The Effects of Realistic Tidal Flows on the Performance and Structural Integrity of Tidal Stream Turbines

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

This project investigates the effects of extreme conditions on marine energy generators when installed as a single device or in arrays or farms. By combining the results of experiments, computer predictions and real life expertise, the research will enable the industry to produce, design and manufacture better tidal stream turbines that can be optimised to suit the prevailing sea conditions. Once these devices are deployed there will be a need to remotely monitor their condition and manage their operation during their life time. This research will deliver a system that will allow the owners of the devices to remotely monitor their condition and performance to ensure they achieve optimal energy production whilst maximising their life span. This will enable the electricity suppliers using this source of renewable energy to achieve the best possible long term economic performance. Finally, the environmental impact of such installations will be considered to ensure the positioning of these devices is not detrimental to the surrounding sea, coast and seabed.

Planned Impact

The partnership with industry emphasises the importance of this study as there is an urgent need for understanding extreme loading events and impact on tidal stream turbines (TSTs). Key areas of impact of this project are:-
UK: The deliverables of this study will have significant and beneficial impact on the UK, stimulating its manufacturing sector (particularly some key UK based OEMs) and helping to meet its renewable energy commitments. The design, manufacture, operation and maintenance of TSTs will benefit from this study and the UK will therefore be better placed to become a global force. The structural engineering sector will also be a beneficiary as the existing, yet underutilised, manufacturing facilities and expertise can be applied to the design and manufacture of turbine installations. Building these structures within the UK will have clear benefits for future UK economy.
Academia: The project will allow researchers and developers of any marine energy generator to incorporate the condition monitoring techniques and instrumentation, numerical modelling strategies and fatigue analysis tool into their studies. The knowledge and expertise of the investigators involved with this project have been integrated to address these issues alongside industrial collaborators. The development of robust condition monitoring systems will help direct future deployment and to determine maintenance schedules. This will provide academics with the tools which can be applied to other marine devices and devices which require remote access in hazardous environments.
An important impact is the training and development of the RAs and pg students through formal training, conference visits and the opportunity for collaboration with industry.
Device designers: The UK leads the world with the development and deployment of marine energy devices. This project will make significant contributions to accelerate the deployment of TST arrays. The understanding of wave-tidal current interaction will enable developers to reduce over engineering, whilst maintaining reliability and survivability of the TSTs. It will also reduce production and operation costs by optimising structural design. The integration of a robust condition monitoring system into the devices will allow for their remote monitoring to detect potential defects at an earlier stage before the levels of damage and repair costs escalate. The input from the industrial collaborators, MCT and TEL, with the assistance of Mabey Bridge, TATA and NI, will be significant in ensuring the findings of this project are put into practice at the first opportunity.
Energy companies, Consultants and Environmental agencies: By incorporating wave and tidal current data an accurate determination of the energy that can be extracted from a site can be achieved. This will allow the energy suppliers to gain a realistic evaluation of balancing supply and demand using tidal energy. The deployment of TST arrays will lead to the redirection of tidal currents. An understanding of these effects on the environment, both upstream and downstream will have a bearing on Consent Applications.
The understanding of the near field velocities and pressures are critical factors associated with marine life habitats. Energy suppliers and consultants such as Arup will gain considerable experience in this specific area of renewable energy. The impact of which can instigate employment benefits to the UK.
Material suppliers and structural fabricators: Understanding of the loading on TSTs will help define the material specifications and provide guidance to the device designers, manufacturers and material suppliers. The input from the industrial collaborators Mabey Bridge, Power Units M & E Engineering Ltd and TATA will ensure that the findings of this project are used to assist with the production of the next generation of TSTs. This will also ensure that the UK based OEMs are at the forefront of the Marine development industry.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This is a Challenge project awarded to Cardiff University in collaboration with Liverpool, Swansea, Bangor and Cranfield universities. Major impacts from the project which can be identified are in the following text. Each of these impact statements also show examples of journals and/or conferences where the work has been published. Additional publications will be produced post project end.

The experimental data produced and numerical models of yawed turbines were produced based on oceanography data from one of the sites off the Welsh coast, which is of interest to one of the industrial developers collaborating on the project. The data show that the flow direction fluctuates by ±20° to the main flow. The experimental and numerical results indicate that the shaft power reduces by ~20% for ±20° misalignment. The thrust also reduces, but the shaft bending moments can increase by threefold. This is with a uniform profile and no surface waves. The addition of surface waves a profiled flow exaggerate this problem still further. Work on the effects of wave - current interaction has been published in 11th EWTEC and the Intl Journal of Marine Energy to date. The flow misalignment has also been published in 11th EWTEC to date.

Good agreement has been identified between numerical and physical model predictions. The Bangor component of the project has resulted in improved understanding of conditions at tidal energy sites, including the vertical structure of velocity profile, the role of tidal asymmetry, wave-current interaction, and long-term variability of wave conditions and allowed the development of improved wave-current modelling, with and without profiled velocity profiles. This has improved understanding of the resulting fluctuating loading on the turbine drive shaft due to wave-current interaction and also due to shadowing of a support structure. The work has been published in a number of Journals and conferences to date including Renewable Energy, Energy, Applied Energy, the Intl Journal of Marine Energy, 11th EWTEC, etc.

Cardiff has established a failure model of a tidal turbine to drive the development of condition monitoring techniques and prognostic models. This work was based upon flume and flow tank testing of the engineered Cardiff Horizontal Axis Turbine. a state of the art instrumented laboratory scale turbine that can measure operational blade root loads, torque, power and 3 axis vibrations while driven in rotation under complex conditions of current and wave interaction. This has been used to generate results in the Liverpool recirculating flume and the INSEAN tow tank, using MaRINET access funding. This testing has produced a calibrated turbine that can be deployed with known fault conditions and is thus capable of supporting the experimental verification of these prognostic models. In particular the deployed blade force measurement and variable blade angle setting capabilities can be deployed in future prognostic tool proving. This is particularly applicable to future blade yawing monitoring and management tools. Researchers in Liverpool and Cardiff have proven the flexibility and reliability of the approach enabled. This work has been published, to date, in ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, International Journal of Performability Engineering, etc.

Swansea has developed a way to create complete turbulent inflow conditions for their blade element momentum model of tidal turbines, based on the synthetic eddy method, originally developed at Manchester for use in large eddy simulations. They have taken field measurements of real turbulence and used them in the model to generate a complete flow field that statistically replicates the measured tidal flows. This has been used in the blade element momentum model to investigate two problems - tidal turbine gearbox fatigue (in collaboration with Cranfield) and condition monitoring for offset blades (in collaboration with at Cardiff). These results have been presented in conference papers at the Oxford Tidal Workshop at European Conferences, etc. and has also been submitted to the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science

Cranfield have developed a monitoring system for tidal turbine gearboxes that can identify faults at the earliest stages of mechanical degradation. This work has been integrated into the monitoring approach in collaboration with Cardiff to produce a failure model of a tidal turbine that identified the needs of an appropriate condition monitoring system and led to the selection of best monitoring strategies. These have been initially deployed within the Cardiff Drive Train test bed which has also been engineered and proven during this research. This is able to accurately mimic the effects of real life sea conditions to produce inputs into a HAT drive train. Due to the lack of operational data available from turbines at sea the validation was performed by comparing turbine load and speed data generated numerically using flow data for one of the expected tidal turbine sites with experimental data from laboratory measurements from the laboratory scale turbine. Reasonable agreement has been identified between numerical and physical model predictions. The response of the generator to such inputs has been integrated into a novel condition monitoring approach. This rig can enact input characteristics associated with extreme sea conditions that cannot be otherwise replicated and directly measure the response of the drive train and power generation. The test bed can be configured to include drive train elements as required. This work has, to date, been published in Proceedings of Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management, European Conference of Prognostics and Health Management Society 2014, 11th EWTEC, etc.

In addition Cranfield have developed a new condition indicator for bearing health assessment termed impulse energy (IE) indicator that utilises the data collected by the monitoring system to estimate condition and degradation by separating the bearing signal using the proposed signal separation. Least Mean Square LMS and Fast Block Least Mean Square FBLMS fault detection algorithms have been developed, tested and validated to monitor condition and improve early fault detection for both parallel-shaft and planetary gear systems. This work has been submitted to the Journal of Mechanical System and Signal Processing.

Consideration of the issues of either rotating blades through 180 degrees or rotating the turbine nacelle and rotor to face the tidal current has been investigated using CFD. Combined with the misalignment work the outputs show clearly that profiling the stanchion could be problematic if the direction of the flow varies, hence a round stanchion profile is optimum. However there are likely to be few conditions where a turbine should not 'see' the flow before the support structure as the fluctuations in flow downstream of the structure cause reduced and fluctuating power but increased amplitudes in shaft loads and bending moments. The rotor should also be positioned at least two stanchion diameters upstream of the stanchion to ensure the separation of the flow between the turbine blades and the stanchion itself, hence minimise the fluctuations in power and load. These results have been published in Journal of Renewable Energy.

Two contributions to books have also resulted from this work:

T O'Doherty, D M O'Doherty, A Mason-Jones. Wave and Tidal Energy, Tidal Energy Technology, Chapter 4. Publishers: John Wiley & Sons. Submission date: Nov 2015.
Sarah Tatum, Carwyn Frost, Daphne O'Doherty, Allan Mason-Jones and Tim O'Doherty, Modelling Tidal Stream Turbines, Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind, Vol 1 Part IV, Chapter 32, Pg 351 - 364, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-17777-9, ISBN 978-3-319-17776-2 (eBook: ISBN 978-3-319-17777-9), Publishers: Springer (2015).
Exploitation Route The instrumented turbine can be used at Laboratory scale for developers to characterise blade design.
The design of the turbine can be used when studying array placement.
Methodology for FSI modelling should be useful for researchers considering 2 way coupled models.
The improved BEMT model will provide more accurate outputs for turbine devleopers before detailed studies.
The use of CFD outputs for assessing condition monitoring is a very useful tool examining failure prediction.
The information on the fluctuations in power output and loading due to wave-current interaction is critical to the life predictions. Early estimates from both Cardiff and Cranfield indicate that the amplitudes of the load fluctuations through the drive shaft could have a significant imact for device designers.
Sectors Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description The findings from this project have been widely disseminated to academic, industrialists and the public through a number of presentations. A number of invited talks have been given around the UK and internationally by the project investigators in addition to the Supergen Marine quarterly and annual meetings. For Example Primare, Bristol Tidal Energy Forum, WREC, UK SIN organised visits, Schools, etc. Data from flume tests have also been utilised by other projects funded by EPSRC Supergen Marine Grand Challenges , for example Prof P Dong. The turbine developed for this project has been used to test different blade profiles from outside of the collaboration, i.e. Dalhousie and Strathclyde University. The turbine has also been used via IAA funding to provide detailed wake measurements for modelling validation on a Wales' NRN PhD project. PhD subsequently awarded.
Sector Energy,Environment
 
Description FP7 Marine renewables access network (Marinet)
Amount € 45,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2015 
End 06/2015
 
Description Feasibility in Energy 2017
Amount £197,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R000875/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2018
 
Description Fujitsu / HPC Wales Studentship
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 502803 
Organisation Fujitsu 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2015
 
Description HPC Wales Rsearch and Innovation Project
Amount £43,645 (GBP)
Funding ID 507889 
Organisation HPC Wales 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 05/2015
 
Description Innovate UK
Amount £101,008 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N509838/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Royal Academy of Engineering Distinguished Visiting Fellowship
Amount £5,600 (GBP)
Funding ID DVF1415\1\48 
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 03/2015
 
Description SUPERGEN MARINE 2015
Amount £803,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N020782/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 06/2019
 
Description Ser Cymru National Research Network for Low Carbon Energy and the Environment
Amount £506,873 (GBP)
Funding ID C001822 
Organisation Welsh Assembly 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 06/2018
 
Title Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine Flume Testing Data 
Description The data provided is the result of the Flume Testing used to develop and test Condition Monitoring system and algorithms. The data is for an optimum turbine rotor set up, with blade offsets of 6 degrees. Three sets of flume experiments were conducted for flow velocities of 0.9 m/s, 1.0 m/s and 1.1 m/s. Flume data was obtained by testing for the following seven values of l: 1.5, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.5. In this way parametric surface were developed which creating a characterisation of the turbine operation under a variety of operating conditions. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title The specification of and testing of a Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine Rotor Monitoring approach 
Description DATA Set Created at Cardiff University based on research presented in the IJPHM paper, 'the specification of and testing of a horizontal axis tidal turbine rotor monitoring approach.' List of Data Files: CFD_DATA.mat InitialSimsTI000_0.mat InitialSimsTI000_5.mat InitialSimsTI001_0.mat InitialSimsTI002_0.mat InitialSimsTI010_0.mat CMMetricsTI000_5.mat CMMetricsTI001_0.mat CMMetricsTI002_0.mat CMMetricsTI010_5.mat ClassificationResultsTI000_5.mat ClassificationResultsTI001_0.mat ClassificationResultsTI002_0.mat ClassificationResultsTI010_0.mat FluidTimSeriesTI010_0.mat Ct.txt TSR.txt INFORMATION on DATA FILES: CFD_Data: This data set in the form of matlab structure contains data from the CFD models undertaken to produce the paramertisation data for the model detailed in the paper. CTC - Vector containing the non-dimensional torque curve for the turbine rotor being studied. ITSR - The Tip-Speed-Ration indexes for the above torque curve. Steady_State_Parameters--|-Optimum----|--CFD Data : CFD TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm). | |--Model Data: Details of the CFD model - Rotor Radius (m), Rotational Velocity (Rad/s), Mean Fluid Velocity (m/s). | |-Off6_5-----|--CFD Data: CFD TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm). | |--Model Data: Details of the CFD model - Rotor Radius (m), Rotational Velocity (Rad/s), Mean Fluid Velocity (m/s). | |-Off9-------|--CFD Data: CFD TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm). | |--Model Data: Details of the CFD model - Rotor Radius (m), Rotational Velocity (Rad/s), Mean Fluid Velocity (m/s). | |-Off12------|--CFD Data: CFD TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm). |--Model Data: Details of the CFD model - Rotor Radius (m), Rotational Velocity (Rad/s), Mean Fluid Velocity (m/s). InititalSimsTIxxx_x: Here XXX_X is the TI for the simulation contained in the matlab workspace e.g. InitialSimsTI010_0.mat contains the simulation results for the TI = 10% simulations. CTC - Vector containing the non-dimensional torque curve for the turbine rotor being studied. ITSR - The Tip-Speed-Ration indexes for the above torque curve. Steady_State_Parameters--|-Optimum----|--CFD Data : CFD TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm). | |--Model Data: Details of the CFD model - Rotor Radius (m), Rotational Velocity (Rad/s), Mean Fluid Velocity (m/s). | |-Off6_5-----|--CFD Data: CFD TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm). | |--Model Data: Details of the CFD model - Rotor Radius (m), Rotational Velocity (Rad/s), Mean Fluid Velocity (m/s). | |-Off9-------|--CFD Data: CFD TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm). | |--Model Data: Details of the CFD model - Rotor Radius (m), Rotational Velocity (Rad/s), Mean Fluid Velocity (m/s). | |-Off12------|--CFD Data: CFD TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm). |--Model Data: Details of the CFD model - Rotor Radius (m), Rotational Velocity (Rad/s), Mean Fluid Velocity (m/s). SteadyStateSimulation----|-Optimum----(1 to i)|--SimInfo: Gives all the information used to create the simulation. This includes the parameters used for the model detailed in [1] and the turbine information. | |--SimResults: Model TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm), FluidVelocity (m/s). | |-Off6_5-----(1 to i)|--SimInfo: Gives all the information used to create the simulation. This includes the parameters used for the model detailed in [1] and the turbine information. | |--SimResults: Model TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm), FluidVelocity (m/s). | |-Off9-------(1 to i)|--SimInfo: - Gives all the information used to create the simulation. This includes the parameters used for the model detailed in [1] and the turbine information. | |--SimResults: Model TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm), FluidVelocity (m/s). | |-Off12------(1 to i)|--SimInfo: - Gives all the information used to create the simulation. This includes the parameters used for the model detailed in [1] and the turbine information. |--SimResults: Model TimeStamp (Seconds), Rotor Position (Degrees), Tootal Torque (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade1 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade2 (Nm), Torque Contribution Blade3 (Nm), FluidVelocity (m/s). NOTE: 1 to i refer to the simualtion number. for cases InitialSimsTI000_5, InitialSimsTI001_0 and InitialSimsTI002_0 there are 50 cases, i.e. i = 50. For the InitialSimsTI010_0 case there are 10 cases, i.e i = 10. CMMetricsTIxxx_x: Here XXX_X is the TI for the simulation contained in the matlab workspace e.g. CMMetricsTI010_0.mat contains the condition monitoring metrics outlined in [1] for the TI = 10% simulations. NormCMData: Matrix (4 by (number of simulations x number of fault cases)) The matrix contains the normalised condition monitoring metrics detailed in [1], each row contains a specific metrix i.e row 1 contains CM metric 1 (as defined in [1]). In the case of the TI000_5 to TI002_0 cases, there are 50 simulations of 4 differing rotor conditions, resulting in 200 columns. The first 50 contain data relatig to the optimum case and so on, in the order 'Optimum', 'Off6_5', 'Off9', 'Off12'. This data was used to train the NBCs detailed in [1]. ClassificationResultsTIxx_x: Here XXX_X is the TI for the simulation contained in the matlab workspace e.g. ClassificationResultsTI010_0.mat contains the cNBC results for the TI = 10% simulations. For Each fault case the following variables provide the results of the testing of the trained NBCs, trained as detailed in [1]. The case in the variable title refers to the condition of the data inputted into the NBC> NBClabel___: The MAP classification results for the inputted data set. NBCPosterior___: Posterior probability returned via the NBC for the inputted dataset. nbccOSToPT___: Cost of making the classification for the inputted data. FluidTimeSeriesTI010_0: Fluid time series generated via the process outline in Appendix A of [1] ct.txt Non-Dimensional Torque Curve, for the rotor. TSR.txt. Tip-Speed ratio index for the ct curve. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The outputs from the data sets has allowed the development of three turbines for turbine interaction testing. The data from all three turbines have been characterised and produce very close characteristics to each other. Publication is under review and data sets will be produced subsequently. 
 
Title instrumented tidal turbine 
Description The instrumented turbine has provided high quality data sets on power, torque and blade root loading foir use on understanding the severity of loading that can be transmitted into drive shafts as a result of wave-current interaction. The data can be used for validation of numerical models 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The turbine has now been used by another UK university to test their blade design and compare with theoretical and numerical models. The loading issues on turbines have been quantified when considering wave-current interaction, when a blade pitching mechanism fails (i.e. a fault) and also with flow misalignment. 
 
Description 9th Bristol tidal energy forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Questions were asked after the talk. A request for data sharing was requested by the ORE representative and agreed.

The sharing of data with the ORE will be very useful
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Canada collaboration meeting - Tim O'Doherty 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The workshop included both academics, industry, OERA and the Canadian DoE. The main activites resulted in a stimulation of discussions regarding the state of the development and deployment of devices.

Key areas of development needs were highlighted for the industry. Contacts across both partners and developers were made.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description I MechE regional activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact With a mixed audience of engineers and public the questions were varied after the talk

Discussions with developers of tidal energy devices after the talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description India visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A few visits were made to Indian institutions with an interest in Marine based research/industrial activites. Additional meeting took place with Stae officials, etc. After a number of presentations by both the UK and Indian participants areas of potential collaboration were identified for further discussion.

The identification of key areas for collaboration in tidal and wave energy generation research to take to the funding bodies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Intl Workshop on Sustainable Energy Ecosystems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop was an invited event funded by the British Council Newton Fund. The workshop was organised by Spouthampton University with Members of the University of San Carlos in the Philippines. 9 UK representatives were invited from 5 Universities along with 2 Singapore academics. The week long activities included presentations on tidal , pv solar and biomass energy, heat exchangers, smart cities, etc. Among the delegates were academics and researchers from Philippine Universities and political representatives.
Short presentations of research and case studies were also made by Philippine researchers.
The activiities also included two visits; the first was to a small island community that had a solar system to generate a small level of electrical energy. The second was a university spin-off company which processed Mango waste into food products and fuel.
A number of discussions took place, not least the methods for future acitivies between the UK and Philippines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Speaker at WRECXIII - Tim O'Doherty 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact stimulated questions from the Audience

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited speaker SEACAMS conference - Simon Neill 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussions with participants in the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited speaker WREC XIII - Simon Neill 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact questions asked after talk

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description School Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The presentation provided the stimulus for a number of the audience to ask a wide range of questions at the end. Further discussions continued over refreshments.

Lines of communication were opened to Alevel students undertaking some individual projects
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Supergen consortium meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Sharing of information with other Supergen consortium members.

understanding of the state of the art reserach undertaken in the UK in the area of Marine energy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Visit to Adelaide University, Australia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Stimulated discussions on the potential of marine collaboration between UK partners and Adelaide University. Explored mutual areas of interest.

Potential visit from Professor Nathan in 2015 for further discussions and additional areas of collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Visit to Mississippi State University, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact As a result of the visit collaborative research has been established with MSU in tidal/hydrokinetic energy. Subsequently a paper has been published, funding applications have been submitted to the Royal Academy GII programme (unsuccessful) and NSF (ongoing).

Subsequently a paper has been published, funding applications have been submitted to the Royal Academy GII programme (unsuccessful) and NSF (ongoing).
Dr D M O'Doherty has won a Ryal Academy of Engineering Distinguished visiting fellowship for Porfessor D Thompson of MSU to work in Cardiff early 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013