Lighting the Future

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Materials Science & Metallurgy

Abstract

Next time you change a tungsten filament light-bulb, give a brief thought to the amount of energy that bulb will have used up over its lifetime: more than 200 million Joules (about the same amount of energy as is contained in 3 tonnes of coal)! If you consider how many light bulbs must be in use in the world at this moment, it becomes clear that a huge amount of energy is spent keeping our homes and offices lit. In fact, about a fifth of electricity usage in the UK is for lighting. Hence, improvements in something as simple as light bulb efficiency could have an enormous impact on the UK's greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.A new semiconductor material - gallium nitride (GaN) - provides a potential solution to the lighting problem. GaN is used to make white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). These solid state-light sources are already much more efficient than conventional tungsten filament light bulbs, and could potentially yield efficiency improvements of more than ten times (and be three times more efficient than compact fluorescent lamps). To achieve these vast improvements in efficiency, we need to thoroughly understand the material from which we make the LEDs, and how its structure, composition and properties influence LED performance. We also need to design devices which make the best possible use of everything we learn about the material. A large number of different factors influence the efficiency of LEDs, and in this programme, scientists from Cambridge, Manchester, Bath and Strathclyde are pooling their expertise to understand what limits the efficiency and find solutions which will benefit all of us, by providing sensibly-priced, highly-efficient lighting units which will be long-lasting and provide attractive high-quality light in homes and offices.To do this, we are breaking down the question of LED efficiency into a number of inter-linked scientific projects. GaN LEDs are based on thin layers of material grown on other materials such as silicon or sapphire. Electric current is passed into the active region of the LED, from which the light is emitted. The active region consists of very thin alternating layers of GaN and another semiconductor - indium gallium nitride (InGaN). The InGaN layers are only ten atomic layers thick and are called quantum wells. In the InGaN layers, positive and negative charge carriers become trapped and hence combine with one another giving out light. The GaN and InGaN crystals are not perfect, however, and defects in their structure can disrupt the light emission process, resulting in the production of heat rather than light and a reduction in LED efficiency. In the early years of our programme, we plan to tackle fundamental questions relating to light emission efficiency, by pursuing projects concentrating on the defects in the material, the detailed small-scale structure of the InGaN quantum wells and the electric fields which arise in those quantum wells. The effect of all of these factors will be dependent on the amount of electricity injected into the LED, and a major problem is that LED efficiency drops at high injection currents. Since high brightness LEDs for lighting require high electric currents, we will also need to understand this question before solid state lighting can reach its full potential.The new materials and structures we develop will have to be integrated into working LED devices, and the architecture of those devices is also a key factor affecting efficiency. Hence, another of our research projects will address device design. By bringing the new ideas we develop about materials and devices together we aim to produce LEDs that are highly efficient and thus beneficial to our environment, cheap to buy and, unlike compact fluorescent lamps, produce an attractive colour of light to make homes and offices pleasant and healthy places to be. In the end, we hope the products of our research really will be lighting your future!

Planned Impact

Fully understanding and overcoming the factors limiting the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of III-nitride LEDs, the primary objective of the project, is expected to result in IQEs of more than 90%. The impact of such LEDs on the lighting industry at every level cannot be overstated. White light sources with efficacies of 250 lumens/W or more, a factor of 2.5 greater than fluorescent tubes, could be produced consistently and cost-effectively. The effects of this technology on all sectors will be immense: * Industry and commerce throughout the UK will benefit from reduced electricity bills as a result of the uptake of energy-efficient lighting, increasing profits and boosting the UK economy. * The development of improved energy-efficient lighting can cut the energy used for lighting by up to 80% and give a reduction of up to 15% in the UK's total electricity usage, helping the UK Government reach its legally binding target of a 34% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2020 and reducing our dependence on foreign energy supplies. * The wider public will benefit from improved quality of life through provision of better quality, mercury-free, energy-saving lighting for homes and offices (bringing lower energy bills and environmental and health benefits). A successful research programme that contributes significantly to the introduction of LED lighting will inevitably place UK industry in a powerful position to exploit this exciting new technology. * The UK has over 1700 companies working in the lighting industry. * Whilst there is currently no major LED manufacturer in the UK, the barriers to new entrants in the field are low. The photovoltaic industry in Germany provides a comparable example. The project partners are involved in discussions with UK industry on establishing LED manufacturing capability. * The project partners have close links with III-nitride-based UK industry (e.g. Sharp Europe, IQE, QinetiQ, AIXTRON UK, RFMD UK, Enfis, PhotonStar LED and Forge Europa). These links will ensure that our research tackles major questions that are relevant to commercial needs and will provide multiple routes for commercial exploitation. (See letters of support). Our research has already had a major impact on some of these industries. For example, it has helped Aixtron Ltd. to sell many growth reactors and helped Forge Europa to grow by over 100% in the last three years. * The exploitation of the outputs of this programme will be ensured by the significant commercial and patent expertise of our personnel, combined with a strong industrial presence on our Steering Panel, our broad-ranging industrial links, and the availability of expert advice on IP and commercialisation from University Technology Transfer Offices. * We will offer cross-disciplinary training and industrial secondment opportunities to students and PDRAs, providing them with a broad base of scientific and transferable skills to take into future employment in UK industry. Alumni of the partner research groups are currently having significant impact as employees of UK industries. Public outreach activities are vital to ensure the acceptance and uptake of energy-efficient lighting. The project partners are both trained and experienced in science communications, and are currently involved in a broad range of outreach activities which they plan to extend during the project: * The Cambridge/Manchester research on LEDs has recently been highlighted in the EPSRC IMPACT! campaign and has had widespread press and TV coverage. * We will continue to raise awareness of energy-efficient lighting through public outreach activities (including, a proposed exhibit at the Royal Society Summer Exhibition), press releases and a dedicated interactive section of the project website. * The hosting of the main international nitride conference (ICNS) in 2011 in Glasgow provides an excellent platform to deliver key results to world-wide academia, industry and the local public.

Publications

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Angioni E (2016) A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission in Journal of Materials Chemistry C

 
Description 1. We have invented a new way to make large-area graphene, which we believe is the best large-area graphene in the world and, for the first time, is suitable for manufacturing electronic devices. Humphreys and two of his PDRAs, Simon Thomas and Ivor Guiney, founded two spin-out companies to exploit this research, 2D Technologies in 2015 and Paragraf in 2017. Paragraf moved into premises near Cambridge in 2018 and already employs 20 people. It is manufacturing large-area graphene and graphene devices. Thomas is the CEO, Guiney the CTO and Humphreys the company Chairman. Humphreys moved from Cambridge to Queen Mary University of London in 2018, and QMUL and Paragraf are collaborating in the development of graphene and graphene devices. QMUL and Paragraf have recently been awarded an Innovate UK grant for graphene.
2. We have produced 8-inch diameter graphene on silicon, the largest diameter graphene in the world and suitable for large-scale manufacture of graphene devices. Our first graphene device, to be launched shortly, is a graphene Hall effect sensor, for measuring magnetic and electric fields. It is the most sensitive Hall sensor in the world, 30 times more sensitive than a silicon Hall sensor. We believe our graphene will be revolutionary and transformative, enabling graphene to fulfil its predicted potential when it was discovered and isolated in 2004. Our graphene research arose from trying to make a GaN/graphene transistor and realising that no existing graphene was of high enough quality to manufacture graphene electronic devices.

Concerning GaN LEDs, key findings include the following:
1. Whilst dislocations have an impact on LED performance, they are not the main limiting factor for materials with dislocation density of the order of 10^8 per cm^2 or lower. This is a dislocation density threshold, below which dislocations have minimal effect on the efficiency of LEDs. This goes against the widespread belief that the dislocation density needs to be as low as possible.
2. We have determined the crystallographic structure of complex defects found in GaN LEDs called trench defects. We have demonstrated that these have a significant deleterious effect on LED efficiency. However we have found that they can be eliminated by the use of hydrogen during the growth of the quantum barriers between the quantum wells .
3. For low injection current densities, LEDs with gross quantum well width fluctuations exhibit significantly higher efficiencies that those with uniform quantum wells. However, as the current density increases, the performance of both types of LED converges.
4. We have demonstrated that the efficiency of LEDs at high currents, as used for lighting, can be improved by inserting an InGaN underlayer underneath the quantum wells. This InGaN underlayer acts to modify the electric field in the quantum well stack.
5. The first studies of non-polar InGaN quantum wells using atom probe tomography (APT), revealing the detailed atomic structure of each quantum well.
6. The first identification of indium clustering in non-polar InGaN quantum wells using both APT and atomic resolution electron microscopy. (Note: This was totally unexpected and contrary to our previous discovery that there is no clustering in polar quantum wells. Our new achievement provides additional validation for the earlier results).

March 2020 update on graphene. The exploitation of the graphene research initiated on this grant has proceeded extremely rapidly. As stated above, Humphreys and two of his EPSRC-funded post-docs set up a company, Paragraf, to exploit their EPSRC funded research. We moved into premises in February 2018 with 2 employees. We now have 42 employees. We are venture capital funded. Our first product, a graphene Hall-effect sensor, is 30 times more sensitive than a silicon Hall-effect sensor. It is the first manufacturable graphene electronic device in the world (we have beaten the hugely-funded IBM, Intel and Samsung to this). In the last 12 months we have discovered that it works over a very wide temperature range and a very wide range of magnetic fields, much wider that other magnetic field sensors. CERN have been testing our graphene sensors and are so impressed they plan to issue a press release about them. We had our first sales on Christmas Eve, 2019, to Argonne National Laboratory in the USA. We are manufacturing in our premises in the UK, in Somersham, Cambs. We plan to continue developing this sensor and move on to developing other graphene sensors and electronic devices. Paragraf has filed 22 patents, we are told this is more than any other graphene company or university in the UK. This all arose from this EPSRC award.
Exploitation Route We have taken forward our invention of a new way of producing graphene by forming the spin-out company Paragraf, which is already manufacturing graphene electronic devices.

Our LED findings are highly relevant to the development of more efficient LEDs for solid state lighting and are shared with our industrial partners and collaborators who utilise them commercially.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Transport

URL https://www.paragraf.com
 
Description This EPSRC Programme Grant involved four universities: Bath, Manchester, Strathclyde and Cambridge. It has resulted in a large number of publications. Nearly all involve at least 2 partner universities, demonstrating the high level of collaboration between the partners. We were outward looking internationally, and have authors on our papers from Julich, Cork, Monash, Padua, Harvard, etc. We were also outward looking nationally, with authors from Imperial, Oxford, Institute for Photonics, Strathclyde, etc. Our research with Manchester University on a GaN/graphene transistor led to the realisation that there was no device-quality large-area graphene available anywhere in the world that was suitable for manufacturing electronic devices. One of Humphreys' PDRAs, SImon Thomas, invented a new way of producing device-quality large-area graphene, and another of Humphreys' PDRAs, Ivor Guiney, worked with Thomas on developing this new method. Thomas, Guiney and Humphreys then founded two spin-out companies to exploit this research, detailed in the section below. Concerning LEDs, our development of low-cost high-efficient LEDs made from GaN on silicon has been made in parallel on this grant and on the underpinning Platform Grant, "Nitrides for the 21st Century" in the grant list above. Our findings have been used by the UK company Plessey, as described in the Narrative Impact for that grant. Briefly, Plessey is now manufacturing LEDs in the UK at its factory in Plymouth. They acquired our technology in 2012, and in 2014 they sold over 2 million LEDs based on our technology. In Sept 2015 Plessey raised a further £60m in funding (including Deutsche Bank - £30M). The Financial Times, 29 September 2015, reported: "A niche British electronics maker is to triple its workforce as it invests £60m (£30m from Deutsche bank) in a Plymouth factory producing light-emitting diodes. It will increase production capacity by a factor of 30 and add 400 jobs by 2017. Its production process, which was developed with Cambridge University, uses silicon instead of more expensive sapphire as a base material" Our findings have also been used by Aixtron (UK and Germany) in their manufacture of gallium nitride growth equipment to achieve £multi-million sales. Also by the UK SME Forge Europa (Ulverston, Cumbria) to solve a major reliability problem they had with some LEDs they were using in their products. March 2020 update. Concerning our graphene research, we have exploited the new way of making large-area graphene we invented on this grant by setting up a spin-out company, Paragraf. Paragraf moved into premises in 2018 with 2 staff. It now employs 42 people. Our first product is a graphene Hall-effect sensor, which we believe is the best Hall-effect sensor in the world. It is currently being evaluated by CERN, NPL, Rolls-Royce and other companies, with very positive feedback. In the last few months we have achieved our first sales to four different organisations. We plan to continue to develop the Hall sensor and also to explore producing other graphene devices. The EPSRC is currently considering writing a feature article on this research and its exploitation.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description IoP Photonics Roadmapping Workshop
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL http://www.iopblog.org/roadmapping-the-photonics-sector/
 
Description Science Policy (Round Table meetings at No. 10 and BIS)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in advisory committee
Impact Increased funding for materials research has resulted. This will have economic impacts and on the quality of life
 
Description Beyond Blue:New Horizons in Nitrides (Platform Grant Renewal)
Amount £979,288 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M010627/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 01/2020
 
Description Free-standing wurtzite AlGaN substrates for DUV devices
Amount £688,438 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K008323/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 01/2017
 
Description Silicon compatible GaN Power Electronics (Programme Grant)
Amount £6,196,718 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K014471/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2013 
End 02/2018
 
Description Study of semi-polar and non-polar nitride based structures
Amount £560,766 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/J003603/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2012 
End 12/2014
 
Title Data supporting "Mechanisms preventing trench defect formation in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures using hydrogen during GaN barrier growth" 
Description Figure 1 Schematic showing the evolution of temperature and carrier gas flux with time during GaN barrier growth when H2/N2 is used (full line) or only N2 (dotted line). Figure 2 10um x 10um AFM scans of samples All N2 (a), All H2/N2 (b), and Half H2/N2 (c). To highlight the variations in prominence of the trench defects across the three samples, a common Z-scale of 15 nm is employed. Figure 3 HAADF-STEM image of the QW stack in sample Half H2/N2, observed along the <11-20> zone-axis. Figure 4 (a) HAADF-STEM image of a typical trench defect in sample Half H2/N2 highlighting the highly disturbed QW stack in the enclosed area, observed along the <11-20> zone-axis. (b) Bright field TEM image of the same region, using g = (1-100) showing the presence of a BSF at the bottom of the trench defects. Figure 5 (a) Weak beam dark field TEM image using g = (1\bar{1}00) showing the presence of a BSF at the bottom half of the QW stack but not connected to a V-shaped ditch in sample Half_H2/N2, observed along the <11\bar{2}0> zone-axis. (b) HAADF-STEM image of the same area showing the undisturbed QW stack grown on top of the BSF. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Dataset for "The ABC model of recombination reinterpreted: impact on understanding carrier transport and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes" 
Description The Excel files in this dataset contain the raw data (as measured) for the results/graphs presented in the manuscript "The ABC model of recombination reinterpreted: impact on understanding carrier transport and efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes". These measurements are of the optical power emitted from the light emitting diodes (LEDs) described in the manuscript for a range of applied forward bias currents at room temperature. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Dataset for Investigation of InGaN facet-dependent non-polar growth rates and composition for core-shell LEDs 
Description This dataset contains the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements carried out on core-shell nanostructures. The samples are highly regular arrays of GaN plasma etched cores onto which thick InGaN layers were grown using different metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth parameters. Three different InGaN growth conditions were considered with the following parameters: 750°C at 300 mbar, 700°C at 300 mbar and 750°C at 100 mbar. Statistical growth rates were determined on the non-polar crystal planes from measurements of increase in diameter using SEM images. TEM analysis was carried out on a single nanorod for greater detail. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Dataset for Optical characterization of magnesium incorporation in p-GaN layers for core-shell nanorod light-emitting diodes 
Description This dataset contains the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), Raman, and Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) measurements carried out on GaN-based core-shell nanostructures. The samples are highly regular arrays of GaN etched cores onto which various p-doped layers were grown using metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The level of p-doping was varied between different samples. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Dataset for Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods 
Description This dataset contains the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements carried out on InGaN/GaN core-shell nanostructures. The samples are highly regular arrays of GaN plasma etched cores onto which wide InGaN layer capped with a GaN layer were grown using different metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth parameters. Three different growth temperature were used to grow the InGaN layer: 750°C, 700°C and 650°C. SEM images were used to characterize the describe the fabrication, growth and assess nanorod morphologies. TEM were used to investigate the structural properties and assess the InGaN thickness along the entire length of the m-plane facets. EDX measurements were used to assess the homogeneity of the InGaN layer composition at different position along the m-plane facet and on the semi-polar facets. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Evolution of the m-plane Quantum Well Morphology and Composition within a GaN/InGaN Core-Shell Structure 
Description This dataset contains the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Catodoluminescence (CL) measurements carried out on InGaN/GaN core-shell nanostructures. The samples are highly regular arrays of GaN etched cores onto which various InGaN layer thickness were grown using fixed metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth conditions. Three different growth time were used to grow InGaN layer with various thickness: 2min, 6min, and 18min, either with or without a GaN capping layer. SEM and AFM characterization techniques were used to assess the nanorod morphology and roughness of the lateral m-plane facets. TEM were used to investigate the structural properties and assess the InGaN thickness of the m-plane facets. EDX measurements were used to assess the InGaN layer composition of the m-plane facet. CL were used to assess the optical properties of each InGaN layer thickness. Correlation of SEM, AFM, TEM, EDX and CL allow to describe the and explain the growth mechanism of a thick InGaN shell grown on GaN NRs formed by combined top-down etching and regrowth. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Fabrication of high-aspect ratio GaN nanostructures for advanced photonic devices 
Description This dataset is the result of an investigation into the impact of the temperature and pressure on the fabrication of Gallium Nitride nanostructures. The dataset contains data acquired from etched nanorods and nanopores.The data was acquired using a Hitachi S-4300 scanning electron microscope (SEM). The secondary electron (SE) images were produced using the manufacturer-supplied software. Figure numbers in the data file descriptions refer to the Microelectronic Engineering article by Le Boulbar et al. (2016) referenced in the related publications section. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description Aixtron 
Organisation Aixtron Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We grew world class GaN device structures on our Aixtron reactor(s), thus increasing Aixtron sales.
Collaborator Contribution They donated to us a senior scientist for 25% of his time. They provided free servicing and maintenance of our growth reactor.
Impact Increased sales of Aixtron growth reactors.
 
Description Forge Europa (International Headquarters 
Organisation Forge Europa
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise. Solving a major problem with the reliability of some Forge Europa LEDs
Collaborator Contribution Advice. Testing. Market forecasts.
Impact Improved reliability and lifetimes of Forge Europa LED based products.
 
Description Plessey collaboration 
Organisation Plessey Semiconductors Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We developed a new low-cost high-efficiency method for making GaN LEDs. we set up two companies which Plessey acquired. Plessey also hired 3 of my post-docs to transfer the technology and as permanent hirings. We continue to collaborate with Plessey, providing them with advice. We also provided them with two growers for a period of three months when their main grower left in 2016.
Collaborator Contribution Plessey process LED structures that we grow and we exchange information. The processing of our wafers is very important for our research.
Impact Plessey are manufacturing GaN-on-Si LEDs at Plymouth based on our technology. This is the first and only manufacturing of GaN LEDs in the UK. Plessey had the first commercially available GaN LEDs on large area Si in the world, based on our Cambridge technology, funded by the EPSRC. Plessey raised £30 million from the Deutsche Bank and £30 million from other investors in 2015 to expand their GaN-on-Si LED manufacturing. The are employing over 100 people in Plymouth in LED manufacturing. They are manufacturing millions of LEDs per year. Materials Science, Physics, Chemistry, Electronics.
Start Year 2010
 
Description St Gobain- Lumilog 
Organisation Saint-Gobain Lumilog
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Characterisation of samples to investigate leakage pathways in GaN electronics
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples for characterisation
Impact A report will be made to the relevant industry
Start Year 2020
 
Description Thomas Swan Scientific Equipment Ltd 
Organisation Thomas Swan and Co Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
Start Year 2006
 
Company Name CamGaN 
Description Set up to exploit GAN LEDs on 6 inch Silicon. 
Year Established 2010 
Impact CamGaN was formed in 2010 to commercialise a novel technology (GaN LEDs on large-area (150 mm diameter) silicon) for the cost-effective manufacture of key components of high-brightness LEDs. This novel technology holds strong potential to dramatically reduce the cost of solid-state lighting devices that are rapidly replacing incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs. Plessey acquired CamGaN in 2012. In 2014 they manufactured over 2 million LEDS based on this technology. Recently they have raised £60m to expand production capacity and this will employ 400 more people in Plymouth. The widespread use of LED lighting in the UK will save 10% of all our electricity used and 10% of carbon emissions from power stations. We are continuing to develop this work on current EPSRC grants. See also my entry under my spin-out company Intellec.
Website http://www.enterprise.cam.ac.uk/news/cambridge-spin-out-camgan-acquired-by-plessey/
 
Company Name INTELLEC LTD 
Description To further exploit our low-cost GaN LEDs on large area silicon. 
Year Established 2011 
Impact Intellec and CamGaN were taken over by Plessey in 2012. Plessey are now manufacturing millions of LEDs each year based on our technology. They are manufacturing in the UK, in Plymouth. Over 100 people are employed by Plessey in the UK on manufacturing our LEDs. Plessey raised £30 million from Deutsche Bank and £30 million from other investors in September 2015 to expand their manufacturing capabilities. Humphreys is a member of the Plessey Advisory Board. We continue to work with them on a variety of EPSRC grants. See also the entry under my spin-out company CamGaN.
Website http://www.endole.co.uk/profile/15411715/colin-john-humphreys
 
Description Cambridge Centre for Gallium Nitride Outreach Apps 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Two android apps which provide an interactive way for users to learn about light emitting diodes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
URL https://www.gan.msm.cam.ac.uk/resources/our-apps
 
Description Chesterton Science Club (Communication using Light) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact An interactive talk on "Communication using Light" was delivered to the Chesterton Community College Science Club, incorporating elements on LiFi using LEDs and quantum communication using single photon sources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Crazy about Colour (Grove School and Stephen Perse Pre Prep) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A workshop about LEDs and colour for KS1 children delivered to multiple classes across two schools in Cambridge on the same day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description EPSRC Stand - Big Bang 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Many school children increased their awareness of energy efficiency issues

This activity was coordinated by the EPSRC and they would be more able to comment on such impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description EYFS and KS1 workshops at Cambridge Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A series of workshops on light and electricity was held for early years foundation stage and key stage 1 children as part of the Cambridge Science Festival. This sparked discussion with the children's parents also. This series of workshops will be repeated at Cambridge Science Festival this year and in local schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Exhibit at Blue Dot 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Exhibit at Blue Dot of LED lighting science, Blue Dot is a major science festival held at Jodrell Bank.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description GaN Group Stand - Cheltenham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Many schoolchildren have increased awareness of energy efficiency issues and enjoyed an opportunity to experience some simple lab work.

Visitors mentioned that the information on energy efficient lighting might change what light bulbs they would buy. This may result in changed buying patterns and decreased energy usage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Inside an LED - Harrow School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A lecture at Harrow school, to which multiple other local schools were also invited. Teachers from across the Rugby Group of public schools also attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Light for life 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Active engagement in making the general public aware of the consequences of our research.

We have been asked to give repeat performances, most notably at the event "jodrell Live", which attacts many thousands of visitors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012,2013,2014
 
Description Lots and Lots of Light Bulbs (Grove School) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact An EYFS workshop on light and energy delivered to two classes at the Grove School.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Making Materials Matter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Plenary talk at a workshop for teachers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.oxfordandcambridgeoutreach.co.uk/events/making-materials-matter-2018-tea
 
Description RealSci Nano - Twitter curation and podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Rachel Oliver curated the @realscinano twitter account for a week, describing her research on nitride materials at the nanoscale and taking questions from the general public. She was interviewed for an accompanying podcast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.realscientistsnano.org/rachel-oliver
 
Description Researcher profiles website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A website has been set up with career profiles for members of the Cambridge Gallium Nitride Centre as a resource for school and University students considering a career in research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://www.gan.msm.cam.ac.uk/resources/profiles
 
Description Sci Bar talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to organisation which aims to inform public of latest scientific research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Science festival talk (How Can GaN Change Your Life?) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interactive talk was delivered to a large audience at the Cambridge Science Festival, outlinging a number of different uses for Gallium Nitride from lighting to quantum communications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Atomic Gramophone (Science Festival 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A lecture on microscopy of nanoscale structures at the Cambridge Science Festival
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.sciencefestival.cam.ac.uk/events/atomic-gramophone
 
Description University of the 3rd Age 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to organisation that provides forum for people in retirement to hear about scientific developments
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description second talk to Scibar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to public regarding latest developments in science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015