Multi-scale methodology for enhancing damage tolerance of composite materials in submarine environment subject to underwater explosion

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Engineering Science

Abstract

Submarine platforms form some of the most complex systems ever designed by man but, in line with the defence policy, there is ever increasing pressure to reduce procurement and ownership costs while maintaining capability. Composite materials have long been recognised as playing a key role in meeting these requirements by reducing time and cost of corrosion protection and repairs, as well as corrosion fatigue, while maintaining the vital stability margins and buoyancy requirements for the increasingly complex combat systems used on next generation submarines. Composites have the further advantage of multi-functionality, offering both structural and integral stealth properties management. In addition, composites mitigate the increasing cost and supply problems of complex high density castings such as Nickel Aluminium Bronze (NAB) long used in submarine applications due to its shock and corrosion resistant properties. Reinforced in its aims by the Defence Technology Strategy, the proposed research will provide the opportunity to understand and quantify, via fundamental science, the intermediate and high strain rate shock response of naval submarines composites in a complex submerged environment, whilst simultaneously seeking more optimised composite structures via novel fibre architectures and hybrid systems. Moreover, the proposed study will contribute to the MOD's specific requirement to both develop and sustain indigenous expertise in the area of submarine design as a key national capability. Finally, through understanding and modelling of material/structural and dynamic loading related issues at a range of scales, vital knowledge for effective assurance, test and repair of composite materials will be gained and embedded in certification procedures and Defence Standards. The use of proposed validated predictive modelling methodology is also expected to yield substantial savings during the design of new materials and structures through ever increasing progression to virtual testing and design and accordingly will greatly reduce the need for excessive large scale testing which are both expensive and environmentally unacceptable. In addition, this research is expected to provide the means for significant weight and life-long cost saving designs without compromising capability.

Publications

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Arezoo S (2011) The mechanical response of Rohacell foams at different length scales in Journal of Materials Science

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Arezoo S (2013) Compressive deformation of Rohacell foams: Effects of strain rate and temperature in International Journal of Impact Engineering

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Gerlach R (2012) A new split Hopkinson tensile bar design in International Journal of Impact Engineering

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Gerlach R (2009) The interface between matrix pockets and fibre bundles under impact loading in Composites Science and Technology

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Gerlach R (2013) The Strain Rate Dependent Material Behavior of S-GFRP Extracted from GLARE in Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures

 
Description Developed capability to determine experimentally, analytically and numerically the effects of underwater explosion thus exerted pressure histories upon the airbacked or waterbacked underwater structures.

Developed generic capability to simulate numerically crack propagation in solid materials which has been applied to understand the micromechanics of composite materials for marine applications.
Exploitation Route Designers of commercial and defence surface and sub-surface marine vehicles use the developed methodology for rapid feasiblity studies as well as detailed design tasks.

Designers of engineering structures are already comparing the results obtainable by the developed software with commerical tools for numerical modelling. This has been applied in design studies with composite materials for marine, land and air vehicles, ceramics for armour as well as metallic and concrete materials in nuclear power industry. The developed methodology has been utilised to improve the understanding of the fluid-structure interaction with real engineering materials and systems. This has resulted in developing precise laboratory equipment for investigation of related phenomena (liquid shock tube with mechanically generated impulse loading similar to underwater explosion, high-speed data acqusition systems including high-speed photography). In particular, the ability to understand and quantify the effects of underwater balst upon new material systems and engineering solutions has been developed in conjuction with novel split-Hopkinson-bar systems for characterisation of materials at high rates of strain.

Developed software has already been utilised in developing the multi-scale methodology for a range of engineering materials where the existance of manufactuing induced flaws requires the incorporation of constitutive laws capable of simulating strain localisation and fracture.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine

URL http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/NP/research.html
 
Description The validated software was delivered to Rolls-Royce at several increments continually upgrading the key features. The developed experimental capability will continue to be used to characterise future generations of materials for submarine applications. New concurrent multi-scale modelling capability has been developed and is being evaluated in subsequent projects (funded by EPSRC, Dstl and Rolls-Royce) concerned with composite materials. The experimental and modelling capabilities initially developed during this project have evolved further on subsequent projects (but focused on aerospace sector) and are now attracting again the funding from marine sector.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Energy,Healthcare
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description DTRA - US defence annual call for proposals
Amount $300,000 (USD)
Organisation Defense Threat Reduction Agency 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 07/2012 
End 06/2015
 
Description EPSRC - Responsive Mode
Amount £300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M015319/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2017
 
Description Mitsubishi Heavy Industries' internal funding
Amount £600,000 (GBP)
Organisation Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start 03/2012 
End 01/2017
 
Title High-speed digital metrology 
Description The ability to use multiple high-speed digital cameras has yielded the development of DIC based algorithm for tracking of selected markers in 3D for displacement/velocity and strain measurements. The algorithm takes care of physical and digital noise by scale separation and motion blur by custom edge detection thus providing more accurate data for validation of newly developed simulation models. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Ability to quantify experimental observations beyond previously known limits. 
 
Title Database on strain rate dependent behaviour of composite materials for submarine applications 
Description Detailed information needed for calibration and validation of numerical models. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The ability to automate the identification of model parameters and develop improved models by inverse procedures ("model validation"). 
 
Title Numerical modelling capability for simulation of strain rate dependent behaviour of composites for submarine applications 
Description Modules for incorporation into commercial software and independent in-house capability for simulation of pressure and strain rate dependent response of polymer matrix composites to impact loading such as that exerted by underwater explosion. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Potential to further improve the understanding of the material behaviour. Potential to improve the effectiveness of future laboratory experiments. Potential to improve engineering designs with composite materials. 
 
Description Composites for submarine applications subjected to underwater explosion 
Organisation BAE Systems
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developed experimental methodology for observation and quantification of phenomena following underwater explosion. In particular, - the fluid structure interaction and - the saline water saturation and strain rate dependent response of non-crimped glass fibre uni-directionally reinforced epoxy matrix composites. The research team delivered analytical and numerical models as well as experimental data needed to calibrate the developed models, for use in the design of components of nuclear submarines made of given materials and architectures.
Collaborator Contribution Provided motivation and inspiration to the project research team thus enabling us to appreciate challenges and identify scientifically relevant gaps within our domain of interest and capability. Furthermore, they provided the understanding of the scope within which the research into fluid-structure interaction and related cavitation should be understood before appreciating thus exerted load histories upon composite given materials. The collaborators also provide materials for experimental activities as well as several separate, but related and relevant research and technology transfer projects in order to help build the critical mass both in terms of equipment and researchers directed towards the same goals.
Impact Several papers (journal and conference) have been published. Several conferences have been attended, the most important of which has been the invitation to Mach 2014 Conference in Annapolis, USA, organised by the ARL sponsored consortium focused on investigation into behaviour of Materials in Extreme Dynamic Conditions (MEDE). Furthermore, the project team has been invited to contribute to regular joint UK-US submarine development meetings and the UK's Composite Materials for Submarines Working Group, which meets regularly to discuss issue and share experiences between organisations who operate, fund development as well as design and build submarines.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Composites for submarine applications subjected to underwater explosion 
Organisation DNV GL
Country Norway 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developed experimental methodology for observation and quantification of phenomena following underwater explosion. In particular, - the fluid structure interaction and - the saline water saturation and strain rate dependent response of non-crimped glass fibre uni-directionally reinforced epoxy matrix composites. The research team delivered analytical and numerical models as well as experimental data needed to calibrate the developed models, for use in the design of components of nuclear submarines made of given materials and architectures.
Collaborator Contribution Provided motivation and inspiration to the project research team thus enabling us to appreciate challenges and identify scientifically relevant gaps within our domain of interest and capability. Furthermore, they provided the understanding of the scope within which the research into fluid-structure interaction and related cavitation should be understood before appreciating thus exerted load histories upon composite given materials. The collaborators also provide materials for experimental activities as well as several separate, but related and relevant research and technology transfer projects in order to help build the critical mass both in terms of equipment and researchers directed towards the same goals.
Impact Several papers (journal and conference) have been published. Several conferences have been attended, the most important of which has been the invitation to Mach 2014 Conference in Annapolis, USA, organised by the ARL sponsored consortium focused on investigation into behaviour of Materials in Extreme Dynamic Conditions (MEDE). Furthermore, the project team has been invited to contribute to regular joint UK-US submarine development meetings and the UK's Composite Materials for Submarines Working Group, which meets regularly to discuss issue and share experiences between organisations who operate, fund development as well as design and build submarines.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Composites for submarine applications subjected to underwater explosion 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Developed experimental methodology for observation and quantification of phenomena following underwater explosion. In particular, - the fluid structure interaction and - the saline water saturation and strain rate dependent response of non-crimped glass fibre uni-directionally reinforced epoxy matrix composites. The research team delivered analytical and numerical models as well as experimental data needed to calibrate the developed models, for use in the design of components of nuclear submarines made of given materials and architectures.
Collaborator Contribution Provided motivation and inspiration to the project research team thus enabling us to appreciate challenges and identify scientifically relevant gaps within our domain of interest and capability. Furthermore, they provided the understanding of the scope within which the research into fluid-structure interaction and related cavitation should be understood before appreciating thus exerted load histories upon composite given materials. The collaborators also provide materials for experimental activities as well as several separate, but related and relevant research and technology transfer projects in order to help build the critical mass both in terms of equipment and researchers directed towards the same goals.
Impact Several papers (journal and conference) have been published. Several conferences have been attended, the most important of which has been the invitation to Mach 2014 Conference in Annapolis, USA, organised by the ARL sponsored consortium focused on investigation into behaviour of Materials in Extreme Dynamic Conditions (MEDE). Furthermore, the project team has been invited to contribute to regular joint UK-US submarine development meetings and the UK's Composite Materials for Submarines Working Group, which meets regularly to discuss issue and share experiences between organisations who operate, fund development as well as design and build submarines.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Composites for submarine applications subjected to underwater explosion 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developed experimental methodology for observation and quantification of phenomena following underwater explosion. In particular, - the fluid structure interaction and - the saline water saturation and strain rate dependent response of non-crimped glass fibre uni-directionally reinforced epoxy matrix composites. The research team delivered analytical and numerical models as well as experimental data needed to calibrate the developed models, for use in the design of components of nuclear submarines made of given materials and architectures.
Collaborator Contribution Provided motivation and inspiration to the project research team thus enabling us to appreciate challenges and identify scientifically relevant gaps within our domain of interest and capability. Furthermore, they provided the understanding of the scope within which the research into fluid-structure interaction and related cavitation should be understood before appreciating thus exerted load histories upon composite given materials. The collaborators also provide materials for experimental activities as well as several separate, but related and relevant research and technology transfer projects in order to help build the critical mass both in terms of equipment and researchers directed towards the same goals.
Impact Several papers (journal and conference) have been published. Several conferences have been attended, the most important of which has been the invitation to Mach 2014 Conference in Annapolis, USA, organised by the ARL sponsored consortium focused on investigation into behaviour of Materials in Extreme Dynamic Conditions (MEDE). Furthermore, the project team has been invited to contribute to regular joint UK-US submarine development meetings and the UK's Composite Materials for Submarines Working Group, which meets regularly to discuss issue and share experiences between organisations who operate, fund development as well as design and build submarines.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Composites for submarine applications subjected to underwater explosion 
Organisation Scope
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Developed experimental methodology for observation and quantification of phenomena following underwater explosion. In particular, - the fluid structure interaction and - the saline water saturation and strain rate dependent response of non-crimped glass fibre uni-directionally reinforced epoxy matrix composites. The research team delivered analytical and numerical models as well as experimental data needed to calibrate the developed models, for use in the design of components of nuclear submarines made of given materials and architectures.
Collaborator Contribution Provided motivation and inspiration to the project research team thus enabling us to appreciate challenges and identify scientifically relevant gaps within our domain of interest and capability. Furthermore, they provided the understanding of the scope within which the research into fluid-structure interaction and related cavitation should be understood before appreciating thus exerted load histories upon composite given materials. The collaborators also provide materials for experimental activities as well as several separate, but related and relevant research and technology transfer projects in order to help build the critical mass both in terms of equipment and researchers directed towards the same goals.
Impact Several papers (journal and conference) have been published. Several conferences have been attended, the most important of which has been the invitation to Mach 2014 Conference in Annapolis, USA, organised by the ARL sponsored consortium focused on investigation into behaviour of Materials in Extreme Dynamic Conditions (MEDE). Furthermore, the project team has been invited to contribute to regular joint UK-US submarine development meetings and the UK's Composite Materials for Submarines Working Group, which meets regularly to discuss issue and share experiences between organisations who operate, fund development as well as design and build submarines.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Composites for submarine applications subjected to underwater explosion 
Organisation Weidlinger Associates
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developed experimental methodology for observation and quantification of phenomena following underwater explosion. In particular, - the fluid structure interaction and - the saline water saturation and strain rate dependent response of non-crimped glass fibre uni-directionally reinforced epoxy matrix composites. The research team delivered analytical and numerical models as well as experimental data needed to calibrate the developed models, for use in the design of components of nuclear submarines made of given materials and architectures.
Collaborator Contribution Provided motivation and inspiration to the project research team thus enabling us to appreciate challenges and identify scientifically relevant gaps within our domain of interest and capability. Furthermore, they provided the understanding of the scope within which the research into fluid-structure interaction and related cavitation should be understood before appreciating thus exerted load histories upon composite given materials. The collaborators also provide materials for experimental activities as well as several separate, but related and relevant research and technology transfer projects in order to help build the critical mass both in terms of equipment and researchers directed towards the same goals.
Impact Several papers (journal and conference) have been published. Several conferences have been attended, the most important of which has been the invitation to Mach 2014 Conference in Annapolis, USA, organised by the ARL sponsored consortium focused on investigation into behaviour of Materials in Extreme Dynamic Conditions (MEDE). Furthermore, the project team has been invited to contribute to regular joint UK-US submarine development meetings and the UK's Composite Materials for Submarines Working Group, which meets regularly to discuss issue and share experiences between organisations who operate, fund development as well as design and build submarines.
Start Year 2006
 
Description Understanding pressure and strain rate dependent behaviour of ceramic composites 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Development of experimental procedures for observation and quantification of the response of ceramic composites to impact loading. Development of corresponding modelling methodologies for simulation of pressure, strain-rate and temperature dependent response to rapidly induced deformation, leading to strain localisation, crack initiation and propagation, fracture and fragmentation.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of relevant materials for experimental activities and motivation/inspiration for development of corresponding modelling activities. Exposure to challenging problems revolving around body and vehicle (see, land and air) armour. Networking. Exposure to joint UK-US research efforts.
Impact Software modules delivered to Dstl's modelling team. Publications: - S Falco, P Siegkas, E Barbieri, N Petrinic: A new method for the generation of arbitrarily shaped 3D random polycrystalline domains, Computational Mechanics, 1-14 - S Falco, NA Yahya, RI Todd, N Petrinic: Explicit Modeling of Crack Initiation and Propagation in the Microstructure of a Ceramic Material Generated with Voronoi Tessellation, Developments in Strategic Materials and Computational Design IV, 185-196 - S Falco, CEJ Dancer, RI Todd, N Petrinic: A new anisotropic constitutive model for ceramic materials failure, Developments in Strategic Materials and Computational Design III, 93-103 - CEJ Dancer, HM Curtis, SM Bennett, N Petrinic, RI Todd: High strain rate indentation-induced deformation in alumina ceramics measured by Cr< sup> 3+ fluorescence mapping, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 31 (13), 2177-2187 - CEJ Dancer, HM Curtis, SM Bennett, N Petrinic, RI Todd: Measurement of deformation in alumina samples indented at high strain rates, Advances in Ceramic Armor VII: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings ...
Start Year 2009
 
Description Recuring visits which local schools are making to learn about the generic activities in my laboratory. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talks and tours sparked increasing interest in studying engineering.

The schools asked for more information on application procedures and interviews as a part of the undergraduate admission process.
One school pupil convinced me that his computer programming skills were at the level sufficient to contribute to my research team efforts, such that we invited him to spend 3 weeks during his summer school break working with the team.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013