Highly-efficient thermoelectric power harvesting

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: Electronics and Computer Science


The project involves collaborative, multidisciplinary work combining materials research, device design and testing to develop a microgenerator/nanogenerator based on thermal power harvesting that can be used in applications such as wireless sensor systems, portable sensors, health care and industrial applications (such as embedded sensors in buildings and bridges). Wireless operation enables such microsystems to be completely embedded in a structure with no physical connection to the outside. Typically, the energy necessary to power such wireless systems is stored in batteries which have the following drawbacks: they tend to be bulky, contain a finite amount of energy and have a limited shelf life. The replacement of batteries places an additional cost, maintenance and environmental burden on the use of wireless sensor systems and is not suitable for embedded applications where battery replacement is not possible. The powering of wireless devices by harvesting energy from ambient sources present in the environment presents an opportunity to replace or augment batteries. The most common sources of ambient energy are: solar, vibration and thermoelectric.Thermoelectric power generation can be used in applications where a thermal gradient exists and the approach has many advantages over competing techniques. These include solid-state operation with no moving parts, long life-times (around 200, 000 hours i.e. over 20 years), no emission of toxic gases, maintenance free operation, and high reliability.The drawback of existing thermoelectric generators is their relatively poor efficiency. Commercially available devices are also quite bulky in size. The state-of -the-art of existing laboratory-developed prototype thermoelectric microgenerators delivers powers of about 1uW, which is just enough to power devices such as wristwatches, but this is not sufficient for modern day wireless sensor applications.This proposal will address these drawbacks by using state-of-the-art micromachining/nanotechnology techniques and is aimed at developing a new generation of micro/nano thermoelectric generator for power harvesting applications to improve the efficiency and harvesting potential of these devices to useful levels.


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Koukharenko E (2008) Micro and Nanotechnologies for Thermoelectric Generators in Measurement and Control

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Koukharenko E (2008) Towards a nanostructured thermoelectric generator using ion-track lithography in Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

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Koukharenko E (2008) Micro and Nanotechnologies for Thermoelectric Generators in Measurement and Control

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Koukharenko E (2010) Ion Track Nanolithography Using Thick Cross-Linked Poly(methyl methacrylate) 950 Photoresist in Japanese Journal of Applied Physics

Description A method for developing highly efficient thermal energy harvesting was developed.
Exploitation Route The work can be exploited in power sensor systems from heat.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Electronics,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

Description A patent was filed as a result of the research, but did not lead to licensing or spin-out activity.
First Year Of Impact 2008
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Economic

Title Highly efficient thermoelectric generator device using Lead Bismuth semiconducting nanowire structures 
Description A method of fabricating an energy generator to convert heat into electrical energy using Lead Bisthmuth nanowire structures. 
IP Reference GB0722968.5 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2007
Licensed No
Impact None.