gut microbiota of subjects receiving black tea with those receiving a placebo. 
 
Title Can prebiotics support the treatment of mild iron deficiency by iron supplementation? 
Description Can a prebiotic supplement reverse unfavourable iron-induced alterations in the gut microbiota? The first aim of this study is to investigate if the daily administration of the prebiotic Synergy-1 (a commercial product consisting of oligofructose-enriched inulin) together with a common iron supplement (ferrous sulphate) during 4 weeks, in premenopausal non-anaemic women with low ferritin levels, would mitigate the adverse effects of iron on the gut microbiota. The estimated absorption rate of the ferrous salts is 10-15%, therefore the unabsorbed iron will reach the colon where it could stimulate growth of non-beneficial bacterial species in the intestinal environment. By contrast, prebiotics function by specifically supporting growth of the typically-beneficial microorganism such as bifidobacteria. Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are well recognised in this way. The hypothesis to be tested is that the prebiotic consumption will lead to a beneficial shift in the microbiota helping against the dysbiosis associated with iron supplementation. The study has received a favourable opinion from the Reading University Ethics Committee (January 2019) Recruitment of participants has started in February 2019. 
Type Preventative Intervention - Nutrition and Chemoprevention
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2019
Development Status Closed
Clinical Trial? Yes
Impact We hypothesise that reducing iron-associated microbiota disruption by prebiotic intervention will also lead to diminished GI symptoms. Symptom diaries will be maintained to assess GI comfort, and stool frequency and consistency, throughout the study. 
URL https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03850652
 
Title IMPACT READY-TO-USE THERAPEUTIC FOOD (RUTF) ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND GUT MICROBIOTA OF MALNOURISHED CHILDREN IN GHANA - Ethical application for human nutritional study in Ghana 
Description Testing the hypothesis that malnutrition causes dysbiosis in gut microbiota, and RUTF treatment will aid in restoring the gut microbial balance and improve weight of malnourished children. Funding through a PhD studentship Trial is on going 
Type Preventative Intervention - Nutrition and Chemoprevention
Current Stage Of Development Initial development
Year Development Stage Completed 2020
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact none as yet 
 
Title Potential Role of Microbiome in Tuberculosis (Micro-STOP) 
Description The aim of this 2 year, case control, observational and prospective study is to explore the effect of TB infection and anti-tuberculosis therapy on gut microbiome diversity, functional potential and immune response in newly diagnosed TB patients from Pakistan. Sponsored by Khyber Medical University (the TB Control Program Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) Other aims include: 1. To determine gut microbiome diversity and functional potential at baseline and compare with healthy controls 2. To determine oral microbiome diversity and functional potential at baseline and compare with healthy controls 3. To assess the relationship between gut microbiome and socio-demographic characteristics and dietary intake in TB patients at baseline, before the start of anti-tuberculosis treatment. 4. To describe the occurrence of gut microbial dysbiosis and its association with adverse reaction and treatment failure in TB patients. 5. To identify specific oral and gut enterotypes associated with adverse reaction and unfavorable treatment outcomes 
Type Preventative Intervention - Nutrition and Chemoprevention
Current Stage Of Development Initial development
Year Development Stage Completed 2022
Development Status On hold
Impact none as yet 
 
Description 1st Online International Wasit Medical Conference - Iraq 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 20-21 June 2020. To support science in Iraq - presentations from local and international scientists (5 from my group)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description : Metals in Biology BBSRC NIBB Community Meeting 19/20 December 2016, Durham Marriott Hotel 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Metals in Biology BBSRC NIBB Community Meeting - dissemination and networking meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://prospect.rsc.org/MiB_NIBB/metals-in-biology-network-community-meeting/
 
Description BioMetals 2020 - 12th International Biometals Web Symposium - 6-10 July 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Sharing and discussion of the latest research in the Biometals field
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://biometals2020.sciencesconf.org/
 
Description Café Scientifique: Gut microbiota, health and dietary iron 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Café Scientifique is supported by the University of Reading and the Thames Valley branch of the British Science Association.Café Scientifique organises talks, usually given by scientists, followed by questions from the audience in the second half. They are a great opportunity to explore the latest ideas in science and technology.
Our group participated as speakers in one session which took place in October 2018. The aim of the session was to give a talk about our research (gut microbiota, health and dietary iron) to general public with a final question session where we answered and discussed possible doubts from the audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.cafescientifique.org
 
Description Drinc event activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Poster presentations by Dr. Andrea Monteagudo-Mera- and Kang Sheen OOi. The aim of regular DRINC dissemination events is share results and experiences with other researchers across the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019,2020
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/innovation/sharing-challenges/drinc/
 
Description Exploring Human Host-Microbiome Interactions in Health and Disease Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Two poster presentations were exhibited in this conference by Dr. Andrea Monteagudo-Mera-Mera (1) and Sang Shen Ooi (2): 1) Effect of Iron on the composition and Activity of the Gut Microbiota using in vitro Models 2) Iron and Gut Microbiota. The attendance to this meeting provided us an updated knowledge in the field of gut microbiota as well as the new advances in metagenomics, metabolomics and other technologies. We had the opportunity to create networking with some of the attendants and participate in discussions with some experts on the field that helped us to expand our knowledge in the gut microbiota.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://coursesandconferences.wellcomegenomecampus.org/events/item.aspx?e=637
 
Description International Scientific Association for probiotics and prebiotics (ISAPP) annual meeting 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Andrea Monteagudo-Mera, Arvind Salunkhe, Kang Ooi, Gemma Walton, Sandrine Claus, Glenn Gibson, Dora Pereira, Simon Andrews. Effect of Iron and Haem on the Composition and Activity of the Gut Microbiota using In Vitro Models (poster presentation)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Iron and Sepsis seminar presebtation at 'Core Topics', Reading. Association of Anesthetists, 8 Feb 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Approx 60 attendees - professional practitioners (anesthetists).

New insight/understanding provided as part of a CDP. Excellent feedback and further requests to present at related meetings (to be included in next ResFish submission)..

Meeting to consider funding options arranged with colleagues from Royal Berkshire Hospital.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.facebook.com/AssociationofAnaesthetists/
 
Description Julien LA (2019) Egg white vs Salmonella! The antibacterial properties of egg white. Oral presentation as main speaker of the CINNergies Talk & Drinks. Reading, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Julien LA (2019) Egg white vs Salmonella! The antibacterial properties of egg white. Oral presentation as main speaker of the CINNergies Talk & Drinks. Reading, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Obesity, Diabetes and Zinc: A Workshop Promoting knowledge and collaboration between the UK and Israel Nov. 28-30 2016 - Israel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Sponsored by the Friends of Israel Educational Foundation (FIEF) and supported by the EU COST action Zinc-Net (COST TD1304), a three-day collaborative UK-Israel workshop was organized by Drs Assaf Rudich, Imre Lengyel and Arie Moran. Twelve UK and 12 Israeli participants met at Desert Iris Hotel, Yeruham, Israel between the 28-30 of November, 2016 for in-depth discussions, rather than a lecture series, to set the stage for future collaborative grants on diabetes and zinc. Two days of formal scientific sessions with dynamic and wide-ranging discussions was followed by a day of touring and informal networking in the Negev area. This format was previously recognized by our sponsors as both effective and enjoyable and all participants agreed at the end of the meeting that the 3-days provided an excellent basis for future scientific collaboration.

The discussions were centered on diabetes and obesity, already at pandemic levels worldwide, and zinc homeostasis which is related to the clinical issues and themes of the meeting. The free flowing discussions were based on a short presentations setting the scene for the 6 main topics: 'Diabetes and zinc transporters', 'Nutrition related factors', 'Biomarkers', 'Clinical epidemiology', 'the Microbiome and diabetes', and 'Related diseases'. The abstract style summary of the sessions herein summarizes the of the, which have already triggered collaborations. We hope that readers will find this discourse stimulating and some of the ideas might make their way into their research efforts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Oral presentation at the International Symposium Salmonella and Salmonellosis (I3S). Saint Malo, France by PhD student (Louis Julien) 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Julien LA, Cochet MF, Bonnassie S, Nau F, Jan S & Baron F (2018) Iron-acquisition genes and siderophores production are induced by Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white at temperatures around the natural body temperature of hens. Oral presentation at the International Symposium Salmonella and Salmonellosis (I3S). Saint Malo, France
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Oxford Region Intensive Care Society 'Controversies in ICU' Thames Valley Lido, Reading (25/4/19) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact presentation to ICU practioners - on iron and health, and mechanisms of iron homeostasis (part of continuing professional development)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pint of Science (20/5/19), Reading 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation on DRINC research project to general public

The ~100 trillion bacteria in our gut (the microbiota) deliver a range of health benefits, such as generation of vital vitamins and protection against pathogens, but are greatly influenced by environmental factors, in particular the diet. Changes in the microbiota are associated with negative consequences such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and diabetes. Lack of iron is a common form of nutritional deficiency but its influence of the gut microbiota is unclear. We will describe our research on how high and low levels of dietary iron, and chelators, affect the gut microbiota.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Reading Geek Night: Iron and Microbiota 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reading Geek night is a friendly community interested on Science and Biotechnology that meet 2nd Tuesday of the month. The aim of this session, that took place in November 2018 ,was to give an overview of our research "Gut microbiota and Iron" to a general audience. At the end of the session, we answered the questions of the public regarding our topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rdggeeknight.wordpress.com/
 
Description Royal Berkshire Hospital - Pathological Soc Annual Oration (16/10/19) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenation on the impact of iron on health and the mechanisms governing iron metabolism - to medics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The Rank Prize Funds: Many symposium on Carbohydrates and Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Oral presentation by Dr. Andrea Monteagudo-Mera: Impact of human milk oligosaccharide, 2-fucosyllactose, on the human faecal microbiota in health and disease utilising in vitro fermentations. The scientific sessions of this Symposium covered the impact of carbohydrates in nutrition and gut microbiota. Discussion panels and networking sessions helped to expand the knowledge on carbohydrates, specifically on different prebiotics, that could be used in our project in future stages.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.rankprize.org/index.php/symposia
 
Description Women in Science day: School event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Online event in a Secondary school at Teruel (Spain) to discuss the importance of the gut microbiota in our health and also highlight the role of woman in science .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://11defebrero.github.io/web11F-2021/concertadas_todas.html