Novel Thermal Management of Power Electronic Devices: High Power High Frequency Planar Gunn Diodes

Lead Research Organisation: De Montfort University
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

This proposal targets the development of a compact high power planar Gunn diode suitable for Tera-Hertz (THz) imaging. THz imaging is seen as new opportunity for enhanced security screening at airports, train stations, and other security sensitive places to counter terrorist threats. To achieve high-power THz Gunn diodes, novel heat-sink technologies will need to be developed, which is the key aim of this proposal. This proposal focuses on a novel Gunn diode design, planar Gunn diodes, which enables output frequencies much higher than possible with the traditional commercially available vertical Gunn diode design. We will develop innovative integrated cooling approaches using a combination of thermoelectric (TE) and gas micro-refrigeration for planar Gunn diodes to achieve the goal of a compact and high power Gunn diode suitable as source for THz imaging. With the UK being technology industry leader on Gunn diodes (e.g. e2v technologies Ltd.), the development of compact and high-power THz Gunn diodes is of strategic importance for UK science, engineering and technology, to gain an international lead in the THz field. Developments on integrated active device cooling achieved in this work, however, will be transferable to other device systems. This is important as active cooling to remove heat from electronic and opto-electronic devices is becoming increasingly important as devices shrink in size, packing densities increase, and as higher output powers are demanded in many applications. The proposal brings together internationally leading UK groups on Gunn diodes and their design, cooling technologies, thermal characterization and device thermal management.

Publications

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Christopher Oxley (Co-Author) (2012) 164GHz InGaAs planar Gunn diodes in Electron device letters

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Glover J (2017) IEEE, Electron Device Letters in Thermal Profiles within the Channel of Planar Gunn Diodes using Micro-particle Sensors

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Glover J (2015) Micro-coolers fabricated as a component in an integrated circuit in Semiconductor Science and Technology

 
Description Second harmonic extraction from planar Gunn diode (both GaAs and InP based) was successfully demonstrated providing opportunities with further development planar Gunn diode milli-metric and tera-hertz sources.
A novel planar diamond resonator was developed which occupied less chip area than conventional resonators used on MEM's gas sensors
Micro monolithic integration of GaAs based micro-coolers to active device to achieve cooling not efficient and present work indicates can only be achieved if substrate supporting the structure is very thin <10 microns.
Micro-particle sensor further developed for measuring the very small differences in temperature between the cooled and hot electrodes of micro- coolers with small Seebeck coefficient (GaAs). The thermal measurement technology is now being used for MEM's gas sensors and for high temperature (>600C) miniature hot-plate measurements
Exploitation Route Further development of the planar Gunn diode, in particular a more complete planar Gunn diode electrical equivalent circuit model to enable design of improved on chip circuit matching.
With reference to micro-cooler the theoretical work indicated that magnitude of Seebeck coefficient is dependent on the barrier interface slope which needs to be more fully explored both theoretically and experimentally.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description Micro infra-red particle sensor with high emissivity, which can be placed on device (electronic etc) to obtain more accurate temperature point measurement in conjunction with an infra-red microscope. The sensors are particularly useful on materials with a low surface emissivity or materials which are transparent to infra-red radiation (semiconductors). Patent GB0821112 (EP/HO12966/1) Devices which the method has been used include MEMs (gas sensors) and mapping temperature of ultrasound transducers used in medical imaging. The technique has recently been applied to measuring high temperatures (>600C) in miniature hot-plate technologies.
Sector Electronics,Healthcare
Impact Types Economic

 
Description PhD Bursary
Amount £36,000 (GBP)
Organisation De Montfort University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2010 
End 01/2014
 
Description PhD Bursary
Amount £36,600 (GBP)
Organisation De Montfort University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 01/2018
 
Description RCIF2
Amount £35,792 (GBP)
Organisation De Montfort University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 06/2014
 
Title Infra red (IR) micro-particle sensor 
Description To more accurately measure the surface temperature using IR technology. Many materials have a low surface emissivity for example gold or are transparent to IR making them difficult to obtain accurate surface temperatures when using IR technology. The method uses a high emissivity spherical particle which is put in iso-thermal contact with the surface of the material and at the point the temperature is to be measured. The emitted IR radiation will be close to black body giving a more accurate surface temperature at that point. The method is primarily used in conjunction with an IR microscope and micro-manipulator which enables the controlled movement of the particle across the material surface. The particle is moved across the surface and at each location the temperature is measured using the IR microscope, producing a thermal profile. The method has been successfully used to measure the thermal profile across the junction of a planar Gunn diode and the membrane of a gas sensor. The thermal spatial resolution will be dependent on the diameter of the spherical micro-particle and the optics of the IR microscope. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Method has been used to measure the temperature profile across ultrasonic transducers used in medical diagnosis. Resulting in the procedure for temperature monitoring such devices to be under review. 
 
Title IV Automation 
Description MSc student 'IV Automation of semiconductor devives' has enabled fast on wafer characterisation of planar Gunn diode and micro-cooler. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Speeds measurement of IV characteristics 
 
Description Cambridge CMOS sensors 
Organisation Cambridge CMOS Sensors
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Measurement of thermal profile of MEMS miniature heater using IR
Collaborator Contribution supply of parts to be measured
Impact Papers see publications
Start Year 2009
 
Description E2V Technologies 
Organisation e2v Technologies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
Start Year 2005
 
Description Emissivity mesurement 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To assess using conventional IR to measure emissivity of teeth
Collaborator Contribution Supply samples
Impact Not determined
Start Year 2015
 
Description Filtronic Comtek (UK) Limited 
Organisation Filtronic
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
Start Year 2005
 
Description Measurement of high temperatures in miniature hot-plate technology 
Organisation Academy of Medicine
PI Contribution The measurement of the temperature and uniformity of the temperature across miniature hot-plates. The miniature hot-plates supplied by ams
Collaborator Contribution Supply of miniature hot-plates with geometrical changes
Impact A paper 'Infra-Red Thermal Measurement on a Low Power Infra-Red Emitter in CMOS Technology' has been submitted to SMT for consideration of publication
Start Year 2017
 
Description Measurement of planar Gunn diode in cavity 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Set up packaging and measurement of devices
Collaborator Contribution Supply of devices
Impact None at present
Start Year 2017
 
Description Rhode & Schwarz 
Organisation Rohde and Schwarz
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Measurement
Collaborator Contribution Equipment signal generator, network analyser, spectrum analyser
Impact A number of student projects
Start Year 2009
 
Description Thermal measurement of gallium nitride HEMT devices 
Organisation Test location
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Temperature mapping
Collaborator Contribution Provide samples
Impact Thermal performance for different die mounting technologies
Start Year 2016
 
Description Thermal measurement of gallium nitride HEMT devices 
Organisation TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc.
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Temperature mapping
Collaborator Contribution Provide samples
Impact Thermal performance for different die mounting technologies
Start Year 2016
 
Description Thermal reflectance measurements of miniature thermal hot-plates 
Organisation Quantum Focus Instruments Corporation (QFI)
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Thermal reflectance measurements of miniature thermal hot-plates
Collaborator Contribution Use of measurement equipment
Impact No output to date
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Aberdeen 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Continued collaboration on micro-coolers
Collaborator Contribution Computer modelling
Impact papers - publications on form
Start Year 2010
 
Description University of Bristol 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
Start Year 2005
 
Description University of Glasgow 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Circuit design
Collaborator Contribution Fabrication of milli-metric circuits and the use of the high frequency measurement facilities
Impact Papers, please see publications
Start Year 2011
 
Title Micro-particle sensor for improved spot infra-red thermal measurements 
Description Micro-particle of high and known surface emissivity enables more accurate temperature measurements on low emissivity metals and multi-level semiconductor materials 
IP Reference GB0821112.0 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2010
Licensed No
Impact Temperature measurement of medical ultrasonic transducers Measurement of temperature on gas sensors Idea transferred to Raman thermography
 
Description Article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in IET Partner News
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Electronics Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Papers presented by national/international in microwave/thermal. Delegates from universities, industry and MOD

A number of industries asked for the workshop to be an annual event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Expert evaluator for Fondecyt National Research Funding Competition (Chile) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Influenced decision

Ranking proposal
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description FP7 expert evaluator 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact On expert panel for proposal evaluation

Proposal ranking
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description FP7 expert evaluator for space technology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Ranking of European proposals for space technology

Proposals ranked
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Guest lecture to Physics Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lecture on use of infra-red imaging for thermal management of advanced electronic devices
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Nanoelectronics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation on nano-electronics and questions

Schools asked for presentation available for resource information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Second guest lecture to physics group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lecture on cosmology - age and size of he universe
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016