Control For Energy and Sustainability

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Abstract

Control engineering is concerned with the design of control systems (controllers) that can improve the performance of all dynamic processes. Relevant examples include the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from internal combustion engines and power plant, the reduction of pollutants generated by chemical plants, and improvements in a power system's ability to respond to random load and/or supply variations. New technologies for clean electricity generation, fuel efficient transport, and environmentally friendly waste disposal will all depend on a new generation of special-purpose control systems. Current research trends in control engineering, which address complexity and uncertainty, have a great, and as yet unrealised potential to contribute to these technologies.The aim of this research programme is to develop new control engineering techniques which can be applied to a number of energy and sustainability related problems in order to achieve significantadvances in the exploitation of renewable energy and vehicle fuel efficiency. The clean energy aspect of the programme will address major challenges arising from distributed renewable generation, taking account of the integration of wind power into a network, transmission, local network control, and random intermittency of supply. In transport, our goals are to develop new technologies for a future generation of fuel efficient road vehicles (focusing attention on engine management, and aerodynamic and vehicle design optimisation) and to devise new air traffic management schemes to reduce fuel consumption of aircraft resulting from air traffic congestion.

Publications

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Angeli D (2012) A Stochastic Approach to "Dynamic-Demand" Refrigerator Control in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology

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Arana C (2015) Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension for Road Vehicles in IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics

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Arana C (2015) Series Active Variable Geometry Suspension application to chassis attitude control in IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics

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Astolfi A (2017) Nonlinear Model Reduction by Moment Matching in Foundations and Trends® in Systems and Control

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Astolfi A (2010) Model Reduction by Moment Matching for Linear and Nonlinear Systems in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control

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Bettiol P (2013) Stratified Necessary Conditions for Differential Inclusions with State Constraints in SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization

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Bettiol P (2013) Estimates on trajectories in a closed set with corners for $(t,x)$ dependent data in Mathematical Control and Related Fields

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Bettiol P (2014) Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control in Applied Mathematics & Optimization

 
Title None 
Description Nominal entry 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2010 
Impact Nominal entry 
 
Description Grant established a world class research activity in the UK, developing new control engineering techniques and applying them to improve energy efficiency in electricity production and transportation, at a time of intense concern over the consequences of excessive energy use and emissions on global warming.

It opened up areas of control theory to address problems of energy efficiency, beyond the reach of currently available techniques. These include new methodologies for stochastic decision making, forecasting, nonlinear control, decentralized control, control based on concepts of 'passivity' or energy dissipation, etc., that accommodate the special model structures and design constraints arising in technologies promoting energy efficiency.

It provided new methodologies based on stochastic modelling, for designing and operating power systems including renewable power sources, and for quantifying risks of failure.

It provided new techniques of decentralised control for power systems, inspired by TCP algorithms for information flow on the internet.

It provided substantial improvements in the energy efficiency of waste recycling schemes, based on application of new theories of adaptive nonlinear control.

It achieved substantial improvements in the energy efficiency of internal combustion engines, through the use of state-of-the-art hybrid control techniques for engine management.

Provided control techniques to Alleviate of air traffic congestion through improved air traffic management schemes.

It achieved significant improvements in energy efficiency of road vehicles through design and novel control-based suspension and steering components.

It provided training of technical staff and building the skills base in areas of technology relating to green energy production and energy efficiency.

The grant closed on 31/03/2015. There are no new 'key findings' to report. New publications relating to ramifications of the programme grant research have been added.
Exploitation Route Follow on EPSRC and European grants and future industrial sponsorship
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Energy,Environment,Transport

URL http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/cfes/Main/CfesResearch
 
Description The research from this portfolio grant has advanced basic understanding of control engineering, extended applications of control engineering in the energy and transportation sectors, promoted public understanding of the field and resulted in stronger links between universities and industry.
First Year Of Impact 2009
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Environment,Transport
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Impact of wind generation
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Prof Strbac (co-investigator on Programme Grant) provided the research supporting recommendations by House of Common's Energy and Climate Change Committee, on the role of wind energy in meeting the UK's CO2 emissions reduction targets
URL http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmenergy/194/19402.htm
 
Description European Union EU Brussels (Marie Curie Fellowship)
Amount £209,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2011 
End 01/2013
 
Title None 
Description Nominal entry 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Nominal entry 
 
Title None 
Description Nominal entry 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Nominal entry 
 
Description Active Design ofBuilding Structures 
Organisation Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supervision of a postdoc supporting the Project EET-A of Programme Grant (Control for Energy and Sustainability)
Collaborator Contribution Funding for postdoc supporting the Project EET-A of Programme Grant (Control for Energy and Sustainability)
Impact New concepts for structural design of buildings, for earthquake protection, that Mitsubishi might use in future buildings
Start Year 2011
 
Description Active Suspension Design 
Organisation McLaren Racing
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Advice and technical support to company to improve active damping of their racing cars. McLaren funded a PhD student at Cambridge University. This is part of a collaboration with McLaren, within which Cambridge university provided world leading improvements to the suspension of their vehicles.
Collaborator Contribution Supply of prototypes, hardware and software support and technical support.
Impact Improved suspension design
Start Year 2013
 
Description Development of Inerter 
Organisation Penske Racing Shocks
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The ideas behind the inerter. (Penske Racing Shocks has been involved in commercialising an active suspension device based on the inerter concept developed at Cambridge University.)
Collaborator Contribution supply of prototypes, hardware and software support and technical support
Impact A new fluidic device available to the motor industry and other sectors
Start Year 2014
 
Description Engine Management 
Organisation Ford Motor Company
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Research into new engine management schemes, analysis of laboratory tests, etc
Collaborator Contribution Supply of prototypes, hardware and software support and technical support
Impact New energy saving engine management schemes that Ford might incorporate in future vehicles
Start Year 2009
 
Description HVDC Networks 
Organisation Alstom
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Funding for two extra PhD students to work on the Programme Grant research programme, in the area of High Voltage Direct Current network design for wind energy exploitation.
Collaborator Contribution Supervision of two research students
Impact New design for HVDC networks, originating in Imperial College, that will be used for bringing wind energy ashore form the North Sea.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Power Systems Risk Profile Studies 
Organisation Government of Chile
Country Chile 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supervision of a PhD student working in an area related to project PS-C of Portfolio Grant (Control for Energy and Sustainability)
Collaborator Contribution Funding for a PhD student
Impact Student completed PhD and developed new modelling and analysis tools for power system system infrastructure planning
Start Year 2009
 
Description Risk profile of future power systems 
Organisation The National Grid Co plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Two studies undertaken by Programme Grant researchers ('Quantifying Risks of Smart Grid Technologies' and 'Integrating wind uncertainty in transmission network planning') connected to Project PS-C of Programme Grant (Control for Energy and Sustainability)
Collaborator Contribution Funding for researchers to conduct studies as above
Impact Recommendations to National Grid will influence their future infrastructure policies
Start Year 2011
 
Description Wind Generator Design 
Organisation Wintec Waikato Institute of Technology
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Research student supervision, and consultancy services to WinTech
Collaborator Contribution Funding for a PhD student to support wind energy work for the Programme Grant, and also , free use of simulation software and Windrive technical support
Impact New, energy efficient designs for wind generators for Wintech to commercialise
Start Year 2010
 
Title None 
Description Nominal entry 
IP Reference  
Protection Copyrighted (e.g. software)
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact Nominal entry. The main outcomes of this research were ideas, publications etc.,
 
Title None 
Description Nominal entry 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Medical Devices
Current Stage Of Development Initial development
Year Development Stage Completed 2010
Development Status Closed
Impact Nominal entry 
 
Title Imperial College London Optimal Control Software (ICLOCS) 
Description The code allows users to define and solve optimal control problems with general path and boundary constraints and free or fixed final time. It is also possible to include constant design parameters as unknowns. ICLOCS is implemented in MATLAB. It includes the ability of using the nonlinear optimization code Ipopt and the SUNDIALS ODE solver CVODES for sensitivity analysis. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2010 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Used by universities in the UK and abroad to compute optimal controls 
URL http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/ICLOCS/
 
Description 1st CFES Workshop: Control of Electrical Power Systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact This was a workshop to launch to Programme Grant 'Control for Energy and Sustainability'. All participants attended, in addition to members of the steering committee, sponsors, etc

Team building, defined the goals of the programme grant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
URL http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/cfes/Main/CfesWorkshops
 
Description 2nd CFES Workshop: Control of Transportation Systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Brought together all participating researchers and other stakeholders in transportation aspects of the Porgramme grant, defined goals etc.

Team building for research staff in the programme grant. Informed external participants of the research programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
URL http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/cfes/Main/CfesWorkshops
 
Description 3rd CFES Workshop: Nonlinear Control and Optimization 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact This was a major, international workshop on Optimization, which took place at the Royal Society, having numerous international participants,with special emphasis on work being done in the Programme Grant.

Stimulated much discussion on trends in optimisation and control research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
URL http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/cfes/Main/CfesWorkshops
 
Description 4th CFES Workshop: Optimal Control 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact An three day, international workshop in optimal control, including presentations and short courses on aspects of the subject covered by the Programme Grant

An international audience of researchers, working in optimal control, interacted with participants in the Programme Grant (comments on presentations, proposed alternative methods of approach, etc)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/cfes/Main/CfesWorkshops
 
Description 6th CFES Workshop: Modeling of Multi-­body Systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Workshop, with international speakers, including presentations on work done within the Programme Grant, on vehicle modelling and control

Strong interest shown in work by David Limebeer and Simos Evangelou, coming out of their participation in the Programme Grant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/cfes/Main/CfesWorkshops
 
Description 5th CFES Workshop: Network Synthesis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Workshop, with speakers from abroad, on control systems design, with emphasis on the network synthesis, and including presentations on work done in the programme grant

Very well received presentations on Malcolm Smith's programme grant research, by international audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description 7th CFES Workshop: Control for Energy and Sustainability 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Special session on Programme Grant research at an international control conference, and a panel discussion on future of control, organised by Programme Grant Director and Co-Director

Panel discussion was well attended. Strong interest in presentations on future directions, and calls for future such meetings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/cfes/Main/CfesWorkshops
 
Description 8th CFES Workshop: Control of Uncertain Systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Major workshop celebrating the contributions of Prof Keith Glover (co-investigator on Programme Grant) and including presentations on research from Programme Grant

Presentations concerned with future directions of control were of principal interest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://divf.eng.cam.ac.uk/cfes/Main/CfesWorkshops