Molecular and Systems Virology

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

The Pirbright Institute provides the UK with capacity to predict, detect, understand and respond to incursions of viral pathogens of livestock and viruses that spread from animals to humans. Pirbright represents a hub of world class facilities and expertise for the study of exotic and endemic viral diseases in the natural host, therefore enabling our research to be directly translated into future control measures.
This project will identify virus-host interactions that influence the outcome of infection and that could inform the future development of gene edited or genetically modified animals that are resistant to infection or have reduced ability for onwards transmission. It will provide novel fundamental knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of viral replication and viral subversion of innate immunity, leading to novel, safe strategies for virus attenuation. These findings will be applied to the rational design of novel or improved vaccines or other control strategies. The approaches used to achieve these goals will include classical techniques from virology and immunology alongside confocal and super-resolution fluorescent microscopy and electron tomography, transcriptomics, proteomics, Y-2-H and systematic genome-wide RNAi screening approaches. Anticipated outcomes of this project are: Improved fundamental knowledge of the virus-cell interactions that influence the outcome of infection in vitro; high-resolution structures of viruses and viral proteins to inform vaccine design; identification of key cellular innate pathways which are disrupted by virus infection; novel, safe, rational strategies for virus attenuation; identification of novel targets for antivirals; provision of novel in vitro information to support the development of in vivo pathogenesis models.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Molecular and Systems Virology is part of the BBSRC Institute Strategic Programme "Understanding and preventing viral diseases". There are three objectives and key findings from the first five years are described below.

Objective 1: Characterising viral and cellular determinants of tropism and host specificity.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) spike glycoprotein cleavage was found to be responsible for the extended cell culture tropism of IBV, facilitating the engineering of vaccine strains or treatment with exogenous protease to enhance virus propagation in cell culture, potentially reducing the number of eggs required for vaccine production.
For avian leukosis virus (ALV), gene editing of specific cellular receptors was found to render chicken cell lines resistant to virus infection, informing future strategies for gene editing for disease resistant chickens.
We have demonstrated that the influenza PA-X protein plays an important role in cross-species transmission of viruses with human-specific amino acid substitutions in PA-X dramatically enhancing the adaptation of animal influenza viruses in mammals.
We have gained new insight into how cleavage of capsid protein VP2 is involved in generation of BTV particles with increased tropism for insect cells to facilitate the vector stage of the virus lifecycle. Interestingly, atypical BTV-26 which can transmit directly between vertebrates does not display this tropism for insect cells.


Objective 2: Understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral replication.
We have demonstrated that the route of endocytosis used during blue-tongue virus (BTV) entry is dependent on both the type of cell and the type of virus isolate.
For influenza A viruses we have identified that interaction between viral HA protein and human complement Factor H (FH) protein can inhibit virus entry into cells but enhance production of new virus by the cell.
For the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), advanced microscopy has been used to identify sites of viral replication and associated host membrane rearrangements in detail; the nsp4 protein and the nsp2 protein have been shown to play key roles in such membrane re-arrangements and cellular vesicular transport also shown to be required for replication. Studies of viral replication have also been extended to include mammalian coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), with the latter being developed as a model to understand the biology of mammalian coronavirus infection.
Dual colour fluorescently tagged infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) have been used to visualise the formation, movement and coalescence of virus factories (VF) derived from separate co-infecting viruses, with implications for mechanisms of viral reassortment and superinfection exclusion. We have determined that VFs are not membrane-bound and using Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM), we have shown that VFs occupy discrete regions, distinct from the paracrystalline arrays of virions classically observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Similar approaches to understand the sites of replication and dynamics of co-infection have also been developed for bovine RSV, FMDV and BTV and are beginning to reveal novel information on how co-infecting viruses can replicate together or be excluded.
For foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), we have shown that virus assembly requires cellular chaperones and packaging signals in the RNA, including a critical role for such a signal in the pseudoknot region of the genome. We show that the small internal capsid protein VP4 is involved in virus stability and have developed novel approaches to generate more stable viruses with implications for improved vaccines. We have also shown that a novel inhibitor which blocks myristolyation of capsid precursors can prevent replication of multiple picornaviruses.
With collaborators we have completed the first analysis of the ASFV global transcriptome, which has identified viral transcription start and termination sites, promoter motifs and functional classes of genes expressed at early or late time post-infection. Comparison of viruses with specific virulence characteristics and the inclusion of host transcriptomics has also begun to show how the dynamics of viral and host gene expression controls the outcome of infection. These approaches will provide powerful tools to define the effect of virus gene deletions on host gene expression.

Objective 3: Defining how viruses manipulate the cellular response to infection.
We have identified a microRNA encoded by herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) that may have been pirated from the host in order to modulate the cell cycle of infected cells.
For influenza viruses, we have identified novel functions of the small accessory protein, PB1-F2; it binds to the chicken homologues of MAVS and IKKß to disrupt interferon and pro-inflammatory signalling, with truncated variants and cellular localisation and stability fine tuning the degree of antagonism. We have also shown that cellular p21 is activated in infected cells to directly disrupt the viral nucleoprotein complex and to promote interferon production via IRF3.
For African swine fever virus (ASFV), three new virus-host interactions have been identified which control multiple aspects of the cellular response to infection and will inform the design of next generation ASF vaccines: 1) A viral protein was found to have potent anti-apoptotic activity by uniquely binding to all major pro-apoptotic host Bcl-2 family proteins and deletion of this viral protein reduced virus replication in macrophages and dramatically attenuated infection in pigs. 2) Additional multiple viral proteins inhibit the host cell ability to activate type I interferon and NF-kB activated antiviral responses. Viral sequence motifs consistent with interaction with the cellular ubiquitin machinery have been identified and confirmed by mutagenesis, suggesting that these viral proteins act by targeting host antiviral proteins for destruction by the cell's own degradation system. Deletion of these viral proteins also reduced virus replication in macrophages and attenuated infection in pigs by releasing the block to induction of interferon seen in WT virulent strains. 3) A protein on the surface of the virus has been identified which is responsible for virus binding to red blood cells (RBC), an important mechanism for viral persistence in infected animals. With collaborators, the RBC binding has been mapped and viruses engineered with reduced RBC binding and shorter period of persistence, overcoming a significant barrier for safe use of live attenuated vaccines.
RNA viruses are detected by various cellular 'sensors' including the recently discovered ZAP, a sensor of CpG dinucleotides in RNA virus genomes. Using FMDV genomes engineered with reduced RNA secondary structure, inhibitors of interferon pathways and ZAP KO cell lines, we have shown for the first time that RNA secondary structure can be used to shield the RNA genome from sensing by ZAP.
A new reverse genetics system for PRRSV has been used to generate fundamental understanding of mechanisms of viral antagonism of the host interferon response, and revealed a strain-specific ability to antagonise interferon which correlates with virulence. This provides a platform for next generation vaccines and has led to funding with industry.
Exploitation Route The findings described have provided the foundation for further research, for novel strategies for disease control and successful applications for external funding, including from vaccine manufacturers.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Deletion of genes that inhibit innate immune responses has been shown to attenuate virulent ASFV isolates and provide a route for constructing rationally attenuated live vaccine candidates. Of the genes we have studied deletions of DP148R and members of the MGF 360 and 505 have been included in a patent application as candidate live attenuated vaccines. We expect other genes we have identified to provide further targets for rational attenuation of ASFV to produce candidate vaccines. The findings have also been used to establish collaborations and gain funding from an International Veterinary Vaccine Company and a charity promoting development of Veterinary Vaccines for livestock farmers in low- and middle-income countries. In the medium term this will provide vaccines against ASF to protect the global pork industry and improve food security. Research findings from this topic have been presented to FMD vaccine producers as a viable alternative to producing certain strains of FMD vaccines with improved stability. The development of a PRRSV reverse genetics system has stimulated interest and funding from industry to use genetic engineering to improve PRRSV vaccines. Lumpy skin disease virus has continued to increase its geographical range. New methods to support diagnostics of lumpy skin disease were developed in this project and have helped several countries to build capacity to deal with the disease as the virus spreads. New research was initiated within this topic in response to COVID-19. Work on SARS-CoV-2 tropism responded to the urgent initial UK and global requirement to understand the threat of SARS-CoV-2 to wildlife and livestock species and the potential for these species to act as reservoirs for the virus. More recently the appearance of new SARS-CoV-2 variants with altered spike proteins, required similar urgent testing of such variants for altered tropism and vaccine escape. The expertise developed and resulting outputs in this area has led to inclusion of Pirbright in the UK Genotype to Phenotype (G2P) consortium. In addition, the virology expertise demonstrated in this topic has been instrumental for technical development of CL3 procedures for handling live SARS-CoV-2 and pseudotyped virus systems and other reagents which have underpinned the institutes COVID-19 research and contributed to the UK and global research response. This COVID-19 work was initiated by the expertise in this topic but is now formally reported under a new topic to specifically cover the COVID-19 response from this ISPG.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Briefing document for OIE
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations Nipah Taskforce Member
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Contributing to the chapter on Marek's disease for the OIE Terrestrial Manual
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The contribution to the Terrestrial Manual on the recent advances in the diagnosis and control of Marek's disease will impact on improved and better control of the disease to reduce losses and improved food security
URL http://www.oie.int/
 
Description Contribution to Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer UK (2017), Genomics Chapter 9.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Contribution to a POSTnote on 'Reducing UK Antibiotic Use in Animals'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Development and Evaluation of PPR DIVA vaccines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease, severely affects small ruminants in almost 70 countries in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia. It causes USD 1.5 to 2 billion in losses each year in regions that are home to over 80% of the world's sheep and goats and to more than 330 million of the world's poorest people, many of whom depend on them for their livelihoods. The estimated current expenditure on PPR vaccination ranges between USD 270 and 380 million. The annual impact of PPR alone may be valued at between USD 1.45 and 2.1 billion per year. Approximately a third of the global financial burden of PPR is borne by Africa, with a further quarter borne by South Asia. This burden will be removed with the successful eradication of PPR. The undiscounted costs for a fifteen-year Global control Strategy of FAO and OIE are between USD 7.6 and 9.1 billion, with the first five years costing between USD 2.5 and 3.1 billion. (http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4460e.pdf). PPR is currently controlled by vaccination using mainly two live attenuated PPRV vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96). However, the current vaccines and serological tests are unable to enable Differentiation between naturally Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). This factor precludes meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn reducing the efficiency of control programmes. Therefore, it is almost impossible to assess the quality and efficacy of existing PPR vaccines without knowing whether positive animals are vaccinated or naturally infected. Unlike rinderpest, where cattle and buffalo were primary hosts, in PPR, new crops (about 30-40%) of lambs and kids are produced every year and are the most susceptible population to bring back new PPR outbreaks6&7. Therefore, it is likely that the cycle of vaccinations and PPR outbreaks will continue until and unless we reach the stage of 80-90% herd immunity. Therefore, development of a marker vaccine and associated DIVA diagnostics will enable the assessment of vaccine efficacy which is essential for any successful vaccination campaign. https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-peste-des-petits-ruminant The availability of a recombinant PPRV vaccine with a proven functionality is a prerequisite for the development of novel vaccines that may enable the development of DIVA tools for PPRV diagnostics. In the DBT-BBSRC FADH BB/L004801/1 grant we have rescued Sungri 96 and Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strains. Both the vaccine strains were rescued from respective synthetic c-DNA clones with mutations in the variable part of C terminus of the nucleocapsid (N) gene similar to Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) to enable negative marker DIVA vaccines. These two DIVA vaccines along with parental vaccines have been recently tested in a pilot studies in goats. Both the DIVA and parent vaccines provided safety, stability and protection for vaccinated goats whereas the control animals were clinically infected. Patent applications have been made to protect these DIVA vaccines. Agreements are being done with vaccine industries for the licensing and commercialisation.
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/press-releases/2018/09/pirbright-collaboration-provides-tools-peste-des-...
 
Description Facilitated the transfer of molecular technology for the capacity building of the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) peste des petits ruminants (PPR) laboratory.19-25.01.2020
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Facilitated the transfer of molecular technology for the capacity building of the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) peste des petits ruminants (PPR) laboratory.19-25.01.2020. The PPR virus infected samples can be diagnosed now at SUA, Tanzania without sending to Pirbright or CIRAD reference laboratories. This will enhance the capacity building of SUA and help immensely in the ongoing PPR eradication.
 
Description IUCN Technical Subgroup on Synthetic Biology and Biodiversity Conservation
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Longer duration immunity for FMD vaccine with TLR adjuvant-Conducted screening of 8 adjuvants with FMD vaccine in cattle and analyse the samples originated from the experiments. 4 selected adjuvants were tested in cattle at the Pirbright Institute and TLR III adjuvant was found as the best one. Under Follow on grant 12 cattle were vaccinated with existing vaccine with oil adjuvant and 12 cattle were vaccinated with oil and TLR III adjuvants. The protective immununity was assessed from the virus neutralizing antibody status. By 6 months post-vaccination only 17% of cattle were having protective antibodies (1:45 dilution) in conventional vaccine group whereas 80% cattle were having protective neutralizing titer (1:45) in TLR adjuvanted group. Therefore it is clear that adding TLR adjuvant one can increase the duration of immunity up to 6 months.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Lumpy Skin Disease Control Strategy for Great Britain
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Member of the Virus Division for the Microbiology Society
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Netherlands Commission on Genetic Modification (COGEM) Project "Gene drives, inventory of previous research and experience"
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Organised seminar series on Sequencing, Virus Evolution and Molecular Biology at Pirbright (with Luca Ferretti and Graham Freimanis)
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description PPR Global Research and Expertise Network (PPR GREN) membership (OIE/FAO)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Participation in the Management of the Oxford DTP
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact As part of the Management committee of the Oxford-Pirbright-Oxford Brookes-Diamond doctorate Training Partnership, contributed to the success of the DTP in meeting the objectives, recruitment and review
URL http://www.biodtp.ox.ac.uk/
 
Description Prevention and Control of LSD
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact I have participated as an expert advisor on committees and panels focused on the control of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Europe. This has contributed to the formulation of an effective control strategy, focused on the use of live-attenuated vaccines, in south-eastern Europe. The effective control strategy has prevented LSD from entering central Europe. The economic benefit of restricting LSD spread to central Europe is the major impact. This is difficult to estimate but in the millions of Euros.
 
Description Quantifying Levels of Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus in Excretions from Experimentally Infected Goats and Its Importance for Nascent PPR Eradication Programme
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact This publication highlight the sample types to be used in the PPR eradication programme to detect the viral genome. Therefore without invasive sampling nasal swabs can be taken from the body of the infected animal for the detection of viral nucleotides. Also this publication highlight the pick period of virus excretion which shows the most probale period of virus transmission to the in contact animals. The manuscript has been sent to FAP and PPR secretariat and received well appreciation that the work will be helpful for eradication programme.
 
Description RCUK Engagement workshop, Cosener's House, 20-21 April 2017
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Taught course on introductory bioinformatics to PhD students at Pirbright
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Training MSc students
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Delivered a new training session to MSc students teaching viral quantification assays. This lead to a greater understanding of laboratory techniques and academic research.
 
Description A One Health approach to pan-valent morbillivirus vaccines
Amount £773,237 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R019843/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Assessing the functionality of avian BST2 as a viral restriction factor.
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 09/2025
 
Description BBSRC - responsive mode
Amount £187,370 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S007911/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Description BBSRC IAA The Pirbright Institute
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S506680/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2022
 
Description BBSRC Responsive Mode IPA
Amount £302,086 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R002606/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 06/2019
 
Description Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and University of Oxford joint Doctoral Training Project
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2022
 
Description British Egg Marketing Board PhD studentship
Amount £76,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Egg Marketing Board 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description Characterising the role of cellular proteins in coronavirus replication
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2022 
End 08/2023
 
Description Common host proteins required for replication organelle function across coronaviruses
Amount £371,708 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T014571/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2021 
End 02/2023
 
Description Coronavirus regulation of cellular antiviral responses and cross species transmission
Amount £52,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2022 
End 09/2026
 
Description DARPA PREEMPT
Amount $2,700,000 (USD)
Organisation Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 09/2018 
End 03/2022
 
Description Development of next generation vaccine technology inducing rapid and strong immunity through targeted delivery of antigens to chicken immune cells
Amount £473,080 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T013087/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2020 
End 05/2023
 
Description ERA-NET Cofund on International Coordination of Research on Infectious Animal Diseases (ICRAD)
Amount £1,526,000 (GBP)
Funding ID SE1518 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2021 
End 03/2024
 
Description FLI- TPI joint PhD studentships African swine fever virus host-pathogen interactions.
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 04/2023
 
Description Further development of infectious bronchitis virus vaccines adapted for production in cell culture
Amount £262,701 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R019576/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description G2P-UK; A National Virology Consortium to address phenotypic consequences of SARSCoV-2 genomic variation
Amount £2,497,230 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/W005611/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2021 
End 07/2022
 
Description Genomia Project Grant
Amount £174,052 (GBP)
Organisation Genomia fund 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2020
 
Description H2020 work programme topic 9 Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine and maritime and inland water research and the bioeconomy, work topic SFS-10-2017 Research and approaches for emerging diseases in plants and terrestrial livestock
Amount € 5,986,250 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 04/2018 
End 04/2023
 
Description Identification of interaction sites between the genomic segments of influenza virus as putative novel anti-viral targets
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 09/2024
 
Description Identifying pro-viral cellular proteins in chicken cells that can be exploited to better control avian endemic viruses
Amount £104,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2021 
End 09/2024
 
Description Internal Seed Fund- Development of an IBDV diagnostic test that can differentiate infected from vaccinated animals, for use in surveillance.
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2019 
End 02/2020
 
Description LVIF
Amount $1,500,000 (CAD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 03/2018 
End 09/2020
 
Description NC3Rs Research Project Grant
Amount £436,339 (GBP)
Funding ID NC/R001138/1 
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2019
 
Description Pathfinder BB/R012431/1 Grant holder: Dr Mark Fife. Grant title: chIFITM knockdown/knockout technology as a platform technology for increased vaccine yields in SPF Eggs.
Amount £12,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012431/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Pirbright Institute PhD studentship
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2022
 
Description SOMAmer technology to diagnose coronavirus infection: veterinary and zoonotic implications
Amount £1 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 09/2025
 
Description Taiwan Partnering Award
Amount £40,700 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S020624/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description The Pirbright Institute - University of Surrey collaborative studentship: Not all viruses come alone - the impact of orbivirus co-infections on bluetongue virus reassortment and diversity
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 03/2025
 
Description The genetic and functional analysis of variation in innate immune genes associated with restriction of influenza virus for chicken lines
Amount £422,383 (GBP)
Organisation Aviagen Group 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 01/2020 
End 03/2021
 
Description Understanding RNA packaging signals in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) for improved vaccine production
Amount £428,671 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/V008323/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2021 
End 04/2024
 
Description Understanding coronavirus replication using soft x-ray and electron tomography
Amount £62,600 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2020 
End 09/2024
 
Description [YY-EEID US-UK XXXX] Evaluating how immunosuppression influences influenza A virus transmission and evolution in wild and domestic birds
Amount £606,360 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T008806/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 06/2023
 
Title A Versatile Panel of Reference Gene Assays for the Measurement of Chicken mRNA by Quantitative PCR 
Description Quantitative real-time PCR assays are widely used for the quantification of mRNA within avian experimental samples. Multiple stably-expressed reference genes can be used to control random technical variation between samples. It is necessary to select reference genes with the lowest variation in representative samples. The candidate reference gene assays must be reliable. In particular, they should have high amplification specificity and efficiency, and not produce signals from contaminating DNA. Whilst recent research papers identify specific genes that are stable in particular tissues and experimental treatments, here we describe a panel of ten avian gene primer and probe sets that can be used to identify suitable reference genes in many experimental contexts. The panel was tested with TaqMan and SYBR Green systems in two experimental scenarios, a tissue collection, and virus infection of cultured fibroblasts. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were able to select appropriate reference gene sets in each case. We show the effects of using the selected genes on the detection of statistically significant differences in expression. The results are compared with those obtained using 28s ribosomal RNA, the present most widely accepted reference gene in chicken work, identifying circumstances where the use of this gene might provide misleading results. Widely used methods for eliminating DNA contamination of RNA reduced, but did not completely remove, detectable DNA. We therefore attached special importance to testing each qPCR assay for absence of signal using DNA template. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The assays and analyses developed here provide a useful resource for selecting reference genes for investigations of avian biology. 
 
Title A ligation and restriction enzyme independent cloning technique: an alternative to conventional methods for cloning hard-to-clone gene segments in the influenza reverse genetics system 
Description we developed an easy and efficient ligation and restriction enzyme independent (LREI) cloning method for cloning influenza gene segments into pHW2000 vector. The method involves amplification of megaprimers followed by PCR amplification of megaprimers using a bait plasmid, DpnI digestion and transformation. ligation and restriction enzyme independent (LREI) cloning method represents an alternative strategy for cloning influenza gene segments that have internal restriction sites for the enzymes used in reverse genetics. Further, the problem of genetic instability in bacteria can be alleviated by growing recombinant bacterial cultures at a lower temperature. This technique can be applied to clone any influenza gene segment using universal primers, which would help in the rapid generation of influenza viruses and facilitate influenza research and vaccine development. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method will help in the rapid generation of reverse genetic base influenza viruses and facilitate influenza research and vaccine development. 
URL https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-020-01358-2
 
Title Comprehensive analysis of genetic variants across immune loci in indigenous breeds. 
Description The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family comprises a class of restriction factors widely characterised in humans for their potent antiviral activity. Their biological activity is well documented in several animal species, but their genetic variation and biological mechanism is less well understood, particularly in avian species. Here we report the complete sequence of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus IFITM locus from a wide variety of chicken breeds to examine the detailed pattern of genetic variation of the locus on chromosome 5, including the flanking genes ATHL1 and B4GALNT4. We have generated chIFITM sequences from commercial breeds (supermarket-derived chicken breasts), ancient bone samples, indigenous chickens from Nigeria (Nsukka) and Ethiopia, European breeds and inbred chicken lines from The Pirbright Institute, totalling of 211 chickens. Through mapping of genetic variants to the latest chIFITM consensus sequence our data reveal that the chIFITM locus does not show structural variation in the locus across the populations analysed, despite spanning diverse breeds from different geographic locations. However, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in functionally important regions of the proteins within certain groups of chickens were detected, in particular the European breeds and indigenous birds from Ethiopia and Nigeria. In addition, we also found that two out of four SNVs located in the chIFITM1 (Ser36 and Arg77) and chIFITM3 (Val103) proteins were simultaneously under positive selection. Together these data suggest that IFITM genetic variation may contribute to the capacities of different chicken populations to resist viral infection. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This paper is currently in press in. BMC Genomics. 
 
Title Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) on IBDV-infected cells 
Description Jenny Simpson and Pippa Hawes have developed the technique of Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM). This technique has been used to visualise Virus Factories of IBDV. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The Virus Factories (VFs) of IBDV were thought to be paracrystalline arrays of virions in the cytoplasm. However, combining our GFP11-tagged IBDV with CLEM technology revealed that the VFs are actually proteinaceous accumulations in the cytoplasm. This has opened up a new avenue of research in terms of the ultrastructure, formation and function of the VFs. 
 
Title Deep sequencing to identify RNA packaging signals 
Description A novel and simple approach to identify predicted RNA secondary structures involved in genome packaging in positive sense RNA viruses (e.g. the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV]). By interrogating deep sequencing data generated from both packaged and unpackaged populations of RNA, we have determined multiple regions of the genome with constrained variation in the packaged population. Predicted secondary structures of these regions revealed stem-loops with conservation of structure and a common motif at the loop. Disruption of these features resulted in attenuation of virus growth in cell culture due to a reduction in assembly of mature virions. This study provides evidence for the involvement of predicted RNA structures in picornavirus packaging and offers a readily transferable methodology for identifying packaging requirements in many other viruses. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Impact so far is fundamental knowledge but with several potential avenues for future impact in for example improved vaccines. 
 
Title Development of CLEM techniques for RSV 
Description We have developed the technical expertise to perform correlative light electron microscopy on respiratory syncytial virus infected cells. This allows us to directly compare immunofluorescent images with transmission EM of the same cell. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have recently submitted a paper and grant building on this expertise, as well as forging new collaborations with Diamond light source. 
 
Title Development of SARS-CoV-2 pseudotypes 
Description Method to allow assessment of SARS-CoV-2 entry, which can be used in various experiments including VNTs to assess humoral immune response (in convalescent or vaccinated individuals) 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Application in the establishment of the SARS-CoV-2 international reference standard by NIBSC 
 
Title Development of assays for quantifying fusion inhibitory antibodies in sera (mFIT assay) 
Description We have developed a micro-fusion inhibition test (mFIT) assay to identify and quantify antibody responses (to vaccines etc.) which are capable of inhibiting viral induced cell-cell fusion. This test has been developed for various negative strand viruses (Nipah and RSV) as well as SARS-CoV-2 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This assay was used to aide development of the NIBSC WHO international standard for SARS-CoV-2 
 
Title Development of high-throughput assay for examining viral mediated cell-cell fusion 
Description We have developed and optimised high-throughput assays (96 well plate format) to examine viral induced cell-cell fusion, using an adapted Bi-FC approach. We are using this to identify inhibitors of paramyxovirus, e.g. measles and RSV, fusion and attachment proteins as well as SARS-CoV-2. This has been integrated with next-generation platforms such as the Incucyte real-time imaging system available at The Pirbright Institute, and the system has been rationalised so that it is entirely inducible. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We are using this assay to examine the innate immune restriction of paramyxovirus replication. 
 
Title Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication factories 
Description Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication factories. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have used this technology to determine that IBDV replication factories display qualities of liquid-liquid phase separation 
 
Title IBDV Reverse Genetics System 
Description We have developed a reverse genetics system for IBDV. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have used the reverse genetics system to generate recombinant IBDVs and chimeric recombinant IBDVs that contain genes from classical and very virulent strains of IBDV in the background of a cell culture adapted attenuated strain. This will enable us to study the effect of individual virus genes on pathogenicity. 
 
Title Identified the best sampling material for the PPR virus genome detection 
Description Quantifying the DNA from all the body fluids of PPR virus infected goats we demonstrated that non-invasive nasal samples are the best material for the genome detection as virus appears as early as 2 days post infection before any clinical signs appear and the virus detection linger for this sample type than any other sample. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact As we have shown the best sample type for the detection of PPR virus, we have not to do many sample analysis which save the money and effort during the eradication programme. 
 
Title Optimisation of chicken kidney cell culture preparation 
Description We have optimised the method of extracting kidneys and preparing chicken kidney (CK) cell cultures from chickens. CK cells are used for in vitro assays to study avian viruses, in particular infectious bronchitis virus. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This has increased the yield of viable cells and the quality of the cell cultures. We can now obtain the number of cells we require using fewer chicken kidneys, therefore requiring fewer chickens to be culled. This is an important development for the 3Rs. We hope to publish this method for others' information. 
 
Title Optimisation of preparation of TOCs from adult chickens 
Description Tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) are prepared from chicken embryos and used to assess growth of avian viruses that are not able to be propagated in cell culture. We have optimised the method of TOCs preparation from 3-week old chickens and are using these to assess viral genetic stability and phenotype in organ cultures that are a similar environment to the site of replication in whole chickens. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We hope that this technique will reduce the number of chickens required for in vivo experiments, in line with the 3Rs, and plan to publish the method in due course. 
 
Title Panel of ACE2 proteins for screening SARS-CoV-2 host range 
Description A biological library of ACE2 expression constructs representing receptors from 22 different human and animal species. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Establishment of surveillance tools to examine the potential reverse zoonotic spillover of SARS-CoV-2 into anima species 
 
Title Stable chicken cell lines overexpressing chicken IFITM1,2 and 3 
Description In collaboration with Mark Fife, we have produced chicken stable cell lines overexpressing chicken IFITM1,2, 3 and a mutant chicken IFITM3 lacking palmitoylation sites. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These cell lines will be used to evaluate the effect of the IFITM proteins on the replication of different viruses, including IBDV. 
 
Title Use of reverse genetics to develop PPR DIVA vaccines 
Description Reverse genetics technique has been established for PPR virus in our laboratory. As PPR vaccine is a live attenuated virus, it is not possible to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) in existing antibody assays. However using reverse genetics technique we have manipulated/mutated residues in the full-length cDNA of virus and rescued the live attenuated vaccine strain which worked as a DIVA vaccine. Using this technique a GFP ( Green fluorescent protein) has been introduced into the virulent PPR virus that helped to follow the virus in the infected goats. Similarly using this technique we have modified the existing live attenuated viruses ( Nigeria 75/1) and Sungri 96/1) in to recombinant marker vaccines that enables to differentiate between infection and vaccination ( DIVA). So we have demonstrated that reverse genetics tool can be used to study the pathogenesis and to develop the marker vaccines. This technique can be adapted for other negative strand viruses to design the DIVA vaccines. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact PPR DIVA vaccine developed that can differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. This will be helpful to know the efficacy of vaccine by knowing the presence antibodies in animal is due to vaccination or infection. This will reduce the eradication time and will facilitate to declare freedom of diseases as soon as Possible without long waiting period. 
 
Title chimeric IBDVs 
Description Andrew Broadbent has engineered chimeric IBDVs expressing individual genes from a very virulent strain in the backbone of an attenuated strain. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These chimeric strains can be used to define viral determinants of virulence. 
 
Title chimeric recombinant IBDV with the hypervariable region from field strains 
Description Using our reverse genetics system and B cell culture system, we have engineered a chimeric IBDV with the backbone of a lab-adapted strain, but containing the hyper variable region of the capsid from a very virulent field strain (UK661). 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This is a proof of concept that it is possible to engineer an IBDV containing the hypervariable region from another strain. We now plan to engineer chimeric viruses with the hypervariable region from strains belonging to different genogroups from different geographical regions and use them to screen the serum from vaccinated birds to deduce the breadth of antibody responses. 
 
Title in vitro model of IBDV antigenic drift in chicken B cells 
Description IBDV vaccines do not induce sterilising immunity, meaning vaccinated birds can become infected with field strains. As for other viruses, it is thought that vaccine-induced immune selection pressure drives the evolution of antigenic drift variants that accumulate amino acid changes in the hypervariable region of the capsid, which may lead to vaccine failures. However, antigenic drift has not been studied in any detail for IBDV, and there is therefore a paucity of information regarding how plastic the capsid is, how quickly mutations arise and become fixed in the virus population, or whether some are more dominant than others. One way of studying this is to vaccinate chickens with sub-protective doses and then challenge them with field strains of IBDV and then sequence the resulting viruses that emerge. To replace the use of birds in these experiments, we have developed an in vitro model of antigenic drift by serially passaging a field strain, F5270, in the immortalised chicken B cell line, DT40, in the presence of sub-neutralising concentrations of vaccine-induced antibodies to better characterise changes in the capsid. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact In our model, amino acid mutations arose in the hypervariable region of the IBDV capsid at the same sites previously observed in field studies, validating our model. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutations arose early, by only 5 passages in chicken B cells, which subsequently became fixed by 10 passages. We are now doing next generation sequencing to better characterise the plasticity of the capsid. 
 
Title replication competent recombinant split-GFP infectious bursal disease virus 
Description We have generated a replication competent recombinant split-GFP infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) where a small GFP11 molecule is tagged to the virus polymerase (VP1) to make IBDV-VP1-GFP11. Infected cells that express the GFP1-10 molecule fluoresce green when the GFP11 tag complements the GFP1-10. The IBDV-VP1-GFP11 colocalises with VP3 and dsRNA and therefore is likely to be present at the sites of virus replication. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This tool can be used to study IBDV replication complex development in infected cells. 
 
Title tetracysteine-tagged IBDV 
Description Andrew Broadbent has engineered a tetracysteine (TC)-tagged IBDV that can be used in live cell imaging and co-infection studies with the split-GFP IBDV. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This tool, combined with the split-GFP IBDV, will enable us to study co-infection, super-infection exclusion, and the intracellular requirements for viral reassortment. 
 
Title Analysis of paramyxovirus replication using Incucyte real-time imager 
Description We have optimised a data analysis pipeline for the Incucyte real-time imager to allow us to track viral replication in a high-throughput fashion (up to 6 x 96-well plates). This is based on simultaneous analysis of phase, as well as green and red fluorescence. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Only preliminary data to date. 
 
Title FDA drug screening of RSV and SARS-CoV-2 cell-cell fusion 
Description Using inducible cell-cell fusion assays for SARS-CoV-2 and RSV we have screened the FDA approved use drug library for inhibitors of these viral-induced processes 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact No impact as yet, data still being validated in live virus assays 
 
Title Genome browser for MDV infected chicken cells 
Description The database integrates and makes available the results of the bioinformatics analysis of several experiments involving high-throughput sequencing of chicken cells infected by several viruses (mainly Marek's Disease Virus) generated within the Avian Viral Disease group at the Pirbright Institute. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The genome browser allows the researchers to meaningfully mine and integrate the large amount of data produced by their experiments, guiding subsequent experimental hypothesis-driven validation in the lab. 
 
Title Method to detect the expression of repetitive genes 
Description Reconstructing expression levels of genes having a high repeat content is difficult, due to the impossibility of assigning RNA-sequencing that have multiple mappings to their correct originating location. In collaboration with the Immunogenetics group, the Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics groups are developing a data analysis method to circumvent the problem.The method has already been shown to be effective on some KIR genes in cattle. An essential component of the immune system, their family is rich in repeated members and repetitive regions, making the technique essential if one wants to study them. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Being able to resolve the expression of repetitive genes, which are plentiful in most mammalian genomes, would be essential to the high-precision study of many important gene families, including most of the genes of the immune system. The technique has already proven itself effective on a real-life problem, and holds the potential to be extended to many more biological systems 
 
Title Technique for analysing interferon stimulated gene inhibition of RSV cell-cell fusion 
Description We have developed the techniques and performed the experiments to examine the effect of over-expressing individual interferon stimulated genes on RSV (bovine and human) replication and cell-cell fusion. This was achieved through integration of library technologies (for the ISGs) and high throughout imaging platforms. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact No impact yet as data has still to be published. Manuscript in preparation. 
 
Title Viral assembly pipeline 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics group has developed a data analysis pipeline to obtain sensitive and robust viral assemblies out of high-throughput sequencing data. In spite of the relatively short genomic length of most viruses, assembling of viral sequences can be challenging due to several reasons, such as: low amount of material in the sample, which might require amplification, introducing biases, and/or generates low-quality sequences; uneven coverage due to low-quality material or the genomic material of the virus being RNA; the viral nucleic acid being almost lost in the background of nucleic acid of the host. Our pipeline overcomes most of those problems, and is even able to detect different viral strains being present together in the same sample. It can also be used on metagenomic environmental samples. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The pipeline is being deployed as the tool of choice for the nascent sequencing facility at Pirbright. It has been used by several groups at Pirbright, and the FMDV World Reference Lab, in order to assemble very different kinds of viruses. 
 
Title Viral variant calling pipeline 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics group has developed a data analysis pipeline to obtain sensitive and robust variant calling for viral sequences out of high-throughput sequencing data. In spite of the relatively short genomic length of most viruses, calling variant for viral sequences can be challenging due to several reasons, such as: low amount of material in the sample, which might require amplification, introducing biases, and/or generates low-quality sequences; very high genome coverage, which slows down most existing variant callers; the presence of a potentially very high number of different haplotypes for RNA viruses, which is an unusual scenario in variant calling. Our fast and sensitive Bayesian pipeline overcomes most of those problems. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The pipeline is being deployed as the tool of choice for the nascent sequencing facility at Pirbright. It has been used by several groups at Pirbright, and the FMDV World Reference Lab, in order to assemble very different kinds of viruses. 
 
Description ASFV Structure 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared samples for analysis
Collaborator Contribution Electron tomographic analysis of the samples we provided.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2019
 
Description African swine fever virus transcriptomics 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided RNA from African swine fever virus infected cells. Provided expertise on African swine fever virus
Collaborator Contribution RNA sequencing and data analysis
Impact Publication in J Virology first description of the complete genome wide ASFV transcriptome
Start Year 2019
 
Description Andrew Davidson - Proteome of viral replication organelles 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Projects are being initiated to study the cellular proteins associated with coronavirus replication organelle membranes and a funding application has been submitted to BBSRC.
Collaborator Contribution Andrew has provided assistance with experimental planning and drafting of a grant application. He has also provided protocols to allow preliminary data to be generated. Once protocols have been established, Andrew will facilitate mass spectrometry data generation and will analyse the resulting data.
Impact No outcomes to date, projects being initiated and funding applications in progress.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Annika Posautz; University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. Morbillivirus host-diversity analysis. 
Organisation University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sharing of research data regarding morbillivirus host-range and technical support to the project.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of tissue samples from potential morbillivirus hosts, e.g. carnivores.
Impact No outcomes as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Aviagen 
Organisation Aviagen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Influenza virus expertise in poultry.
Collaborator Contribution Sharing of commercial poultry breed resources
Impact We have a sponsored PhD studentship to commence Oct 2021 agreed.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Belsham 
Organisation Technical University of Denmark
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint PhD studentship and ongoing collaboration on capsid assembly
Collaborator Contribution Joint PhD studentship and ongoing collaboration on capsid assembly
Impact Joint PhD studentship Further funding
Start Year 2016
 
Description Belsham 
Organisation University of Copenhagen
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint PhD studentship and ongoing collaboration on capsid assembly
Collaborator Contribution Joint PhD studentship and ongoing collaboration on capsid assembly
Impact Joint PhD studentship Further funding
Start Year 2016
 
Description Ben Neuman - Study of IBV induced membrane rearrangements 
Organisation Texas A&M University–Texarkana
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My team provide samples for electron microscopy analysis. In addition, we provide expertise in molecular virology and cell biology and experience of membrane rearrangements induced by infectious bronchitis virus. I contribute intellectual input in data analysis and project development.
Collaborator Contribution Ben Neuman and his team perform electron microscopy sample processing and imaging as well as experience in data processing. Ben Neuman also contributes intellectual input in data analysis and project development.
Impact Maier et al. Extensive coronavirus induced membrane rearrangements are not a determinant of pathogenicity. Sci. Rep. 6: 27126.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Ben Neuman - Study of IBV induced membrane rearrangements 
Organisation University of Reading
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My team provide samples for electron microscopy analysis. In addition, we provide expertise in molecular virology and cell biology and experience of membrane rearrangements induced by infectious bronchitis virus. I contribute intellectual input in data analysis and project development.
Collaborator Contribution Ben Neuman and his team perform electron microscopy sample processing and imaging as well as experience in data processing. Ben Neuman also contributes intellectual input in data analysis and project development.
Impact Maier et al. Extensive coronavirus induced membrane rearrangements are not a determinant of pathogenicity. Sci. Rep. 6: 27126.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Bioimaging collaboration with Dr. Daniel Clare, Dr. James Gilchrist, Dr. Pippa Hawes - cryo-electron tomography Diamond Light Source 
Organisation Diamond Light Source
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of preliminary data on inclusion body structure to support higher resolution approaches.
Collaborator Contribution Discussion of project and experimental design, technological approaches and limitations.
Impact No outputs to date. Multi-disciplinary team of virologists and structural biologists
Start Year 2020
 
Description Biophysics collaboration with Prof. Stephen McKnight, UTSW-Dallas 
Organisation University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of preliminary data on the biophysics and biochemistry of inclusion bodies
Collaborator Contribution Supportive comments on grant applications and experimental design advice.
Impact No outputs to date
Start Year 2020
 
Description Chicken Microbiome - Robert La Ragione - University of Surrey 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department School of Veterinary Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing sequencing data of gut microbiome from chickens infected with avian influenza viruses.
Collaborator Contribution Sharing expertise in the analysis of microbiome data
Impact Joint manuscripts and funding opportunities are being explored
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaboration on SARS-CoV-2 host range with Prof. Wendy Barclay 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Assaying novel SARS-CoV-2 variant sequences for increased tropism to non-human receptors
Collaborator Contribution Provision of variant Spike constructs
Impact Mutations that adapt SARS-CoV-2 to mink or ferret do not increase fitness in the human airway. Zhou J, Peacock TP, Brown JC, Goldhill DH, Elrefaey AME, Penrice-Randal R, Cowton VM, De Lorenzo G, Furnon W, Harvey WT, Kugathasan R, Frise R, Baillon L, Lassaunière R, Thakur N, Gallo G, Goldswain H, Donovan-Banfield I, Dong X, Randle NP, Sweeney F, Glynn MC, Quantrill JL, McKay PF, Patel AH, Palmarini M, Hiscox JA, Bailey D, Barclay WS. Cell Rep. 2022 Feb 8;38(6):110344. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35093235/
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Bauchi State Veterinary Services, Nigeria 
Organisation Bauchi State University
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have provided expertise on sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease virus diagnosis and epidemiology
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators in Bauchi State have provided virus samples and epidemiological data
Impact Preliminary data was used to support successful funding via a BBSRC Impact Accelerator Award, and a Pathways to Impact project in BBSRC project BB/R008833/1 "Development of rationally designed live-attenuated lumpy skin disease vaccines"
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Jane McKeating on RSV and SARS-CoV-2 virology 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 cell-cell fusion under various conditions, and with chemical inhibitors Provision of RSV reagents
Collaborator Contribution Provision of inhibitors and other reagents Experimentation with RSV
Impact None yet, paper under review
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Ravi Gupta, University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration on recurrent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 spike deletion H69/V70 and its role in the biology of this virus. We performed research towards a paper focusing on related sarbecoviruses (RaTG13)
Collaborator Contribution Ravi's group led this research to understand the recurrent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 spike deletion H69/V70, leading to publication in Cell Reports.
Impact Recurrent emergence of SARS-CoV- spike deletion H69/V70 and role in B.1.1.7. Meng B, Kemp SA, Papa G, Datir R, Ferriera I, Marelli S, Harvey WT, Lytras S, Mohamed A, Gallo G, Thakur N, Collier DA, Mlcochova P, The COVID-9 Genomics UK (COG-UK) Consortium, Duncan LM, Carabelli AM, Kenyon JC, Lever AM, De Marco A, Saliba C, Culap K, Cameroni E, Matheson NJ, Piccoli L, Corti D, James LC, Robertson DL, Bailey D, Gupta RK. Cell Rep. 2021 Jun 29;35(13):109292. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109292. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34166617/
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaboration with St George's Hospital, University of London 
Organisation St George's University of London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Molecular virology expertise, funding and high containment facilities
Collaborator Contribution Molecular biology expertise, particularly in the interferon response, and provision of some reagents
Impact Paper: J Virol. 2020 Dec 16:JVI.01136-20.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with State Central Veterinary Laboratory, Mongolia 
Organisation State Central Veterinary Laboratory
Country Mongolia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We provided tools, techniques and expertise on sheeppox and goatpox
Collaborator Contribution Our colleagues provided data and field samples
Impact A workshop was held in Pirbright in March 2017, and a return workshop in Ulaanbaatar in July 2017. Preliminary data supported successful grant applications for an Impact Accelerator Award, and a Pathways to Impact project in BB/R008833/1 "Development of rationally designed live-attenuated lumpy skin disease vaccines".
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Virology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments with SARS-CoV-2 to investigate the host response to infection in vitro.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have led the research and we have a manuscript currently under review.
Impact Information on the host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed in vitro experiments with infectious bronchitis virus, contributed to data analysis, preparation of manuscripts and discussed further funding opportunities.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have analysed viral transcription and translation, and host gene expression after infection of host cells with infectious bronchitis virus, prepared manuscripts and discussed further funding opportunities.
Impact Dinan, A., Keep, S., Bickerton, E., Britton, P., Firth, A. and Brierley, I. (2019) Comparative analysis of gene expression in virulent and attenuated strains of infectious bronchitis virus at sub-codon resolution. J. Virol. 93(18) e00714-19.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with University of Oxford 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have supplied coronavirus samples and coronavirus expertise to the collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have led the research and we have a manuscript currently under review.
Impact Evaluation of imaging technologies to detect coronavirus-infected samples.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Wei Huang, Uni of Oxford on SARS2 neutralisation 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosting of students to undertake SARS2 neutralisation experiments Training and data interpretation
Collaborator Contribution Provision of synthetic antibody-bearing particles for neutralisation experiments
Impact Possible grant application in the future
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaborative PhD student project on virus-bacteria-host-vector interaction 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative PhD studentship funded by The Pirbright Institute between Pirbright and the Roslin Institute. The student is investigating how bacteria or bacterial compounds will effect bluetongue virus replication in mammalian host cells with a specific emphasis on skin derived migratory cells. While mainly based at Pirbright the student will visit the Roslin Institute and spend some time in the lab of Prof. Jane Hope.
Collaborator Contribution The student will carry out the main laboratory work at Pirbright including infection studies of ruminant primary host target cells in the presence/ absence of bacterial compounds. There will be regular meetings between the students and supervisors at Pirbright and at Roslin (at least monthly by skype) and the student will visit the Roslin group for specific work aspects such as flow cytometry of skin derived pseudo-afferent lymph cells. Roslin will also make cattle pseudo-afferent lymph cells available to the student and Pirbright for ex vivo BTV infection studies.
Impact bacteriology, virology, immunology, virus-host interaction
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaborative PhD studentship on the mechanisms and importance of BTV co-infections on viral reassortment and diversity 
Organisation University of Surrey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise on BTV infections of relevant host and vector cells, carrying out synchronous and asynchronous BTV co-infection between multiple strains, identification of superinfection exclusion, assay development for BTV strain specific detection, NGS sequencing
Collaborator Contribution Expertise on analysis of large data sets especially bioinformatic analysis of NGS sequence data and identification of reassortment, application of advanced mathematical analysis
Impact Shared supervision of a PhD candidate, regular team meetings, training and development of a PhD candidate across both organizations, inter-disciplinary exchange between virology, genetics, molecular diagnostics, NGS sequencing and bioinformatics, mathematical modelling
Start Year 2021
 
Description Collaborative doctoral project on viral and insect factors influencing BTV replication in Culicoides vector insects 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Department Institute of Infectology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a shared doctoral project funded by the German partner where the student has spend significant time in our lab from August 2019- November 2020. The student has carried out her first initial part of the project (16 months) at FLI in Germany and during this time came for a 2 weeks visit in 2018 to our lab where we provided training on Culicoides biting midge biology, virus titration and handling, virus infection of insects and molecular diagnostics. During her time in our lab she managed to complete all planned insect vector BTV infection studies and generated some interesting results which will be published in the near future. The student returned to FLI for 01.12.2020 and will now complete writing her thesis for a DVM while we jointly work towards publishing of obtained results.
Collaborator Contribution The main project (student salary, some consumables, travel) is funded by the German partner while we contribute costs to the consumable budget for the work carried out in our lab. We will share data obtained at either side and publish results together accordingly
Impact This partnership is still ongoing. Each partner contributes their unique expertise (Virology, insect biology, next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics), the student carried out her placement at The Pirbright Institute from August 2019 to November 2020
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaborative network with Ed Wright, Nigel Temperton and Giada Mattiuzzo on SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyping 
Organisation National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Development and establishment of SARS-CoV-2 research tools, including pseudotypes and cell-cell fusion assays
Collaborator Contribution Provision of reagents, protocols and technical guidance
Impact We aided in NIBSC's development of WHO international standard for SARS-CoV-2 and have a publication in press on sarbecovirus neutralisation: bioarchived here https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.17.456606v1
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaborative network with Ed Wright, Nigel Temperton and Giada Mattiuzzo on SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyping 
Organisation University of Kent
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development and establishment of SARS-CoV-2 research tools, including pseudotypes and cell-cell fusion assays
Collaborator Contribution Provision of reagents, protocols and technical guidance
Impact We aided in NIBSC's development of WHO international standard for SARS-CoV-2 and have a publication in press on sarbecovirus neutralisation: bioarchived here https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.17.456606v1
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaborative network with Ed Wright, Nigel Temperton and Giada Mattiuzzo on SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyping 
Organisation University of Sussex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development and establishment of SARS-CoV-2 research tools, including pseudotypes and cell-cell fusion assays
Collaborator Contribution Provision of reagents, protocols and technical guidance
Impact We aided in NIBSC's development of WHO international standard for SARS-CoV-2 and have a publication in press on sarbecovirus neutralisation: bioarchived here https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.17.456606v1
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaborative project between The Pirbright Institute, UK and Miyazaki University, Japan 
Organisation University of Miyazaki
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of expertise in foot-and-mouth virus research; use of high containment facilities to perform experiments
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in tetramer production, analysis and provided financially towards a travel bursary.
Impact The protection afforded by most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines depends to a large extent on humoral immunity, dictating the need to characterise the underlying mechanisms that mediate antibody production. To address this, we have developed novel major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) class II tetramers to identify antigen specific CD4+ T-cells that are present following vaccination against FMD. To date, we have used a MHC II tetramer (MHC serotype: A18) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MHC-matched cattle vaccinated against FMD (O serotype). Importantly, we have identified CD4+ T-cells that recognise 15 epitopes (identified from 137 peptides) in the FMDV structural proteins; one in VP1, five in VP2, six in VP3 and three in VP4. This work will further our understanding of the repertoire of capsid epitopes recognised by the host's immune response following FMD vaccination and facilitate the identification of new correlates of protection. A first manuscript is in the final stages of preparation and will be submitted shortly.
Start Year 2017
 
Description DSTL collaboration with Steve Lever and Diane Williamson 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Discussion of experimental design for Nipah virus animal model establishment at DSTL
Collaborator Contribution Discussion of experimental design for Nipah virus animal model establishment at DSTL
Impact No outputs to date
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dan Clare - cryo-electron microscopy 
Organisation Diamond Light Source
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The project aims to characterise proteins complexes associated with coronavirus replication organelles. My team provides significant expertise in replication organelles induced by coronaviruses. Laboratory work is performed by my team. The project is funded by a joint PhD studentship working, predominantly in my laboratory.
Collaborator Contribution Dan provides expertise in cryo-electron microscopy and is advising on experimental design and data analysis as well as providing training.
Impact The student has generated recombinant viruses expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins to allow direct visualisation of replication organelle membranes. These have been validated and cryo-electron microscopy experiments are planned shortly.
Start Year 2020
 
Description David Matthews - Proteomics informed by transcriptomics 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department Proteomics Facility
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Projects are being initiated to study the cellular proteins associated with coronavirus replication organelle membranes and a funding application has been submitted to BBSRC.
Collaborator Contribution David has assisted in project design and drafting of a funding application to BBSRC. We are in the process of generating transcriptomics data, which David will process to provide an expressed protein database for peptide identification following mass spectrometry.
Impact No outcomes to date, a funding application has been submitted to BBSRC.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Dr Carol Cardona, University of Minnesota- avian influenza virus challenge of IBDV or mock-infected chickens 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will challenge birds that have been exposed to IBDV, or mock exposed, with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon HPAI infection in chickens.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Cardona's group will challenge birds that have been exposed to IBDV, or mock exposed, with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon LPAI infection in chickens.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Holly Shelton, The Pirbright Institute- avian influenza virus challenge of IBDV or mock-infected chickens 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will expose birds to IBDV, compared to mock controls
Collaborator Contribution Holly will train my group in conducting studies with avian influenza viruses and, together, we will challenge birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon HPAI infection in chickens.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Edinburgh - Haas 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-Investigator on BBSRC sLoLa award Co-Investigator on BBSRC project grant Collaboration in virus-host interactions
Collaborator Contribution Co-Investigator on BBSRC sLoLa award Co-Investigator on BBSRC project grant Collaboration in virus-host interactions
Impact BBSRC sLoLa award BBSRC project grant
Start Year 2012
 
Description Exploiting novel porcine macrophage cell lines and ASFV virulence factors 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My team has developed gene-deleted African swine fever viruses in order to study the role of these virus genes in virus replication and modulation of host responses. These gene-deleted viruses are also being evaluated as candidate live attenuated vaccines.
Collaborator Contribution University of Plymouth provided novel porcine macrophage cell lines to evaluate their susceptibility to African swine fever virus (ASFV) replication and as tools for ASFV research, vaccine development and diagnosis. These cell lines are being further characterized and developed by our partners at University of Plymouth.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Virology, Immunology, Cell biology, Vaccinology
Start Year 2019
 
Description Exploiting novel porcine macrophage cell lines and ASFV virulence factors 
Organisation Zoetis
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Pirbright Research Team is constructing gene deleted African swine fever viruses and is testing these in pig macrophage primary cell cultures and using novel pig macrophage cell lines from University of Plymouth. These are also being tested in pigs in immunization and challenge vaccination experiments.
Collaborator Contribution Zoetis will establish conditions for scaling up of the novel pig macrophage cell lines in a commercial setting.
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, immunology, vaccinology
Start Year 2015
 
Description Factor H and influenza virus 
Organisation Brunel University London
Department Brunel Arts
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team are hosting a PhD student from Brunel University to facilitate the investigation of any interaction between influenza virus and complement factor H. We are providing reagents, expertise in handling influenza virus and advice on the scientific hypothesis of the research programme.
Collaborator Contribution Brunel university initiated the project and provided reagents including antibodies and methods for purification human co-factor H protein. They also provide funding for this PhD studentship.
Impact No outcomes as yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Finn Grey - CRISPR and ISG screens 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My research team is providing expertise in coronavirus biology and regulation of the host cell environment. Laboratory experiments are being performed by my team.
Collaborator Contribution Finn's team have provided reagents and are advising on experimental design and data analysis.
Impact Cas-9 expressing avian cells have been generated and validated. Optimisation of the CRISPR screen is underway.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Genetic analysis orbiviruses 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Virus sequences provided for analysis. Meeting and discussion for analysis by virologist employed on this project and biomathematican at the University of Surrey
Collaborator Contribution Analysis of data, training of the virologist and computational and mathematical methodology, discussion about analysis strategies
Impact The collaboration is multi-disciplinary - between mathematical modelling and virology. Data analysis is still ongoing but is envisaged as preliminary data for future funding applications
Start Year 2017
 
Description Horizon Discovery Ltd Cambridge Research Park, United Kingdom 
Organisation Horizon Discovery Group plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Verify IFITM knock-out cell by qPCR and immuno-blotting. Verification of further knock-out cell lines by DNA sequencing, immuno-blotting and qPCR Cell infection with Avian Influenza Viruses Assess the viral titre of cells infected with Influenza Viruses in K/O and wildtype cells. Quantitative analysis of viral infection in IFITM K/O cells Demonstrate increased AIV viral titres at lab scale and estimation of what this may equate to with respect to vaccine dose yields. Analysis of IFITM K/O cell lines permissivity to a range of additional animal viruses (Relevant to the LVIF). Milestone 7: Demonstrate permissivity increased and viral titres for a range of LVIF relevant viruses in the edited cell lines.
Collaborator Contribution Develop a CRISPR/cas9 gene editing system to specifically target the chIFITM locus in avian cell culture
Impact Grant funding
Start Year 2017
 
Description ILRI Research Collaboration (Kenya, March 2017) 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Exchange of ideas and samples for indigenous breeds of livestock
Collaborator Contribution Contributed samples for analysis.
Impact Analysis of indigenous breed genomic sequences for Immune function genes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design. 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Impact Submission of proposal entitled "Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design" to the "One Health Approaches to Accelerate Vaccine Development" call that forms part of the UK government's commitment to Official Development Assistance (ODA) in October 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design. 
Organisation University of Kent
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Impact Submission of proposal entitled "Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design" to the "One Health Approaches to Accelerate Vaccine Development" call that forms part of the UK government's commitment to Official Development Assistance (ODA) in October 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Imperial 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint supervision of PhD student
Collaborator Contribution Joint supervision of PhD student
Impact One successful completed PhD student. Papers published or in preparation. Another PhD student in progress.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Industrial partnership-Aviagen 2018 
Organisation Aviagen Group
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have established a significant industrial partnership with Aviagen group Ltd. The nature of this work remains confidential.
Collaborator Contribution The nature of this work remains confidential.
Impact The nature of this work remains confidential.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Influenza and co-factor H protein 
Organisation Leibniz Association
Department Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are screening influenza virus interaction with co-factor H proteins to determine the interaction interface.
Collaborator Contribution Christine Skerka has provided fragment factor H peptides to facilitate our mapping studies of the interaction surface with influenza viruses.
Impact No outcomes as yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Interferon stimulated genes 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosted meetings and carried out preliminary experiments
Collaborator Contribution Contributed reagents and expertise
Impact Preliminary data was used to support an MSc project. This has since led to a publication and a PhD project.
Start Year 2016
 
Description JS - Production of monoclonal antibodies that recognise FMDV VP4 from mouse spleens 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution VLPs displaying the N-terminal 15 amino acids of FMDV were designed and produced at The Pirbright Institute and then mice were immunised with them. The spleens of the immunised mice were harvested and splenocytes stored. The response to the VP4 sequence was checked by ELISA and the mouse with the best response was selected to send the splenocytes for monoclonal production.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators took the splenocytes obtained from the mouse experiments and carried out the fusions. They then screened the supernatants for positive wells that detected the VP4 sequence.
Impact Positive wells have been identified indicating some monoclonals that are specific for VP4 have been generated. These will be further screened for ability to recognise virus and to neutralise infection.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Mapping ligand binding domain on African swine fever virus CD2v protein 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine (WIMM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Testing of mutant versions of CD2v extracellular domain for ability to bind to red blood cells
Collaborator Contribution Produced predicted model of CD2v extracellular domain and selected mutations to be made
Impact Preliminary results for publication and future funding application
Start Year 2018
 
Description Maria Harkiolaki - soft xray tomography 
Organisation Diamond Light Source
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The project aims to characterise coronavirus replication organelles in whole infected cells. My team provides significant experience in coronavirus replication organelles. The project is funded by a joint studentship and the student is, predominantly based in my laboratory.
Collaborator Contribution Maria's team provide extensive expertise in soft Xray tomography and are advising on experimental design and dat aanalysis.
Impact Preliminary experiments have been performed to visualise replication organelle membranes. Optimisation of experimental set up is underway.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Martin Ludlow - University of Veterinary Medicine, Hanover. Morbillivirus collaboration. 
Organisation University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of technical information and advice about the host-range of morbilliviruses.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of reagents to support our research project, e.g. plasmid clones of viral attachment proteins and receptors.
Impact No outcomes as yet, only preliminary data.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Martin Turner - The role of cellular RNA binding proteins in Coronavirus replication 
Organisation Babraham Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My lab has begun to establish the use of a CRISPR library targeting cellular RNA binding proteins. This includes selecting the most appropriate cells, virus and conditions for the screen and the readout method and this is based on our expertise and experience in coronavirus biology. All experimental work for the collaboration has been performed in my laboratory.
Collaborator Contribution Martin Turner has provided a CRISPR knockout library targeting human and murine RNA binding proteins. He has provided advice and protocols to allow us to establish the screen using human or murine coronaviruses and will advise on analysis of data following the screen.
Impact Experiments are still in initial set up stages and no results have been generated to date.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Membrane protein interactions 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Department School of Veterinary Science Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Samples from cells transduced with ASFV membrane proteins have been prepared.
Collaborator Contribution Samples have been analysed for proteins interacting with ASFV membrane proteins by mass spectrometry.
Impact Collaboration still in progress
Start Year 2017
 
Description Miguel Ángel Muñoz Alía - Mayo clinic, USA. Measles population diversity. 
Organisation Mayo Clinic
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Technical support and sharing of research data on the host-range of morbilliviruses.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of plasmid clones representing the broad genetic diversity of measles attachment and fusion proteins. Technical support.
Impact No outcomes as yet.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Miles Carroll PHE collaboration on pseudotyping 
Organisation Public Health England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of reagents to perform pseudotyping of Ebola G protein Hosting of visiting students to attempt sarbecovirus pseudotyping
Collaborator Contribution Discussion of preliminary data Provision of sarbecovirus constructs
Impact None to date, publications in preparation.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Montse Barcena - Studying the role of coronavirus membrane rearrangements 
Organisation Leiden University Medical Center
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My team has provided reagents and biological samples for the study of the role of IBV induced membrane rearrangements. In addition we have provided expertise and knowledge for the set up of protocols and assisted in data analysis.
Collaborator Contribution M Barcena has provided extensive experience in electron microscopy including use of specialised protocols. She has provided expertise in data analysis and protocol development.
Impact Several presentation of data have been made at international conferences.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Nicolas Locker - Investigation of translation regulation by infectious bronchitis virus 
Organisation University of Surrey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My team provide experience in molecular virology and cellular interactions of coronaviruses including previous experience of accessory proteins regulating cellular translation. One PhD student has successfully completed his studies working jointly between our labs and a second is due to begin in October 2022.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Locker's team provide expertise in viral regulation of cellular translation and stress granule signalling. Dr Locker is also providing protocols, advice and training for techniques including ribopuromycylation and ribosome profiling.
Impact PhD student funding (studentship Oct 2017- Sept 2021) - Control of host cell translation by infectious bronchitis virus PhD student funding (studentship Oct 2022- Mar 2026) - Coronavirus regulation of cellular antiviral responses and cross species transmission
Start Year 2016
 
Description Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research 
Organisation Outreach Network for Gene Drive Research
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Input to policy discussions
Collaborator Contribution Network is engaged in briefing national and international entities, e.g. EU/EC, European Parliament, IUCN, Convention on Biological Diversity, on issues related to gene drive. Outreach also relates to general public (directly and via media) as well as policymakers, regulators and practitioners. The Pirbright Institute is now a member of the Network
Impact Briefing and media comment regarding gene drives and gene drive research to multiple agencies e.g. EU/EC, European Parliament, IUCN, Convention on Biological Diversity, on issues related to gene drive.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Oxford - Strubi 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration on virus structural biology and joint PhD studentship
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration on virus structural biology and joint PhD studentship
Impact Collaboration on virus structural biology has produced a number of novel virus structures and new understanding of virus entry and packaging
Start Year 2008
 
Description PPRV collaboration with Catherine Herzog at Penn State 
Organisation Penn State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Advice on design of animal experiments
Collaborator Contribution Leading project on examination of PPRV infection in cattle.
Impact No outputs to date
Start Year 2019
 
Description Partnering with National Taiwan University 
Organisation National Taiwan University
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and submitted an application for a BBSRC-Taiwan Partnering Award to study "Assembly of Recombinant Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Determination of Antigenic Sites that Confer Hemagglutination Activity".
Collaborator Contribution The partners conceived the project and got in contact about submitting an application for funding together.
Impact An application has been made for a BBSRC-Taiwan Partnering Award in November 2018.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Paul Digard & Reidun Twarock - Packaging signals 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of reverse genetic avian influenza viruses for the successful award of a PhD studentship based at The Roslin Institute entitled "Identification of interaction sites between the genomic segments of influenza virus as putative novel anti-viral targets".
Collaborator Contribution University of York is providing mathematical modelling algorithms of viral packaging. Paul Digard- Roslin Institute is providing influenza virology expertise and hosting the student.
Impact Studentship commenced in October 2019
Start Year 2019
 
Description Paul Digard & Reidun Twarock - Packaging signals 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of reverse genetic avian influenza viruses for the successful award of a PhD studentship based at The Roslin Institute entitled "Identification of interaction sites between the genomic segments of influenza virus as putative novel anti-viral targets".
Collaborator Contribution University of York is providing mathematical modelling algorithms of viral packaging. Paul Digard- Roslin Institute is providing influenza virology expertise and hosting the student.
Impact Studentship commenced in October 2019
Start Year 2019
 
Description Paul Digard - The Roslin Insititute 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We generated constructs that express PB1-F2 from a variety of avian influenza strains in eukaryotic expression plasmids. We generated Chimera PB1-F2 expression plasmids where the C-terminus of the PB1-F2 are switched between strains. Using these plasmids we have determined the localization and antagonist activity toward the IFN beta signaling pathway and NF-kb signaling pathway in human and chicken cells. We have therefore provided reagents and intellectual input to the collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators have used these plasmids in there well defined stability assays to determine sequence specific effects on this characteristic. Intellectual input and expertise in a particular assay were made by these collaborators.
Impact We have successfully published some of this work; "The cellular localization of avian influenza virus PB1-F2 protein alters the magnitude of IFN2 promoter and NF?B-dependent promoter antagonism in chicken cells." doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001220. We have an ongoing joint PhD studentship in this area. This collaboration remains current and active.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Paul Verkade - Electron tomography and CLEM 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Nicole Doyle has performed electron tomography to analyse the three dimensional structure of membrane rearrangements induced by the expression of IBV non-structural proteins 4 or 3 and 4 in the absence of other viral components. Sample set up was performed at Pirbright and analysis was subsequently performed at University of Bristol followed by additional analysis at Pirbright.
Collaborator Contribution Paul has assisted with electron tomography data generation providing access to electron microscopes in Bristol as well as training for Nicole Doyle in performing experiments and analysing and modelling data. He is also advising Nicole while establishing correlative light electron microscopy at Pirbright.
Impact doi: 10.3390/v10090477
Start Year 2018
 
Description Professor Oliver Pybus, University of Oxford / Royal Veterinary College - IBDV-like viruses in wild bird populations 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My group will characterise the immunosuppressive potential of IBDV-like viruses from wild bird populations
Collaborator Contribution Oliver Pybus' group have screened a wild bird population by metagenomics shotgun sequencing to determine the prevalence of IBDV-like viruses and correlate their presence with the abundance and diversity of viral sequences identified for other viruses.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Pseudoparticles of influenza for interaction studies with co-factor H 
Organisation University of Kent
Department Medway School of Pharmacy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We have screened the interaction between influenza pseudotype particles that only contain the surface HA protein from influenza viruses for interaction with human co-factor H protein. We have screen pseudotype particles of multiple influenza subtypes.
Collaborator Contribution Nigel Temperton of the viral Pseudotype Unit at the School of Pharmacy provided influenza virus pseudotype particles of multiple subtypes to allow us to screen for interaction with co-factor H protein.
Impact No outcomes yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Pseudotyping virus collaboration with Dr. Tess Lambe, University of Oxford 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of assays and reagents to support successful pseudotyping of various viruses for quantitative entry assays
Collaborator Contribution Provision of reagents and plasmid clones
Impact No outputs yet,
Start Year 2019
 
Description Re-annotation of Marek's Disease Virus 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are using bioinformatics analysis of high-throughput sequencing data in order to provide a better annotation of the genome of Marek's Disease Virus
Collaborator Contribution Our partners are sharing their extensive expertise of the genomics of MDV, and performing experimental validations
Impact No output yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Research Collaboration with Nigeria (23rd - 28th January 2017) 
Organisation University of Nigeria
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of rare breed indigenous chicken in Nigeria.
Collaborator Contribution Helped with sampling and background information of the breed.
Impact Analysis is ongoing.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Roslin - Grey 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-investigator in BBSRC project grant Collaboration in genetic screens to understand virus host interactions
Collaborator Contribution Co-investigator in BBSRC project grant Collaboration in genetic screens to understand virus host interactions
Impact Co-investigator in BBSRC project grant Collaboration in genetic screens to understand virus host interactions
Start Year 2019
 
Description Semliki Forest 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Generated and analysed RNA-sequencing samples with bespoke in-house methods
Collaborator Contribution Generated samples
Impact The purpose of the collaboration is to study how arboviruses interact with their host cells with modern high-throughput techniques. No outputs yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description St Andrews 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-investigator on BBSRC sLoLa
Collaborator Contribution Lead-investigator on BBSRC sLoLa
Impact BBSRC sLoLa ongoing
Start Year 2012
 
Description Stathis Giotis - Bat immunity and differential gene expression 
Organisation University of Essex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The project aims to understand the role of viral regulation of innate immune signalling in coronavirus cross-species transmission, My research team provides expertise in coronavirus biology and host cell interaction, including reverse genetics. Laboratory experiments associated with this project are conducted by my team.
Collaborator Contribution Stathis has provided bat cells and bat interferon reporter plasmids, as well as advice and expertise, to perform experiments. He will also perform data analysis of planned experiments to interrogate differential gene expression of cells infected with different viruses.
Impact To early in the project to say.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Stephen Graham collaboration on structural biology with University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of data and sharing of experimental ideas regarding viral host range and techniques for simulating virus evolution
Collaborator Contribution Structural analysis of mutants to viral glycoproteins
Impact Journal of Virology paper on potential PPRV emergence in human populations (Abdullah et al, 2018) Application of error-prone PCR to functionally probe the morbillivirus Haemagglutinin protein. Gallo G, Conceicao C, Tsirigoti C, Willett B, Graham S and Bailey D. Journal of General Virology. J Gen Virol 2021 Apr;102(4). doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001580. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33739251/ The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein has a broad tropism for mammalian ACE2 proteins. Conceicao C, Thakur N, Human S, Kelly JT, Logan L, Bialy D, Bhat S, Stevenson-Leggett P, Zagrajek AK, Hollinghurst P, Varga M, Tsirigoti C, Tully M, Chiu C, Moffat K, Silesian AP, Hammond JA, Maier HJ, Bickerton E, Shelton H, Dietrich I, Graham SC, Bailey D. PLoS Biology. 2020 Dec 21;18(12):e3001016. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3001016. eCollection 2020 Dec. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33347434/
Start Year 2018
 
Description Steve Goodbourn - St Georges - chicken innate molecule interactions. 
Organisation Ulster University
Department Biomedical Sciences Research Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have collaborated by producing yeast- 2-hybrid plasmids containing the influenza PB1-F2 gene from various avian influenza strains. The PhD student on this studentship then visited Professor Goodbourn's laboratory to carry out the yeast-2-hybrid screen for interaction innate chicken molecules.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Goodbourn's laboratory provided yeast-2-hybrid plasmids containing various innate chicken molecules to be screened for interaction with avian influenza virus PB1-F2 protein. They also offered help and guidance carrying out the interaction technique to understand if PB1-F2 directly associated with chicken innate components. They also provided reporter plasmids and guidance on innate reporter assays in chicken cells.
Impact Successful publication of work. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001220. The cellular localization of avian influenza virus PB1-F2 protein alters the magnitude of IFN2 promoter and NF?B-dependent promoter antagonism in chicken cells.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Structural analysis of ASFV-host protein interactions 
Organisation La Trobe University
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Mutations were introduced into ASFV autophagy modulators and the effects of these were tested in cell based microscopy assays.
Collaborator Contribution Structural analysis of virus-host interactions identified residues important for binding between virus and host proteins. These residues were the residues that chosen for mutation and subsequent analysis at Pirbright
Impact One peer-reviewed paper (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31461953) This is multi-disciplinary. Pirbright has expertise in virology and cell based assays. La Trobe have expertise in structural biology.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Suresh Kuchipudi and Janet Daly 
Organisation Penn State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have hosted a co-supervised PhD student twice at The Pirbright Institute. During these visits we have helped with viral infection of primary cells for analysis of PI3K pathway perturbations and generated new GM influenza viruses to help to understand if the difference in PI3K pathway activity observed between two different avian influenza viruses in avian cells was a result of difference in the NS1 protein. In addition we have provided support to the student regarding the future directions of the project and writing up and presentation of the material. Therefore we have provided reagents, practical expertise and intellectual input.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators have provided access to data generated in their laboratories and intellectual input to the project.
Impact Publication: doi: 10.1038/srep17999
Start Year 2016
 
Description Suresh Kuchipudi and Janet Daly 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Veterinary Medicine and Science Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have hosted a co-supervised PhD student twice at The Pirbright Institute. During these visits we have helped with viral infection of primary cells for analysis of PI3K pathway perturbations and generated new GM influenza viruses to help to understand if the difference in PI3K pathway activity observed between two different avian influenza viruses in avian cells was a result of difference in the NS1 protein. In addition we have provided support to the student regarding the future directions of the project and writing up and presentation of the material. Therefore we have provided reagents, practical expertise and intellectual input.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators have provided access to data generated in their laboratories and intellectual input to the project.
Impact Publication: doi: 10.1038/srep17999
Start Year 2016
 
Description Taiwan Partnering 
Organisation Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution My Team provide expertise and licensed facility in High Containment to study African swine fever virus biology, diagnosis and vaccines
Collaborator Contribution The Taiwan Team bring expertise in virus entry mechanisms, Vaccinia virus, protein expression
Impact Multi-disciplinary: Virology, cell biology, immunology
Start Year 2019
 
Description Thomas Bowden - STRUBI - University of Oxford - Glycoprotein structure collaboration 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of data and advice about the biological properties of viral glycoproteins, e.g. their fusion capacity with various receptors, their role in determining host-range
Collaborator Contribution Advice and technical support at the structural level supporting future project development and design
Impact No outcomes as yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Trevor Sweeney - University of Cambridge PhD Studentship 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of PhD studentship project in collaboration with Dr. Sweeney's lab at Cambridge and application at Pirbright.
Collaborator Contribution Development of PhD studentship project and application at Cambridge.
Impact The PhD studentship has been funded and is currently been advertised.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Understanding the molecular parthenogenesis of influenza viruses in animals and humans 
Organisation China Agricultural University (CAU)
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Influenza A viruses cause disease in both animals and humans. We developed a programme of reseach to investigate how this virus overcome species barriers and infect alternative species e.g, how avian influenza viruses infect humans. we also developed a joint programme of research to investigate ?What are the prevalence and genetic evolution of different AIVs in China? ? What is the extent of antigenic diversity among the contemporary AIVs circulating in China? ?How these viruses overcome evade host antiviral system to manifest the disease. ? Which strains might threaten the poultry industry as well as public health?. We provided technical help and reagents to achieve the objectives of this joint project.
Collaborator Contribution The partners at China Agricultural University executed the prescribed experimental work, analysed data and translated it into publication.
Impact We identified a host-cell protein "P21" which restricts influenza A virus replication in the infected host. The results will aid in designing new antiviral against these viruses. The research outcomes were translated into publications entitled: "p21 restricts influenza A virus by perturbing the viral polymerase complex and upregulating type I interferon signalling" (PLoS Pathogens 18:2, e1010295).
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Liverpool Proteomics Collaboration 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Generation of samples to analyse the membranous proteome of cells infected with paramyxoviruses.
Collaborator Contribution Proteomic analysis of samples and technical support. Access to previous data-sets and expertise.
Impact Preliminary data sets only to date.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Vaccinia 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Generated and analysed DNA- and RNA-sequencing data from vaccinia samples with bespoke in-house pipelines
Collaborator Contribution Generated DNA and RNA vaccinia samples
Impact The collaboration aims to better understand the interaction between vaccina virus and its host(s), through the use of modern high-throughput techniques. No outputs yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description York 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration
Impact Collaboration
Start Year 2015
 
Title ??????? 
Description The present invention provides an attenuated African Swine Fever (ASF) virus which lacks a functional version of the following genes: multigene-family 360 genes 9L, 10L, 11L, 12L, 13L and 14L; and multigene-family 505 genes 1R, 2R, 3R and 4R. The invention further provides an attenuated African Swine Fever (ASF) virus which lacks a functional version of the DP148R gene. The present invention also provides a vaccine comprising such an attenuated virus and its use to prevent ASF. Further, the invention relates to intranasal administration of an attenuated ASF virus. 
IP Reference UA121217 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed No
Impact The gene-deleted African swine fever virus strains are being evaluated as live attenuated vaccines
 
Title AVIAN CELLS FOR IMPROVED VIRUS PRODUCTION 
Description The present Invention provides as avian cell in which the expression or activity of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM 1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3) is reduced. The invention also provides methods for passaging viruses in avian cells, embryos and/or avian cell lines which have reduced expression of one or more IFITM genes and methods which involve investigating the sequence of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3). 
IP Reference WO2014195692 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2014
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact The present invention provides an avian cell in which the expression or activity of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3) is reduced. The invention also provides methods for passaging viruses in avian cells, embryos and/or avian cell lines which have reduced expression of one or more IFITM genes and methods which involve investigating the sequence of one or more of the follow
 
Title METHODS FOR GROWING AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS IN FETAL PORCINE LUNG ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE CELLS 
Description A method for generating progeny of an African swine fever (ASF) virus includes providing an isolated or purified fetal porcine lung alveolar macrophage cell capable of replicating the ASF virus, wherein the cell is cultured for at least 5 passages; exposing the cell to the ASF virus; and allowing the ASF virus to replicate in the cell; thereby generating progeny of the ASF virus. 
IP Reference CA3146409 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2021
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact The cell line can be used for growing modified live attenuated African swine fever virus vaccine strains
 
Title PPR DIVA vaccine 
Description We ahve developed two PPR live attenuated DIVA vaccines that can differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. 
IP Reference PCT/GB2019/053641,WO2020128496 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact Till date there is no PPR vaccine avalable that can differentiate between vaccination and infection. This causes a huge issue on eradication of the didease and declare freedom from the disease. Therefore our newly develped chimeric live attenauted PPR vaccine and DIVA tests can differentiate between vaccination and infection which is a great achievement for ongoing PPR eradication. Please see detail from the below web. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020128496
 
Title VACCINE AGAINST AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS INFECTION 
Description The present invention relates to attenuated African Swine Fever viruses. The attenuated viruses protect pigs against subsequent challenge with virulent virus. The present invention also relates to the use of such attenuated viruses to treat and/or prevent African Swine Fever. The invention also relates to EP402R proteins of African Swine Fever virus comprising particular amino acid substitutions, as well as polynucleotides encoding such proteins and African Swine Fever viruses comprising such proteins. 
IP Reference WO2021176236 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2021
Licensed No
Impact The gene-deleted African swine fever viruses are being taken forward as candidate live attenuated vaccines and included in a BBSRC LINK award
 
Title Vaccine 
Description The present invention provides an African swine fever virus (ASFV) subunit vaccine which comprises: (i) one or more recombinant polynucleotides which encode polypeptides shown as SEQ ID NO: 1, 2 and 3 or an immunogenic fragment thereof; or a variant with at least 70% sequence identity to one of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2 or 3; wherein the total number of different ASFV polypeptides encoded by the one or more recombinant polynucleotides is 10 or fewer; or (ii) recombinant polypeptides shown as SEQ ID NO: 1, 2 and 3 or an immunogenic fragment thereof; or a variant with at least 70% sequence identity to one of SEQ ID NO: 1, 2 and 3; wherein vaccine comprises 10 or fewer different ASFV polypeptides. 
IP Reference TW202118771 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2021
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact The polypeptides are being taken forward to develop subunit vaccines for African swine fever virus
 
Description A talk at a symposium entitled: Using the 3Rs to support good science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a talk at a Symposium held at The Pirbright Institute entitled: "Using the 3Rs to support good science". The talk was entitled: "A chicken primary B cell culture model to study the pathogenesis and improve the control of immunosuppressive viruses of poultry"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description A talk at the British Poultry Diseases Group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Poultry Diseases Group meet quarterly and is comprised of representatives from private veterinary practices, vaccine and pharmaceutical industries, and the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). I gave a talk at one of the meetings outlining my research to date and future directions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description AB Improving Approaches to Prevent and Control Viral Diseases of Livestock and Poultry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Batra, A., Maier, H.J., Britton P., Hiscox, J.A., Fife, M.S., 2015. PI3K/AKT signalling during infectious bronchitis virus infection. Food Security: Improving Approaches to Prevent and Control Viral Diseases of Livestock and Poultry, British Council Research Links Workshop, Istanbul, Turkey (Oral presentation)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description AB Society of General Microbiology Annual conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation. Batra, A., Maier, H.J., Britton, P., Hiscox, J.A., Fife, M.S. AKT activation during infectious bronchitis virus infection. Society of General Microbiology Annual conference, Liverpool, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
 
Description AN INTERVIEW WITH PROFESSOR VENUGOPAL NAIR 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Venugopal Nair is a Research Group Leader at The Pirbright Institute, a visiting Professor of Avian Virology at the Department of Zoology, and a Jenner Investigator at the Jenner Institute, University of Oxford. He is also a member of the Microbiology Society, and in this interview, he tells us more about his research into viral diseases of livestock.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://microbiologysociety.org/membership/meet-our-members/focus-area-viruses/an-interview-with-pro...
 
Description Amy Lewis, The Scientist, 15/08/2017 re gene drive and Predator Free NZ 2050 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Provided information and quotes for article on potential use of gene drives as part of New Zealand effort to eradicate invasive predators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/50180/title/Driving-Down-Pests/
 
Description Animal Health Investment Forum. Panel Discussion on African swine fever 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Panel discussion on African swine fever impact and control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2022
 
Description Article and Video in AP press on African swine fever risk to pygmy hogs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview and video recording for AP press on risks of African swine fever virus to critically endangered pygmy hogs in Assam India
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Article in The Scientist Magazine following interview with Katya Zimmer (June 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Journalist with The Scientist Magazine for a News Article concerning Race to Build ASFV vaccine in response to outbreaks in China/Asia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/scientists-race-to-build-vaccine-for-african-swine-fever-...
 
Description Ash Manor GCSE Mentoring 2018 - BA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Ash Manor School challenge week workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact For this event, 60 students were rotating around a series of science workshops as part of their challenge week based on a selected theme of their choice. Giulia and Phoebe contributed together with other people from our Institute in delivering the workshop about microbiology, hence student were actively interested in the topic.
They organised activities that could be performed in small groups such as teaching pupils about the importance of hand hygiene using our UV Equipment, seeing live mosquitoes through a microscope, learning about flu using our Flu Fighters- H&N Selector and trying to take swabs from a model chicken using Flu Fighters- Henrietta the Chicken.
The students were very interested in all the activities and actively participating, and they were asking many questions related to viruses, animal diseases, zoonotic diseases and microbiology in general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Avian Influenza H9N2 and H7N9 evolution, fitness in poultry and zoonotic potential presented by Munir Iqbal at UC DAVIS EDUCATION CONFERENCE ON ONE HEALTH FOR FOOD SAFETY, AGRICULTURE, AND ANIMAL HEALTH 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The research was discussed with academic and non-academic participants the risks of avian influenza viruses currently circulating in poultry and carry potential to cause zoonotic infections. Since avian influenzas viruses (AIVs) exist in many subtypes and co-infection of two or more different AIV subtypes in an individual bird can lead to the generation of novel reassortant viruses. The emergent reassortant viruses may carry differential phenotypic characteristics (virulence, host-transmission and host-range) compared to their parental viruses. Our studies revealed that experimental co-infection of chickens with two different subtypes of avian influenza viruses (H9N2 and H7N9) led to the emergence of novel reassortant H9N9 viruses which carry greater virulence for poultry and an increased zoonotic and pandemic potential.

Our results also provided evidence that both H9N2 and H7N9 viruses can rapidly acquire antigenic changes in vaccinated birds causing vaccine failure and cocirculation of these viruses can also rapidly lead to rapid generation of novel reassortment viruses with increased virulence and host-range posing threat to both animals and humans.

This presentation increased awareness among the audience risk posed by co-circulation of different subtypes of avian influenza viruses in poultry and wild birds and how best we can detect emerging threats and develop the disease risks and disease mitigation strategies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.wifss.ucdavis.edu/onehealthsummer21/
 
Description Avian influenza virus evolution impacts on virulence and antigenicity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A talk was presented at Royal Veterinary College, London, by Thusitha Karunarathna (a PhD student in the Avian Influenza group at The Pirbright Institute). The Talk described the mechanisms used by the avian influenza viruses to evade host immunity to cause disease outbreaks and persists in poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Avian influenza viruses can combine two techniques to evade vaccine immunity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A study by researchers at The Pirbright Institute reveals more clues about how avian influenza viruses can evade vaccine immunity, aiding their spread in the field. The findings are published in Emerging Microbes and Infections.

Influenza viruses are able to mutate, which can enable them to evade immunity generated by natural infection or vaccination. Influenza viruses have four main ways of duping the immune system so that they can continue to infect and spread between birds. Pirbright scientists investigated two of these to further understand how the H9N2 avian influenza virus can change its genetic makeup to overcome poultry vaccines.

One of the methods the virus can use is to alter one of its surface proteins, haemagglutinin (HA), which enables the virus to enter the cell and replicate. HA is also a common target for the immune system's antibodies, which block the virus from binding to cell receptors. By changing just one or two protein components, HA can latch on far more tightly to the cell, preventing antibodies from stopping the virus. However, this can come at a cost, as particularly strong binding can prevent effective replication.

The other method scientists investigated is how H9N2 viruses disguise themselves by adding sugar chains to the surface of their HA proteins. This can block antibodies from binding, but also has varying fitness outcomes for the influenza virus. The researchers found that the location of the sugar chain on HA could determine how effectively the virus replicated.

They also demonstrated that the two evasive techniques could either compliment or act against each other - if an influenza virus had gained mutations that enable it to bind more strongly to cells, a sugar chain in the right position could restore its ability to replicate effectively. In contrast, weakly binding influenza viruses do not benefit from HA sugar additions, which instead reduce the virus's ability to replicate.

Professor Munir Iqbal, head of the Avian Influenza Group at Pirbright said, "We can use this knowledge to develop new vaccines that will help antibodies to recognise how the flu virus can change. This will provide protection to birds even as the virus evolves. We can also use this information to understand how viruses survive in poultry despite vaccination and monitor new adaptions that may appear in the field."

This research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), part of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) and the British Council with support from the Newton Fund.

Article: Sealy, J. E., Peacock, T. P., Sadeyen, J. R., Chang, P., Everest, H. J., Bhat, S., Iqbal, M. (2020). Adsorptive mutation and N-linked glycosylation modulate influenza virus antigenicity and fitness. Emerging Microbes & Infections, advance online publication, 12 November 2020, doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1850180

[SOURCE: The Pirbright Institute]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.star-idaz.net/2020/12/avian-influenza-viruses-can-combine-two-techniques-to-evade-vaccin...
 
Description Avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka: investigating genotype to phenotype (antigenicity, virulence, host-range). Webinar on 28th March 2021. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented talk by Munir iqbal describing ongoing research outcomes. We identified genetic determined that modules avian influenza H5 and H9 antigenicity virulence and transmission fitness in different host species. The role of identified markers that change the virus binding to host cells and impact on virus-host interaction leading to mild or severe disease manifestation in chickens and mammalian species (humans).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Avian influenza: tackling large numbers of outbreaks this winter in the UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Nearly two years on, the COVID-19 pandemic is still dominating the news and continues to cause concern for populations across the globe. However, UK poultry and wild bird populations are currently facing their own health threat. We are not the only ones that have faced lockdowns because of spreading viruses, UK poultry and captive birds have also faced a similar situation to protect them from avian influenza. Scientists at The Pirbright Institute are working to increase understanding of how genetic changes in influenza A viruses can impact disease spread, host responses to infection and the pathology associated with the disease.

What is the avian influenza virus?
Avian influenza viruses are Influenza A viruses that circulate and transmit amongst birds. The disease is what we commonly know as 'bird flu'. Influenza A viruses can infect a range of hosts, including humans and two subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 circulate as seasonal flu each winter in the UK. Avian influenza viruses are different to those that can infect humans in that they cannot easily infect humans and must change and adapt to do so.

Aquatic birds are a natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses, these birds typically experience fewer clinical symptoms but can spread disease to domestic birds, particularly in the migratory season, between October and March. Avian influenza viruses are categorised as either highly pathogenic (HPAI) or low pathogenic (LPAI) and this categorisation is linked to the severity of disease in chickens.

HPAI has a high mortality rate which can be up to 100%, other symptoms can include swelling of the head, death of cells in the comb and wattle, red discolouration of legs and feet and diarrhoea. HPAI causes disease in more organs than just those in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts like LPAI, which mostly presents as respiratory symptoms such as a snick (like a sneeze), a rattle in the chest (known as rales) and discharge from the eyes and nose.

What is causing bird flu outbreaks in domestic birds now?
We are currently in the normal migratory season of wild birds. In the spring and summer months, these birds spend their time breeding and raising their young in North-eastern Asia where they mix with other bird species which enables virus transmission and mutation. Then, when they migrate for the autumn and winter months, they shed virus in their faeces along the way.

One of the migratory paths is across Northern Europe and this includes the UK. This year, in the UK, the first avian influenza outbreak was on 15 October and was discovered in captive aquatic birds. To date (17 December 2021) there have been 50 outbreaks in England, 1 in Wales and 2 in Scotland, this has resulted in over half a million birds being destroyed to control the spread of disease.

Are there more outbreaks this year compared to other years?
The number of outbreaks this year has been the most extensive ever. There have been over 50 outbreaks in the UK, compared to 26 outbreaks last year. Although it is hard to pin down the reason for this high number, we know it is not linked to the COVID-19 pandemic. The UK's response to the spread of avian influenza has been rapid, and from 29 November birds were required to be housed inside with additional biosecurity measures put in place such as foot dips and disinfecting clothing.

Testing and surveillance of wild birds have shown that there is a high prevalence of the virus in these birds currently, and this is contributing to the spread of disease to farm and domestic bird populations.

A more detailed look at the genetic make-up of these viruses shows that they are different to those from previous years. This is predicted to be as a result of the virus infecting multiple birds across a range of species, and this provides the perfect opportunity for the virus to evolve. Analysis of these genetic changes does not raise any alarm bells for increased transmission to humans, but they are likely impacting the spread and severity of disease in birds.

What should we do if we find a dead bird or are concerned about bird health?

If the public finds dead waterfowl birds they are encouraged not to touch them but to report them to Defra using the appropriate phone number that can be found on the website, also any other wild birds found dead in numbers of five or greater should be reported.

What is Pirbright doing to tackle this virus?

Researchers at Pirbright are attempting to enhance the control and detection of avian influenza in poultry populations as well as extend our basic knowledge about the virus in avian and mammalian hosts. The research groups led by Professor Munir Iqbal and Dr Holy Shelton are investigating how avian influenza virus strains originated from wild birds can rapidly adapt to cause disease outbreaks in poultry and gain the potential to infect humans. In addition, Professor Munir Iqbal is developing improved poultry vaccines that prevent virus replication and spread. These vaccines are particularly useful in countries where avian influenza is regularly found in the domestic poultry and the control and prevention of spread isn't easy, such as in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2021/12/avian-influenza-tackling-large-numbers-outbreaks-winter-uk
 
Description BBSRC AMR Review Panel member 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Member of a panel reviewing the AMR strategy and funding of BBSRC over the past 5 years and making recommendations for future strategy. Results are reported to BBSRC as a paper for consideration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description BSI webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I presented a webinar hosted by the British Society for Immunology entitled "BSI Coronavirus webinar: What can we learn from the animal coronaviruses?", which sparked questions and discussions afterwards. I have since been contacted to establish new collaborations with people in the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Big Bang Fair South East - RC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Regional science festival/event - changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Biotech YES, Syngenta Jealott's Hill, 05 Oct 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Teams of postgraduate students from a number of universities and institutes attended talk as part of Biotech YES (Young Entrepreneurs' Scheme). Follow-up discussion influenced several aspects of their approach to entrepreneurship both within the competition and more generally
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017
 
Description Blenheim High School Fair - DB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Team members attended sessions at a local high school with secondary school children and those in the 6th form to talk about paths into scientific careers, sharing their experiences of working at The Pirbright Institute. Approximately 300 students attended and it stimulated increased interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Broadcast on African swine fever on BBC wolrd service "The Food Chain" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with BBC World Service "The Food Chain" on African swine fever virus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p05xhflj
 
Description CBD Open-ended online forum on synbio 06-10/2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact UN Convention on Biodiversity. Policy- discussion on synthetic biology: nominated participant in the Open Ended Online Forum on Synthetic biology as established in decision XII/24 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP) and extended in COP decision XIII/17 which ran from June to Oct 2017 (approx.)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://bch.cbd.int/synbio/open-ended/discussion/
 
Description CNN interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with CNN journalist. Journalist later followed up asking me to check and clarify some issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Camberley Library Fun Palace 2018 - JM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Caroline Seydel Genetic Literacy Project re GM mosquitoes/gene drive/Zika 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Provided background material and quotes for article on GM mosquitoes and control of Zika virus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2018/01/29/waging-war-mosquito-split-gene-drive-hinder-spread-zik...
 
Description Centre of excellence for research on avian diseases (CERAD) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to present my work at the UK-China Centre of excellence for research on avian diseases (CERAD) meeting attended by researchers from UK, China and Thailand. There was lots of discussion about the research and future directions, including potential collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Chair conference session at NIDO2021 international conference - Helena Maier 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chaired a conference session at NIDO2021 international conference in June 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2018 - JA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Major science festival - changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2018 - JP 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Major national science festival - changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2018 - RC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Major science festival - changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2018 - SV 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Display at major science festival: changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2018-DP 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Major national science festival - changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kate Dulwich participated in an outreach activity at the Cheltenham Science Festival from 07-09 Jun 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cheltenham Science festival - LB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact National science festival which Team members attended to demonstrate to the public how scientists at The Pirbright Institute can work to contain and control viral outbreaks. Over 500 people accessed the information and this stimulated increased interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conor Haydon participated in the STEM Day - Speed interviews and Careers Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact STEM day engagement and careers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Coronavirus lecture MSc students (Surrey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A lecture was presented on the replication, cellular interactions and pathogenesis of coronaviruses to 15-20 MSc students from University of Surrey. The students were engaged and interested, answering and asking questions during the session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2018
 
Description DB Winston Churchill School Careers event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School careers event for a Secondary School - 1500 children ages 11 to 16 years
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Delivered a lead talk on FMD vaccine and chaired a scientific session at Indian Veterinary Association at New Delhi ( 25.7.19-28.07.19) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a lead talk on FMD vaccine and chaired a scientific session at Indian Veterinary Association at New Delhi ( 25.7.19-28.07.19).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.indianveterinaryassociation.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/...
 
Description Diamond (TT) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Diamond Light Source Open Day - explaining to general public the importance of structural biology and microscopy for understanding viruses and designing improved vaccines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Diamond Light Source Open day - HJM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public open day for Diamond Light Source, which Pirbright attended as a user of the facility to showcase research being performed at Pirbgith in collaboration with Diamond. There was a lot of interest in the fundamental research and sicussion about future plans and how it fit with the facility at Diamond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description EUROPIC conference, The Netherlands, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact EUROPIC conference, The Netherlands, 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Edinburgh Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk and panel event at Edinburgh Science Festival "The Buzz about GM Insects". Sparked questions and discussions afterwards including some career questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Elle Campbell Presented her data at the 2019 Microbiology Society Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Elle Campbell gave an oral presentation at the 2019 Microbiology Society Annual Meeting on the work we were doing with fluorescently tagged IBDVs and virus factory movement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Encouraging women into science and engineering STEM. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact MH Visited Warwick School, Redhill to talk to secondary students about careers in STEM. A very positive outcome and well received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Ewen Callaway Nature 08/01/2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Provided expert background information for article in Nature regarding engineering species barriers, described by journalist as "very helpful" in followup email.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Expert group meeting for PPR eradication at head quarters of WHO, Vienna, Austria, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In the FAO/PPR eradication meeting satya has presented work on PPR epidemiology and diagnosis. The talk was designed for the stakeholders and policy make to make aware on important points that are required for eradication of PPR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Expert reaction to person with birds flu - Science media centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Provided expert commentary to Science media centre on first UK person to be infected with the avian influenza H5N1 subtype. The comments were picked up by multiple media outlets including: The Times (www.thetimes.co.uk/article/first-human-case-in-uk-of-potentially-lethal-bird-flu-strain-bcjsng7tg), IFLS website (https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/rare-human-case-of-bird-flu-confirmed-in-the-uk/), PMP website (https://www.pmp-magazine.com/2022/01/06/uk-bird-flu-outbreak-risk-of-wider-infection-in-the-general-public-remains-low/).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Farnborough College Apprenticeship Fair- 20th March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Careers fair attended by approx. 100 school children. Pirbright demonstrated the multiple ways that research organisations can provide jobs including scientists, engineers and computer operators.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Farnborough College of Technology Career day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The aim of this event was to give Y13 students direct access to local potential employers who are prepared to invest in training and developing their employees via recognised apprenticeships, formal additional qualifications or in-house training, together with information on when and how they can apply. Additionally the exhibition was open for all the 3,700 college students to attend throughout the day with their families. Giulia was in charge of The Pirbright Institute stand with various activities for visitors to take part in and she was explaining our science to the students and the general public, career opportunities and training options. During the day working on the stand Giulia could speak with many children and adults about her work at Pirbright and what The Pirbright Institute is, stimulating public interest in research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Farnborough futures careers event - HJM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The careers event aimed to introduce the range of careers available at Pirbright. In addition I discussed my own career progression and highlighted the range of possible careers that I could have entered. Finally, I discussed some details of the research with interested students. The students had a wide range of backgrounds and career aims but were interested to hear about the Institute and the sort of work opportunities available. Several of them planned to follow up by investigating future job opportunities at Pirbright.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Flow cytometry workshop as part of the Bioimaging interest group 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshop at the Pirbright Institute - postdoctoral scientists of the project highlighted the use and application of flow cytometry in Virology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description GFRA (TT) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) meeting, presentation on virus packaging and implications for vaccine production, initiated collaboration discussions between international academic and industry partners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetic engineering speeds up poultry vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Researchers report the rapid generation of a bivalent vaccine against Marek's disease and avian influenza

Scientists at The Pirbright Institute have used genetic engineering to develop a vaccine that protects birds against both Marek's disease and avian influenza. They say the process is faster and more efficient compared to previous methods, which will allow poultry vaccine producers to rapidly update vaccine strains in order to keep up with virus evolution.

In a study published in the journal Vaccines, the team used the gene editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 to insert an avian influenza gene into the turkey herpesvirus (HVT) that is used in Marek's disease vaccines. The gene codes for haemagglutinin (HA), an influenza protein that is key for virus entry into host cells and is therefore an important target of the host immune response to block infection.

"HVT is already widely used in vaccines against Marek's disease and can be administered to eggs, enabling automated delivery and providing birds with protection from the day they hatch. The additional HA gene we have incorporated will be expressed by HVT when it replicates in host cells, meaning that a single dose of vaccine induces immunity against both viruses", explained Professor Munir Iqbal, Head of the Avian Influenza group at Pirbright.

"The genetic engineering process we have developed using CRISPR/Cas9 is far quicker and more efficient than previous technologies, as well as being very consistent and accurate. These attributes are essential for providing fast and reliable vaccine production to protect poultry", Prof Iqbal added.

Mutations can occur with high frequency in HA proteins, enabling influenza viruses to evade immunity generated by vaccines. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to create new vaccines will help tackle evolving viruses by reducing the time it takes manufacturing companies to adapt their vaccine strains to match these mutations, allowing faster responses to outbreaks and providing better protection.

Although this gene editing method is very reliable, a small number of HVT viruses fail to incorporate the HA gene into their own genome effectively. To ensure HA is being expressed in the vaccine, the team exploited the HA protein's ability to bind to molecules on the surface of red blood cells.

Chicken cells infected with the successfully modified HVT virus express HA on their surface which red blood cells attach to, forming a clump that can be visualised using microscopy. This simple test improves the speed at which suitable vaccine candidates can be identified and has a much broader application as it can also be used for other viruses that incorporate proteins which interact with red blood cells.

"Improving how we make vaccines is critical for preventing avian influenza outbreaks. Our work could help reduce the spread of disease between birds and reduce the risk of infection for people who work closely with poultry", Prof Iqbal said. "Now that we have developed a rapid method for generating this modified vaccine, our next steps will be to study the vaccine's effectiveness in field trials."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.cabi.org/vetmedresource/news/66612
 
Description Helping Local Community Wildlife area 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Pond Clearing at Fox Corner Wildlife area (Hannah Goldswain)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description High pathogenicity avian Influenza (HPAI) H5 in Europe -Epidemiology and Surveillance. Presented via Webinar, organized by Boehringer Ingelheim, 3rd July 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk entitled; High pathogenicity avian Influenza (HPAI) H5 in Europe -Epidemiology and Surveillance. talk was organized by Boehringer Ingelheim, 3rd July 2020 and presented via Webinar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Holt School Surrey. Bee meadow & A-level outreach Talk. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I discussed the importance of pollinators for biodiversity and food security with the younger students. I also discussed careers in science with A-Level students. There was good interaction and many questions surrounding both topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Host FTMA funded visit by industrial researcher - Helena Maier 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Hosted FTMA funded visit by industrial researcher.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description How virus tracking can help us prevent future pandemics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact UAR interviewed Professor Munir Iqbal, head of the Avian Influenza group at The Pirbright Institute, https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/users/prof-munir-iqbal.

The Pirbright Institute specialises in the research and diagnosis of livestock viral diseases and viruses that spread from animals to humans.

The Institute is part of an international network that tracks viruses and formulates ways to control and prevent outbreaks, such as creating new vaccines and better diagnostics.

While the Covid-19 pandemic grabs the headlines there are other, potentially more deadly viruses, spreading through the animal kingdom, which may have the capacity to infect humans.

Perhaps the most well-known pandemic agent - before Covid-19 - was the flu virus. The 1918 influenza pandemic, caused by an H1N1 virus of avian origin, was the most severe pandemic in recent history, infecting one-third of the world's population and killing at least 50 million worldwide. These viruses evolve, so every year the world is at risk of a new strain of flu. One related virus that caused the 2009 swine flu pandemic killed over 200,000 people worldwide.

Professor Munir Iqbal heads up the Avian Influenza Virus group at The Pirbright Institute. This group is imitating natural selection and evolution of influenza viruses in the lab. They hope to identify how viruses might change - potentially to be more dangerous. By identifying those changes they can make informed decisions about how to create vaccines against these potential new strains.

A new strain, H7N9, emerged in China in February 2013, infecting both poultry and humans. Since then, there have been over 1500 confirmed human infections from this strain with an estimated 40% fatality rate.

By 2017 the Chinese government had, very rapidly for a new vaccine, implemented a mass vaccination programme against H7N9 in poultry. This was accompanied by a striking reduction in human infection from this virus.

At first this seemed to be good news, but it turns out that suboptimal vaccine practices were creating an evolutionary pressure for the virus to change - to escape the effects of vaccination. As the virus evolved it didn't infect human populations so well, but it became more aggressive in the poultry, even if they had been vaccinated. Iqbal explains,

"At The Pirbright Institute, we study how these viruses evolve to persist in poultry and overcome vaccines, and how mutations impact virus virulence, transmission and, pathogenicity. Ultimately this will give us information on bird-to-human transmission and help develop diagnostic tools and vaccines to better fight the virus."

Disease transmission has to be studied in chickens but disease virulence can be quantified using chicken eggs. 14 day-old fertilised eggs are infected with the virus which then replicate. The faster the virus replicates in the embryo, the more virulent the strain.

"The quantity of virus being produced often equates to the aggressiveness of the disease. Very often viral infection depends on the amount of virus that you come in contact with. One particle might not infect animals or humans, but thousands could. In the same way, a smaller amount of virus might be needed to infect poultry compared to humans. We live alongside loads of virus without getting sick until we come across an amount large enough to cause an infection," explains Iqbal.

By imitating the natural selection process in the lab, the researchers identified the specific mutation that allowed the Chinese H7N9 virus to escape vaccine-induced immunity. They were also able to predict the evolution of influenza viruses. Three mutations that were observed in the lab have since been found in the field in 2019.

"These changes can have a huge impact in terms of virus transmission, virus virulence and virus transfusion across species from avian-to-human, avian-to-avian, or even to different mammalian species," adds Iqbal.

Fortunately for us, these three mutations prevent H7N9 viruses from binding to human cells, but increase their binding, replication and stability in chicken cells and embryos. This means that the strains that had evolved around the vaccination posed a lower threat to humans, but an increased risk to poultry. Mass vaccination of poultry against H7N9 strains in China might have been beneficial to humans, driving virus evolution away from a human pandemic, but it also meant that the evolved viruses posed an even greater threat to poultry.

However, this might not be the case for all strains warns Iqbal. Not all mutations that arise due to vaccine induced evolution, push viral strains away from human infection. In the future, other mutations may have human pandemic potential or be even more deadly to poultry.

Influenza viruses are a particular risk, as they infect a huge range of animals and mutate rapidly, which gives them the capacity to jump species and evade the immune system. They are particularly a cause for concern, because they circulate in livestock such as pigs and poultry which regularly come into close contact with humans.

Using a method that can predict how vaccination may change influenza virus characteristics is potentially valuable for making new vaccines against these fast evolving viruses. These predictions could also provide advanced warning of mutations that could increase likelihood of human infection.

Looking out for these viral mutations in the global health surveillance programme can help in the monitoring for potential threats. This might allow us to get ahead of them, by developing and using new vaccines, before new viral variants have a chance to spread and spiral out of control in a new pandemic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/news/research-medical-benefits/how-virus-tracking-can...
 
Description Influenza update 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Approx. 70 scientists attended a Influenza update meeting at which our group presented an oral presentation and poster presentation on our work. These actions resulted in establishment of new collaborations for ongoing work and the initiation of a joint grant writing exercise.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Initiation of a mass vaccination campain ( 2018) in TamilNadu, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scientists from The Pirbright Institute's Vaccine Differentiation group have recently returned from Chennai in India, where they conducted a mass peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination campaign and awareness programme. They joined scientists from four specialist organisations; Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (NIAB) and National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI).
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), also known as goat plague, is highly contagious and infects small ruminants such as sheep and goats, causing up to 90% mortality. The disease is prevalent across large parts of Africa, the Middle East, India and China and is estimated to cost between US$1.4 billion and US$2.1 billion globally each year. In 2017, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) introduced a global eradication programme to reduce the devastating impact PPR has on the economy and food security of affected countries.
"Over 40 vets joined our vaccination campaign in the Tanir Kulum village of Tiruvallur District, TaminNadu (close to Chennai), where we administered vaccines to over 400 sheep and goats in a single day. We also ran an awareness camp where we provided farmers and vets alike with expert guidance on diagnosing clinical signs of PPR and what measures they could take to reduce its spread", said Professor Satya Parida from Pirbright, who led the collaborative effort with Dr Dhinakar Raj from TANUVAS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Innovate Guildford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Represented the Pirbright Institute at Innovate Guildford Science Fair
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Innovate Guildford - DB & KC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public science event where team members participated on a Pirbright Institute stand which contained activities to help the public understand how scientists can help to contain and control viral outbreaks. Over 500 members of the general public attended which stimulated increased interest in science and research and led to requests for more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Innovate Guildford 17 March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk and exhibit at Innovate Guildford - >100 for talk, probably >500 for exhibit. Both sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Innovate Guildford 2018 - JM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Regional science/innovation event - changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Innovate Guildford 2018 - SB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Regional science festival - changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Innovate Guildford 2018 - SV 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Display at regional science/innovation festival - changes in public attitudes and stimulating increased interest in research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Innovate Guildford Outreach (12th March) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact With amazing exhibits, activities, workshops, talks and competitions, it's FREE to attend. Explore the four zones: Engineering, One Health, Digital Media and Future Living, experience interactive performances, hear inspiring speakers (including leading gaming pioneer Peter Molyneux and animal health pioneer Professor Nick Bacon) and take in an amazing atmosphere. Theatre, music and comedy will feature through the day, with everything from how technology might have affected Shakespeare's plays to risky recycling and photographic secrets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.guildford.gov.uk/innovateguildford
 
Description Innovate Guildford, ND 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presented at the Pirbright Institute stand discussing science performed by the Institute with the general public. The stand focussed on an exhibit on avian influenza virus but more general virology topics were also discussed including our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Inreview with Daily Telegraph about African swine fever 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with reporter from Daily Telegraph about African swine fever virus and risks to UK farmers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/12/uk-farmers-warned-alert-african-swine-fever-virus-hits-e...
 
Description Inspire Guildford County School Careers Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Giulia and Isobel represented The Pirbright Institute at the career fair at the Guildford College in a context of many other businesses and University representatives. The aim was to show the range of careers that are possible within a range of industries. For this event Giulia was in charge of the Institute stand and could speak about careers in science and the research carried out at The Pirbright Institute. Students were engaging in our activities for promoting interaction and showed a high level of interest for science and research careers requesting more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Avian Respiratory Disease Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Michael presented his research at the 2018 International Avian Respiratory Disease Conference in the US to an audience of avian researchers and representatives form the poultry veterinary vaccine industry. This sparked discussion and potential future collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Day of Women and Girls in Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a quote as a STEM ambassador about why I think it is important to make sure women and girls have the same opportunities in STEM. This was shared on social media to celebrate International Day of Women and Girls in Science, a UN-led initiative.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Women's Day video for social media 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Three team members were interviewed about their careers in science for International Women's Day. The videos were posted on Pirbright's website, Facebook and Twitter to celebrate what we love about working in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview for national newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from The Telegraph about coronavirus replication and transmission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Anne Gulland - Telegraph article Nov 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with Anne Gulland of the Telegraph about HPAI outbreaks in wild birds, article published https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/climate-and-people/farmers-urged-alert-highly-pathogenic-form-bird-flu/ quoted in the article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/climate-and-people/farmers-urged-alert-highly-pathogenic-f...
 
Description Interview with Associated Press 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from Associated Press about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Associated Press on ASFV vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Associated Press
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://apnews.com/32f84f66ce77415b96c4e90915cce6ee
 
Description Interview with Australian Broadcasting Corporation on African swine fever virus impact and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Australian Broadcasting Corporation about ASFV impact and vaccines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2019-11-01/african-swine-fever-vaccine-development/11645366
 
Description Interview with BBC Radio Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with journalists from BBC Radio Surrey on the breakfast show about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with BBC World Service 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview about our paper in PLOS Biology: The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein has a broad tropism for mammalian ACE2 proteins
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3cszh1l
 
Description Interview with BBC for SARS-CoV-2 story 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with BBC about SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-55565284
 
Description Interview with BBC journalist for article on viral emergence in new species 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed by Jonathon Ball who was writing an article for the BBC on the emergence of morbilliviruses in new hosts and the importance of vaccination. I helped him to contextualise the story and put him in touch with my collaborators.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-50839868
 
Description Interview with BuzzFeed News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from BuzzFeed News about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with CNN on African swine fever virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Nina Avramova from CNN International about African swine fever virus generally including transmission mechanisms and control strategies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://edition.cnn.com/2018/10/02/health/african-swine-fever-europe-china-spread-intl/index.html
 
Description Interview with Dominique Patton, Beijing, Reuters article Jan 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with Dominique Patton (Reuters - Beijing) about outbreaks of HPAI in wild birds. Quoted in https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-birdflu-asia/reeling-from-coronavirus-asias-poultry-farmers-battle-bird-flu-outbreak-idUSKBN29J00D?edition-redirect=uk which was picked up by multiple media outlets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-birdflu-asia/reeling-from-coronavirus-asias-poultry-farmer...
 
Description Interview with Farmers Weekly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview with journalist from Farmers Weekly on African swine fever virus vaccine development
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with German Radio on African swine fever virus risks and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio broadcast on German Radio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Health for Animals about African swine fever vrius vaccine development and current situation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview with journalists from Health for Animals about African swine fever vaccine research published in a newsletter sent to 200 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://healthforanimals.org/resources-and-events/newsletter-repository/17-disease-outbreaks.html?q=...
 
Description Interview with Journalist with The Scientist Magazine concerning ASFV vaccines and our research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Katya Zimmer Science Journalist with The Scientist Magazine published in July. This lead to follow up interviews for an in depth article on ASFV vaccines for the Scientist Magazine. In addition The Scientist published 4 Infographics images associated with the article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/features/can-a-vaccine-save-the-worlds-pigs-from-african-swine-fever
 
Description Interview with National Public Radio (USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with National Public Radio (USA) about veterinary vaccines for Covid-19
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Interview with New Scientist Magazine about African swine fever virus spread and vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for an article in New Scientist about impact of African swine fever in Asia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/2222501-a-quarter-of-all-pigs-have-died-this-year-due-to-africa...
 
Description Interview with United Press about ASFV vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with United Press International on Development of ASFV vaccines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2019/07/12/World-races-to-develop-African-swine-fever-vaccine/671156...
 
Description Interview with journalist and provided input to article on African swine fever vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviews with Katya Zimmer journalist with the Scientist Magazine and help with preparation of figures
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/features/can-a-vaccine-save-the-worlds-pigs-from-african-swine-fever--...
 
Description Invitation to give keynote talk on 'Control of avian diseases: Challenges and opportunities' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave the Keynote talk on 'Control of avian diseases: Challenges and opportunities' at this International Symposium organized with an aim to gather international virology experts from both human and veterinary fields to share research experience, update findings and contribute their expertise through presentation and interactive discussion. The topics will cover a wide range of virology research common in both human and animal aspects. In addition, technological platforms such as vaccine development, and novel assays will be emphasized and addressed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.biotec.or.th/virus-symposium2018/index.php
 
Description Invitation to talk at the Vaccine Symposium "Vaccines at different levels of complexity from subunit to whole cell formulations" jointly organised by the Centre of Genomic Regulation (CRG), Radboud UMC and MSD Animal Health, with the support from the MycoSynVac project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk and participated in the discussion on the challenges and research opportunities for innovation in poultry disease control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.crg.eu/
 
Description Invited Keynote Presentation on African swine fever and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Keynote presentation at China Animal Breeding and Genetics conference December Guangzhou, attended by more than 2000 delegate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Keynote Speaker International Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Ecology, China Mai Thailand 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote talk on progress towards African swin efever virus vaccine development at ISVEE meeting Thailand
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited as PPR vaccine expert to vaccine producers meeting at Jordan, Amman-organised by OIE and FAO PPR secretariat-13.04.19-17.4.19, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited as PPR vaccine expert to vaccine producers meeting at Jordan, Amman-organised by OIE and FAO PPR secretariat-13.04.19-17.4.19,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited expert to the international Gnatwork training course in Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact First day gave a presentation on veterinary aspects of vector-borne virus research at the School of Veterinary Medicine Belo Horizonte Brazile, followed by 4 day training workshop were I taught sections on molecular diagnostics applied to insect vectors, poster presentations, scientific writing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.gnatwork.ac.uk/brazil-19
 
Description Invited seminar at St. Andrews University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar on ongoing RSV and SARS-CoV-2 research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Invited seminar at UC Riverside 05/05/2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar at University of California, Riverside
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited seminar at University College Dublin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on ongoing RSV and SARS-CoV-2 research to academics at University College Dublin
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Invited speaker at the British VeterinaryPoultry Association 2018 meeting at Boehringer Ingelheim 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was invited to present my research findings at the British Veterinary Poultry Association 2018 meeting, held at Boehringer Ingelheim.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk at Agricultural Science congress at New Delhi, India, February-2019- Use of reverse genetics to study the early pathogenesis and to develop marker vaccines for PPR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 1. In a DBT-BBSRC FADH grant, The Pirbright Institute in collaboration with four Indian partners (TANUVAS, IVRI, NIAB and NIVEDI) has developed a PPR vaccine, which will be the first to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), for which a patent application has been filed. Scientists have manipulated in the genome of PPR full length cDNA and rescued the DIVA vaccine virus using reverse genetic technique. Further this vaccine has been tested in goats providing full safety and potency upon virulent virus challenge. In contrast to current vaccine, this new DIVA vaccine can differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated animals, therefore will help in meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn increasing the efficiency of control programmes.
2. Little is known about the early events in the development of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus (PPRV) infection. The current dogma is that similar to RPV, PPRV replicates primarily in the epithelium of the respiratory tract before disseminating throughout the host. However, our investigations, using intranasal inoculation of PPRV containing GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) to mimic natural infection, indicate this is not the case and that immune cells in the pharyngeal tonsil is the primary target. This is a ground breaking discovery which changes the PPR pathogenesis. This infectious GFP virus is made from a synthetic cDNA of field virus (PPRV/Mor-08) using reverse genetics technique under FADH grant.
The presentation sparked questions and discussions after the talk. Two PPR DIVA vaccines developed and the mechanism of PPR virus pathogenesis explained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk at the National Institute for Animal Biotechnology, Hyderabad on 3rd Jan 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participants were engaged in the recent advances in biotechnology, challenges and opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk on 28th September 2020 on ''Challenges and opportunities for control of infectious animal diseases including zoonosis' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact International Webinar of 'Epistemological approaches to animal disease control programmes with special reference to rabies'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited to talk at the International Conference on Building Human and Animal Health Capacities organised by the Jordan University of Science and Technology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in the discussion and talked on 'The recent advances in vaccination-based control of poultry diseases'. The need for increased awareness of the pathogen diversity in the design of vaccines and the opportunities from advances in vaccine technologies were discussed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.just.edu.jo/conferences/bhahc/Pages/default.aspx
 
Description JN - Mentoring 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Mentoring GCSE students to increase social mobility. Improving the confidence, ambition and interest in STEM subjects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description JN - Woking school 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Careers Fair at a local school encouraging children to consider science as a career and representing the institute in the local community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description Joined as a FAO expert at Chiang Mai, Thailand for PPR and FMD control in SAARC region and delivered two invited talks- 16.06.19-23.06.19 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Joined as a FAO expert at Chiang Mai, Thailand for PPR and FMD control in SAARC region and delivered two invited talks on FMD and PPR Global situations- 16.06.19-23.06.19
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Keynote Presentation China Swine Society Conference 2019 Qingdao China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Keynote presentation at China Swine Society Conference 2019 Qingdao attended by ~1300 scientist and practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Keynote presentation at the Swedish Virology Society Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact About 100 people from Swedish Society of Virology attended my keynote talk at their annual meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Keynote talk at the World Veterinary Poultry Association meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to give the keynote talk on 'Avian tumour viruses: their contribution to our understanding of cancer' at the World Veterinary Poultry Association XXth Congress in Edinburgh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.wvpac2017.com/
 
Description Kingdown School Warminster Wiltshire talk to 6th form students about career in science. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I presented my career path to the students to engage them on STEM careers. I had a good level of discussion and many questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Latest Pirbright collaboration uncovers genetic markers that could guide avian influenza surveillance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Research outputs were mass comminated for the general public via a news story. This was published online at the Pirbright Institute webpage and One Health Poultry Health webpage and distributed wildly on social media including Facebook, Twitter, In Share.

Researchers at The Pirbright Institute have identified the genetic markers on avian influenza ('bird flu') viruses that could help the viruses to jump the species barrier and cause disease in people, in collaboration with other members of the One Health Poultry Hub.

Co-investigators Professor Munir Iqbal and Dr Joshua Sealy worked with scientists at Imperial College London, the University of Glasgow and The Francis Crick Institute, to show how the genetic traits of avian influenza H9N2 viruses influence their preference for infecting bird or human cells.

The paper detailing their findings, 'Genetic determinants of receptor-binding preference and zoonotic potential of H9N2 avian influenza viruses' is published in the Journal of Virology.

The research identifies genetic traits that alter a key H9N2 viral protein, called haemagglutinin, that makes it easier for the virus to recognise and bind to different cell receptors. This is the first step of viral infection, and the general inability of avian influenza viruses to effectively bind to human receptors is a major reason why they do not, in general, jump the species barrier to people.

However, given that human infections with H9N2 have been detected on an almost monthly basis since 2015, there may be a capacity for these viruses to evolve and gain the ability to efficiently target cellular receptors in people.

This latest discovery reveals which haemagglutinin properties of existing H9N2 strains allow them to bind to human receptors more effectively. These included small genetic differences as well as the overall structure and charge of the haemagglutinin protein. These findings will help guide future avian influenza surveillance by providing the genetic markers that signify the emergence of viruses with the potential to transmit to people.

There have been more than 60 cases recorded of people infected with H9N2 influenza viruses to date in 2020, all in countries where the virus is endemic. However, these viruses have not adapted to spread efficiently from person to person, a key element of a virus that has the potential to cause a pandemic.

Professor Iqbal and his team at Pirbright have previously described H9N2 viruses which showed a preference for human-like receptors.

Professor Iqbal said: "Understanding more about which traits increase the likelihood of H9N2 viruses jumping into humans help to identify viruses that could pose a future threat. Keeping an eye on viruses with these traits can help us to be prepared in the event that one of them evolves to pass between people rather than only from birds to humans."



This research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) the Medical Research Council (MRC) both part of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2021/01/latest-pirbright-collaboration-uncovers-genetic-markers-cou...
 
Description Lecture Series To Veterinary Medicine students School of Veterinary Medicine University of Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture series in Virology to the BVetMed students at the School of Veterinary Medicine University of Surrey
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Lecture on entereic coronaviruses to MSc Students (Surrey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A lecture was presented on the pathology, diagnosis and detection of enteric coronaviruses, including virus replication and interaction with the host. The students were engaged and asked/answered question throughout the session. We were invited to repeat the lecture for the subsequent student intakes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2018
 
Description Lecture to MSc studnets University of Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture on African swine fever virus to MSc students University of Surrey Veterinary faculty
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Lumpy Skin Disease D2R2 profile 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Provided expert opinion to the assessment (D2R2) of the risk of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) to the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description MBPAV -presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of avian viruses conference - Oxford 3-4th September 2018. Oral presentation given on drug resistant influenza viruses to approximately 50 scientist. Increased collaborative approaches following presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://microbiologysociety.org/event/society-events-and-meetings/focused-meeting-2018-molecular-bio...
 
Description MDV conference Tours 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact During the 11th International Symposium on Marek's Disease and Avian Herpesviruses, which took place from 6 to 9 July 2016, Paolo Ribeca gave a talk on "Attenuation of MDV: an RNA-seq based perspective".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MSc student visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I hosted several MSc students from University of Surrey, discussed avian research with them and demonstrated some laboratory techniques. The students gained an understanding of academic research and laboratory work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Microbiology Society Annual conference (UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Poster or oral presentation at Microbiology Society annual conference, a major international event. The participants included researchers from many different areas of science. This provides a platform to promote research to a wider audience as well as discuss the key findings with experts in my own field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
 
Description Microbiology Society Avian Focus Meeting (UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I gave a 15 minute oral presentation to an audience of around 80 people in 2016 and 2018. The audience consisted of researchers from many different scientific institutions from different areas of avian research. This was a great opportunity to present to experts in this field and gain novel insights into the project and the possible applications of my work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2018
 
Description Microbiology Society Online talk for Dr. Jamie Kelly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop talk entitled, "High throughput screening to identify interferon stimulated genes whose expression is inhibitory to RSV infection. "
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Microbiology society 2021 online meeting talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop talk entitled "SARS-CoV-2 Spike has broad tropism for mammalian ACE2 proteins, yet exhibits a distinct pattern of receptor usage when compared to other ß-coronavirus Spike proteins."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Microsoc 2018 "Structure-guided identification of a pathogen with pandemic potential" poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented a poster on our research at the MicroSoc annual meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description NIAID PPC/TPP meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact NIAID workshop on Preferred Product Profile / Target Product Profile definitions and use for genetic vector management products
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description NL Next Generation Sequencing applications to improve livestock welfare, food security and socioeconomic stability in Brazil, British research Council, Newton Fund 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation: Next Generation Sequencing applications to improve livestock welfare, food security and socioeconomic stability in Brazil, British research Council, Newton Fund
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Negative Strand Virus 2018 Meeting "Structure-guided identification of morbilliviruses with zoonotic potential" Poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented a poster on the Structure-guided identification of morbilliviruses with zoonotic potential at the international negative strand virus (NSV) meeting in Verona, Italy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description New Scientist interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with New Scientist regarding genetic control of mosquitoes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/2210190-parasite-brings-down-mosquito-numbers-in-parts-of-guang...
 
Description Nick Rufford, Sunday Time Mag, published 27/08/2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Provided information and quotes for Sunday TImes Magazine article on GM mosquitoes and Zika
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/how-genetically-engineered-mosquitoes-will-save-lives-kwc8nmwh5
 
Description Nido2021 - ND 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ND presented a poster at the Nidovirus symposium entitled "Identification of sites of infectious bronchitis virus RNA synthesis". She discussed our data with the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Nidovirus symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I presented my work at the Nidovirus Symposium, which is held every three years and brings together researchers from industry and academia from many different countries. I had some interesting discussions with other researchers and built my network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Offer Paper oral presentation "Rapid Mammalian adaptation of H9N2 avian influenza viruses" at Microbiology society annual conference 4th April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Offer Paper oral presentation "Rapid Mammalian adaptation of H9N2 avian influenza viruses" at Microbiology society annual conference 4th April 2017. Talk in the main virus symposia with an audience of approximately 200 researchers (PhD students through to Professors) mainly based in UK but some international. Discussions with other researchers around this area of work and increase in national profile of groups work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Oral and poster presentation at European Society of veterinary Virology and EPIZONE (ESVV/EPIZONE) at Vienna, Austria 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation has been made on early events of PPR virus pathogenesis. The presentation reveled that PPR virus first taken up by the immune cells to the Pharyngeal tonsil and then to other lymph nodes before generalisation of the disease. Secondary replication happens in epithelial cells. This alters the existing believe that virus primarily replicate in the epithelial cells.
Similarly a poster presentation has been done to show the detection of nucleic acid of PPR virus during PPR eradication programme, nasal sample has been shown as the best sample for viral genome detection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Oral presentation at the Global Alliance for Research on Avian Disease meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam 15th -19th Jan 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A talk was given on the PB1-F2 function in avian influenza infection of avian hosts at the GARAD meeting. This meeting was attended by approximately 120 researchers and poultry industry members from a wide international geographic region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Oral presentation to Large Animal Research Network 24th May 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about work understanding PB1-F2 function in avian hosts highlighting how the animal work carried out was undertaken and monitored. this was delivered to an audience of researchers, funders and industry interested in animal model systems for research and the 3Rs commitment surrounding this work. Discussions with interested parties about our chicken work at the Institute and the diverse way that the birds are entertained whilst being housed (e.g. live food, vegetables, perches, dust baths etc).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Oral presentation, Global Foot-and-Mouth (F M D) Research Alliance (G F R A) conference, Korea, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation, Global Foot-and-Mouth (F M D) Research Alliance (G F R A) conference, Korea, 2017
Title: The Development of New Master Vaccine Seed Stocks for FMD Control in East Africa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Oral preserntation at Influenza update Meeting in Edinburgh 21st November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of "Rapid Mammalian adaptation of H9N2 virus" to Influenza researchers attending the 2 day Influenza viruses meeting at the Roslin institute in Edinburgh.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Organisation of Influenza meeting at Roslin Institute 21st-22nd November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Along with Paul Digard (Edinburgh) and Edward Hutchinson (Glasgow) I helped to organize, plan and run a Influenza update meeting which ran for 2 days at The Roslin Institute in November 2017. The symposium was attended by approximately 60 influenza researchers from the UK. Talks were given by a range of people with student talks and posters being awarded prizes. This was supported by Medimmune and the Microbiology Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Organisation of UK-India Bioinformatics Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting discussed the challenges and opportunities and have decided to come up with a strategy document on working together between UK and India on data-driven biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Organised the 3rd UK-China CERAD meeting in Guildford, UK in July 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The 3rd UK-China CERAD meeting helped to bring together professional from both countries to identify challenges and exploit the opportunities for improved control of poultry diseases and increasing food security.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.uk-china-cerad.org/
 
Description Organiser of the Animal Genetics and Diseases conference 08 - 10 May 2019 Wellcome Genome Campus, UK. Highlighting recent advances in animal genetics and genomic technologies. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I am on the organising committee for this conference. The second conference in this series will highlight recent advances in animal genetics and genomic technologies. It will bring together specialists working on the interface of genomics, genetic engineering and infectious disease with the aims of improving animal and human health and welfare.

Novel genomic technologies, mathematical modelling and quantitative genetics approaches, applied to host animals, as well as their pathogens, have transformed the understanding of animal diseases, host-pathogen interactions and epidemiology and their effects on productivity of farmed animal species and food supply chains.

This year's conference will not only put the spotlight on the immune response of host animals and epidemiology but also cover the genetics and genomics of pathogens and the impact of animal-human relationships.

We encourage registrations from researchers, breeders and technical specialists interested in learning and disseminating the latest cutting-edge techniques and methodologies across model species, wildlife, farmed animals and companion animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://coursesandconferences.wellcomegenomecampus.org/our-events/animal-genetics-diseases-2019/?dm_...
 
Description Organising and giving Keynote talk at the GARAD meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Alliance of Poultry industry professional and academia to discuss about the advances in control strategies of diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://Garad.org
 
Description PDRA in my group Stacey Human attending Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description PH Filming for BBC4 programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview about imaging SARS2-CoV-2 in the EM
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description PPR eradication meeting organised by FAO and OIE at Rome and talk has been delived on Development of DIVA vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Satya Parida is working as an expert to PPR eradication and he is being invited for few of FAO/OIE meetings. The meetings discussed about roadmap, vaccine production capacity and eradication policy.
Satya also presented work on PPR DIVA vaccine and DIVA tests developments and their evaluation in goats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PPR-Global Research and Expertise Network talk "Examining the zoonotic potential of PPRV" Vienna 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Gave a talk to the inaugural meeting of the PPR Global Research and Expertise Network (PPR GREN) at IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Participants included policy makers from the FAO and OIE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Pig and Poultry Fair 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussed Institute research with pig and poultry farmers, related industry and the general public. Received requests for more information related to research, business and studentships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pigandpoultry.org.uk/
 
Description Pirbright Dragon Fair - MZ 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Team members attended the locally held Dragon fair where the Pirbright Institute had a stand explaining the types of research that are conducted at the Institute, making our high containment science activities transparent to the local community. Approximately 60 people engaged with the stall to learn about the science happening on their doorstep. This stimulated interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pirbright Institute research teams studying characteristics of influenza virus that may alter disease outcomes in poultry. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Avian influenza, commonly known as "bird flu," is a disease caused by multiple strains of influenza virus. The viruses can infect a wide range of animals, including people and pigs, but the natural reservoir lies in populations of wild aquatic birds such as ducks and gulls, according to an announcement from The Pirbright Institute in the U.K., which is conducting research to better understand avian influenza viruses to help prevent the disease in poultry.

Flu virus strains are categorized by the combination of the two proteins found on the outside of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) -- for example, H5N6 or H9N2. The H protein binds to cell receptors in order to initiate infection, while the N protein helps release new viruses from an infected cell, the institute explained.

Strains are also classified by severity. Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses cause clinical signs such as mild breathing problems, decreased egg production and growth. Some birds, particularly ducks and geese, do not display any signs of LPAI infection and are still able to spread the disease, Pirbright said. When LPAI viruses circulate in high-density poultry areas, the viruses can mutate into highly pathogenic strains.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have severe and often fatal effects on some species of birds such as chickens, Pirbright noted, but some HPAI strains cause mild or no clinical signs of disease in wild birds and domestic waterfowl. These strains are notifiable, meaning government control measures must be put in place.

Avian influenza can be carried vast distances by wild migratory birds and can infect domesticated poultry through direct contact or through contaminated droppings and bodily fluids, Pirbright said. Because of this, there is a year-round risk of avian influenza, which can increase depending on the disease status in a region and the migration season of wild aquatic birds.

According to Pirbright, good biosecurity is essential in preventing poultry from being exposed to the disease and can be practiced on a commercial farm, with game birds or even with just a few backyard hens.

Why is influenza so difficult to prevent?

The institute explained that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and when they replicate, small errors called mutations are copied into their genome. Some of these will alter the virus's proteins, allowing the virus to escape detection by the immune system.

All flu viruses also have the potential to undergo a process called reassortment, where two or more strains of influenza infect the same animal, allowing them to swap parts of their genome, Pirbright said. The resulting viruses can potentially have different characteristics than the original strains, such as the ability to replicate in different species, including people, the institute added.

Avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 or H7N9 have infected people, predominantly in Southeast Asia, but in these cases, the virus has been transmitted directly from infected birds to people, with no onward spread. There is some evidence that avian influenza can be passed from person to person, and while there are no records of efficient or sustained human transmission, there is a constant risk that one of the new strains may spread easily among people, which could result in a new influenza virus pandemic, Pirbright said.

Changes in the virus genetics from mutation or reassortment make it very difficult to anticipate how influenza viruses will spread through a population and whether current vaccines will be suitable for the strains that are circulating, Pirbright announced.

The influenza research programs at Pirbright are progressing understanding of the virus and finding better ways to prevent its spread.

Pirbright Institute group leaders Dr. Holly Shelton and professor Munir Iqbal are researching how the characteristics of influenza viruses can change the outcomes of disease. Studying flu at the molecular level allows them to find out how the virus evolves to overcome avian immunity and how changes in their genome can alter disease severity and their ability to affect different species, the announcement said.

Shelton's and Iqbal's teams are working on identifying genetic markers for specific disease traits that can be used in surveillance systems to provide forewarning of strains that could cause pandemics. For example, Shelton's Influenza Viruses group is looking at which characteristics allow the viruses to become resistant to antiviral drugs that are currently used to treat human infections of influenza, allowing surveillance to provide an early warning of viruses that could cross into humans and be difficult to control, Pirbright said.

The team is also investigating how long it takes for avian influenza viruses to adapt to new mammalian species. According to the institute, establishing which strains can rapidly adapt and identifying the genetic changes made to enable infection of mammalian cells will help with surveillance efforts and potentially lead to the development of techniques that will help prevent these mutations occurring.

Vaccination and rapid diagnosis are very important for influenza prevention and control, but it is still not currently possible to protect against all influenza strains, Pirbright said, noting that Iqbal's Avian Influenza group is exploring which sites on the virus trigger the chicken immune system to respond quickly and fight off infection. This will better inform scientists' ability to match vaccines to strains in the field and could help to develop vaccines that are more effective.

Iqbal's group is also developing multivalent vaccines that protect chickens and ducks from several avian influenza subtypes at once as well as test kits for rapid diagnosis of different subtypes at the flock-side, the announcement said.

Visit Pirbright's Influenza Viruses and the Avian Influenza group pages to find out more about their research.

Source: The Pirbright Institute, which is solely responsible for the information provided and is wholly owned by the source. Informa Business Media and all its subsidiaries are not responsible for any of the content contained in this information asset.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.feedstuffs.com/nutrition-health/protecting-poultry-avian-influenza
 
Description Plenary discussion at World Vaccine Congress on Pandemic Preparedness with CEPI and WHO 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Round table discussion with representatives from WHO, CEPI and Pirbright on "how can we better collaborate with a one health approach to prepare for the next pandemic?" Organised as part of hybrid World Vaccine Congress. WHO representative was Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove who was leading the WHO's Covid response as well as Jakob Cramer from CEPI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Positive Strand Viruses Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This was a poster presentation. There were several different poster sessions at the conference allowing a large selection of people to view each poster. The audience included world leaders in my research field and important names from groups all over the world. This gave me the opportunity to discuss my work with other scientists on a one to one basis, leading to generation of new ideas for future experiments and collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2013,2016,2019
 
Description Postdoctoral research Carina Conceicao poster at Microsoc 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Carina presented data on her work about morbillivirus host range
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Postdoctoral researcher James Kelly - poster at Microsoc 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jamie presented data from our MRC project on the inhibition of RSV and MeV fusion by the interferon system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Postdoctoral researcher Stacey Human talk at Microsoc 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Stacey presented her data on examining the cellular processes involved in trafficking RSV components to the cell surface.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poster presenation at Nipah @20 conference in Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attendance at a conference on Nipah virus, commemorating 20 years since its emergence in Malaysia and Singapore. The RA in my group presented a poster on our work developing new assays to screen the humoral response to this virus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nipah2019.com/
 
Description Poster presentation (two posters) EuFMD conference, Italy, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation (two posters) EuFMD conference, Italy, 2018
1). Development of Master Vaccine Seeds for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control in Sub-Saharan Africa
2). Chimeric SAT2 with improved thermostability as an FMD vaccine candidate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster presentation at EUFMD meeting at Burgo by the senior postc of the PI group on epitope prediction of serotype O FMD virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact In this presentation we have shown 3 new epitopes of the FMD virus. An manuscript has been submitted for publication on this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poultry Health course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poultry Health Course is run as a residential and online course to transfer recent advances in avian disease research from the laboratory to the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006
URL http://www.poultryhealthcourse.com/
 
Description Presentation at Avian Diseases Symposium - ND 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ND presented a short talk at the Avian Diseases Symposium entitled "Identification of sites of infectious bronchitis virus RNA synthesis". She discussed our data and answered questions from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Presentation at Avian Research Symposium - ND 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ND presented a short talk at the Avian Diseases Symposium entitled "Identification of sites of infectious bronchitis virus RNA synthesis". She discussed our data and answered questions from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Presentation at Avian Research Symposium - PP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact PP presented a talk at the Avia Research Symposium entitled "Correlative cryo-bioimaging to study avian coronavirus replication organelles". He presented data and answered questions from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Presentation at Avian viruses focussed meeting - Sept 2018 ND 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of data as an offered paper at the molecular biology and pathogenesis of avian viruses meeting, Oxford Sept 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of my research at the Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases Conference in Vietnam to approximately 80 conference participants resulted in discussions about future research directions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at Inter-institute Bioimaging networking meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact An event was held to enable improved collaboration opportunities between scientists working with bioimaging techniques at the different research institutes within the UK. I presented data from the last 10 years describing our work characterising replication organelles induced by IBV, describing the different techniques and approaches we have used and the outlook for the future. The talk aimed to showcase the bioimaging facilities at Pirbright to encourage new collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at RIVR meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Oral presentation of my work to other researchers at the Recently Independent Virology Researchers meeting. I discussed my data with other researchers and potential for future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2019,2020
 
Description Presentation at RIVR meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of my research at Recently Independent Virology Researchers (RIVR) meetings in 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. I discussed my work and future collaborations with other virology researchers working in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019,2020
 
Description Presentation at Translation UK 2019 - MJB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Poster presnetation of data to scientistis at the annual Translation UK meeting. Viewers of the poster asked lots of questions and there were some useful discussions around future plans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation by ND at Nidovirus symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The post-doctoral researcher presented our data at the 14th international Nidovirus symposium. She discussed data and potential collaboration with other scientisits from the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation by RH at Nidovirus symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact PhD student presented our data at the 14th international Nidovirus symposium. He discussed results and potential for future collaboration with other scientists in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation of data at Microbiology Society Annual conference 2019 - MJB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Oral presentation of data to scientists at the Annual Microbiology Society conferene, Belfast. After the presentation there were questions and disussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation of data at Microbiology Society Annual conference 2019 - ND 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of data to scientists at the annual Microbiology Society Conference, Belfast. Following the presentation there were questions and discussion with other scientists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation of project results at the 13th International dsRNA Virus Symposium 24th-28th of September 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster and Oral presentations included key results of the studentship project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to BBSRC Executive Board 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I presented our research to the BBSRC Executive Board when they visited The Pirbright Institute in September 2018 and discussed the impacts of our work..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Preventing a future pandemic by imitating natural selection 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact By Munir Iqbal
A new type of avian influenza that can infect poultry and humans, called H7N9, emerged in China in February 2013. Since then, there have been over 1500 confirmed human infections with an estimated 40% case fatality rate.

In the wake of COVID-19, these numbers may seem to be relatively small. But these statistics provide an example of the issues we face in controlling influenza viruses in animals and how understanding more about these viruses can help us to predict, prevent and control outbreaks, protecting both poultry and human health.

Influenza viruses infect a huge range of animals, but the strains that are of greatest concern to us are those that circulate in livestock such as pigs and poultry, where people in farming industries have close contact with the animals. Influenza viruses can rapidly mutate, allowing them to escape the immune responses of the animals they infect and even jump to new species.

There have been five major epidemic waves of H7N9 in China. The final wave in 2016-2017 saw the originally mild disease of poultry mutate to cause higher levels of mortality in chickens and spread almost everywhere in China. The severity of H7N9 AIV situation prompted the Chinese government to implement a mass vaccination programme against H7N9 in poultry in 2017.

Since its use, the number of poultry outbreaks along with human infections has dropped dramatically, with only three human infection cases reported during 2017 to 2018 and one human infection case reported during 2018 to 2019. This may sound like vaccination has solved the problem and the virus will now be eradicated. Unfortunately, this is not the case - despite the reduction in disease outbreaks due to vaccination, these viruses have not been eradicated.

This is partly because of influenza's high mutation rate - vaccination can inadvertently encourage the evolution of viruses with mutations that allow them to escape vaccine-induced immunity. Once a virus escapes, it can spread rapidly, thereby making the vaccine ineffective and a new one must be designed. This is where our research comes in.

Our aim is to understand how H7N9 viruses could potentially mutate in the field in response to vaccination, and how these genetic changes could alter how the virus acts (for example, by making it more dangerous to poultry or by helping it to infect humans more effectively).

By imitating the natural selection process in the lab, we found several mutations and identified that one specific mutation allows the virus to escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Importantly, three other mutations that we observed in our lab studies had been found in the field in 2019 indicating that our method can predict the evolution of influenza viruses.

These three mutations prevent H7N9 viruses from binding to human cells, but increase their binding, replication and stability in chicken cells and embryos. This could mean that the strains which have these mutations pose a lower threat to human health, but increase the risk to poultry.

This shows that mass vaccination of poultry against H7N9 strains in China drives virus evolution away from human pandemic. But viruses with 'escape mutations' remain a significant risk to poultry due to their ability to escape vaccine-induced immunity and persist in poultry.

Our studies may also help to explain the Chinese government's successful control of H7N9 infection in humans by mass poultry vaccination. On one hand, the mass poultry vaccination protects the poultry from H7N9 infection and greatly reduces the risk of human infections as the majority of human H7N9 cases are linked to exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments. On the other hand, even when some viruses escape the vaccine-induced immunity, they pose reduced risk to humans due to the lost human receptor binding.

However, this may not be the case for all strains. Other mutations may arise in the future that have human pandemic potential or are even more deadly to poultry. Using a method that can predict how vaccination may change influenza virus characteristics is hugely valuable as it can provide advanced warning of mutations that could increase likelihood of human infection. Incorporating these mutations into global health surveillance efforts can help relevant authorities to monitor potential threats and get ahead of them before they have a chance to spiral out of control.
Professor Munir Iqbal is head of the Avian Influenza Group at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.newton-gcrf.org/impact/data-insights-blog/preventing-a-future-pandemic-by-imitating-natu...
 
Description Project close meeting at TANUVAS, Chennai July 2018- Delivering talk on outcome of the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team held their final workshop at TANUVAS, which concluded a four year Farmed Animal Disease and Health (FADH) grant joint funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Indian Government's Department of Biotechnology (DBT). "This grant has enabled us to collaborate with four organisations across India, and ensured that our research can be applied in the field to aid the campaign for PPR global eradication", said Professor Parida.The project covered many areas of research which are essential for understanding PPR and creating tools to help control and prevent the disease. The team have now filed a patent application for their newly developed PPR vaccine, which is the first to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) - a quality that enables livestock owners to protect their animals whilst continuing to trade.
The team have also investigated how the PPR virus (PPRV) infects sheep and goats and how their immune systems respond. By inserting green fluorescent protein into virulent PPRV and administering the modified virus to goats, they demonstrated that PPRV primarily infects the tonsils, challenging the earlier belief that the virus first replicates in the respiratory tract epithelial cells. The collaborative project has also generated better diagnostic tests for use in the field and laboratory, and preliminary research has identified why some Indian breeds of goats and sheep are resistant to the disease, which could help scientists to create PPRV resistant breeds in the future.
Project partners, scientists from the University and 40 field veterinarians have joined the meeting. An awareness training has been conducted on PPR disease and eradication for these field veterinarians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Protecting poultry from avian influenza 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Avian influenza, commonly known as "bird flu," is a disease caused by multiple strains of influenza virus. The viruses can infect a wide range of animals, including people and pigs, but the natural reservoir lies in populations of wild aquatic birds such as ducks and gulls, according to an announcement from The Pirbright Institute in the U.K., which is conducting research to better understand avian influenza viruses to help prevent the disease in poultry.

Flu virus strains are categorized by the combination of the two proteins found on the outside of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) -- for example, H5N6 or H9N2. The H protein binds to cell receptors in order to initiate infection, while the N protein helps release new viruses from an infected cell, the institute explained.

Strains are also classified by severity. Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses cause clinical signs such as mild breathing problems, decreased egg production and growth. Some birds, particularly ducks and geese, do not display any signs of LPAI infection and are still able to spread the disease, Pirbright said. When LPAI viruses circulate in high-density poultry areas, the viruses can mutate into highly pathogenic strains.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have severe and often fatal effects on some species of birds such as chickens, Pirbright noted, but some HPAI strains cause mild or no clinical signs of disease in wild birds and domestic waterfowl. These strains are notifiable, meaning government control measures must be put in place.

Avian influenza can be carried vast distances by wild migratory birds and can infect domesticated poultry through direct contact or through contaminated droppings and bodily fluids, Pirbright said. Because of this, there is a year-round risk of avian influenza, which can increase depending on the disease status in a region and the migration season of wild aquatic birds.

According to Pirbright, good biosecurity is essential in preventing poultry from being exposed to the disease and can be practiced on a commercial farm, with game birds or even with just a few backyard hens.

Why is influenza so difficult to prevent?

The institute explained that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and when they replicate, small errors called mutations are copied into their genome. Some of these will alter the virus's proteins, allowing the virus to escape detection by the immune system.

All flu viruses also have the potential to undergo a process called reassortment, where two or more strains of influenza infect the same animal, allowing them to swap parts of their genome, Pirbright said. The resulting viruses can potentially have different characteristics than the original strains, such as the ability to replicate in different species, including people, the institute added.

Avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 or H7N9 have infected people, predominantly in Southeast Asia, but in these cases, the virus has been transmitted directly from infected birds to people, with no onward spread. There is some evidence that avian influenza can be passed from person to person, and while there are no records of efficient or sustained human transmission, there is a constant risk that one of the new strains may spread easily among people, which could result in a new influenza virus pandemic, Pirbright said.

Changes in the virus genetics from mutation or reassortment make it very difficult to anticipate how influenza viruses will spread through a population and whether current vaccines will be suitable for the strains that are circulating, Pirbright announced.

The influenza research programs at Pirbright are progressing understanding of the virus and finding better ways to prevent its spread.

Pirbright Institute group leaders Dr. Holly Shelton and professor Munir Iqbal are researching how the characteristics of influenza viruses can change the outcomes of disease. Studying flu at the molecular level allows them to find out how the virus evolves to overcome avian immunity and how changes in their genome can alter disease severity and their ability to affect different species, the announcement said.

Shelton's and Iqbal's teams are working on identifying genetic markers for specific disease traits that can be used in surveillance systems to provide forewarning of strains that could cause pandemics. For example, Shelton's Influenza Viruses group is looking at which characteristics allow the viruses to become resistant to antiviral drugs that are currently used to treat human infections of influenza, allowing surveillance to provide an early warning of viruses that could cross into humans and be difficult to control, Pirbright said.

The team is also investigating how long it takes for avian influenza viruses to adapt to new mammalian species. According to the institute, establishing which strains can rapidly adapt and identifying the genetic changes made to enable infection of mammalian cells will help with surveillance efforts and potentially lead to the development of techniques that will help prevent these mutations occurring.

Vaccination and rapid diagnosis are very important for influenza prevention and control, but it is still not currently possible to protect against all influenza strains, Pirbright said, noting that Iqbal's Avian Influenza group is exploring which sites on the virus trigger the chicken immune system to respond quickly and fight off infection. This will better inform scientists' ability to match vaccines to strains in the field and could help to develop vaccines that are more effective.

Iqbal's group is also developing multivalent vaccines that protect chickens and ducks from several avian influenza subtypes at once as well as test kits for rapid diagnosis of different subtypes at the flock-side, the announcement said.

Visit Pirbright's Influenza Viruses and the Avian Influenza group pages to find out more about their research.

Source: The Pirbright Institute, which is solely responsible for the information provided and is wholly owned by the source. Informa Business Media and all its subsidiaries are not responsible for any of the content contained in this information asset.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.feedstuffs.com/nutrition-health/protecting-poultry-avian-influenza
 
Description Provided information to Podcast This week in Virology about African swine fever virus spread in wild boar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact E-mail correspondence providing advice to presenters of TWIV This week in Virology Podcast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.microbe.tv/twiv/twiv-532/
 
Description Public debate on Zoonotic threat at Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was part of a panel debate on the threat of zoonosis and viral emergence in human populations, a ticketed event attended by around 150 members of the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Q&A statement on coronaviruses provided to Science Media Centre - HJM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A Q&A statement on coronaviruses was provided to the science media centre, who distributed it to media outlets. Excerpt have been used in 1420 articles incuding the Daily Mail and syndicate articles. The Q&A was also used in a Pirbright Institute media statment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description RSB Genetic Tech Governance Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Workshop hosted by the Royal Society of Biology (RSB) on the use of genetic technologies and the governance and regulation of organisms developed by genetic modification, genome editing and other breeding methods
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Research Assistant in my group Nazia Thakur attending Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Research assistant Nazia Thakur talk at Microsoc 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Nazia presented her data on the development of low containment assays to monitor the humoral response to vaccines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Respond to request for comment - MIT News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview regarding local "daisy" gene drives in mosquitoes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://news.mit.edu/2019/daisy-chain-gene-drives-keeping-genetic-engineering-localized-0402
 
Description Returning to STEM event - ND 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact ND attended a workshop to discuss and exchange ideas about public engagement strategies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Reverse genetics seminar (University of Surrey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A seminar was given based upon the reverse genetics system of infectious bronchitis virus. The audience was a group of 10 -15 MSc students from University of Surrey. The students were engaged, asked questions about the research and careers in science. We were asked to repeat the seminar for the next year's intake of students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
 
Description Reverse genetics seminar to MSc students 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A seminar was presented describing reverse genetics of viruses, including infectious bronchitis virus and the application of reverse genetics in research. The students were interested and engaged, participating in activities and asking questions. We were invited to present the seminar in subsequent years for new student intakes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016,2018,2019
 
Description Royal Institution Christmas Lectures Family Day - LA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Six Pirbright staff/students ran an all-day exhibit on gene editing and mosquitoes at the Royal Institution About 270 participants visited our stand; wide range of comments, questions, discussion and feedback
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019