Materials for Life (M4L): Biomimetic multi-scale damage immunity for construction materials

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

The resilience of building and civil engineering structures is typically associated with the design of individual elements such that they have sufficient capacity or potential to react in an appropriate manner to adverse events. Traditionally this has been achieved by using 'robust' design procedures that focus on defining safety factors for individual adverse events and providing redundancy. As such, construction materials are designed to meet a prescribed specification; material degradation is viewed as inevitable and mitigation necessitates expensive maintenance regimes; ~£40 billion/year is spent in the UK on repair and maintenance of existing, mainly concrete, structures and ~$2.2 trillion/year is needed in the US to restore its infrastructure to good condition (grade B). More recently, based on a better understanding and knowledge of microbiological systems, materials that have the ability to adapt and respond to their environment have been developed. This fundamental change has the potential to facilitate the creation of a wide range of 'smart' materials and intelligent structures. This will include both autogenous and autonomic self-healing materials and adaptable, self-sensing and self-repairing structures. These materials can transform our infrastructure by embedding resilience in the components of these structures so that rather than being defined by individual events, they can evolve over their lifespan. To be truly self-healing, the material components will need to act synergistically over the range of time and length scales at which different forms of damage occur.

Conglomerate materials, which comprise the majority of our infrastructure and built environment, form the focus of the proposed project. While current isolated international pockets of research activities on self-healing materials are on-going, most advances have been in other material fields and many have focussed on individual techniques and hence have only provided a partial solution o the inherent multi-dimensional nature of damage specific to construction materials with limited flexibility and multi-functionality. This proposal seeks to develop a multi-faceted self-healing approach that will be applicable to a wide range of conglomerates and their respective damage mechanisms. This proposal brings together a consortium of 11 academics from the Universities of Cardiff, Bath and Cambridge with the relevant skills and experience in structural and geotechnical engineering, materials chemistry, biology and materials science to develop and test the envisioned class of materials. The proposed work leverages on ground-breaking developments in these sciences in other sectors such as the pharmaceutical, medical and polymer composite industries. The technologies that are proposed are microbioloical and chemical healing at the micro- and meso-scale and crack control and prevention at the macro scale. This will be achieved through 4 work packages, three of which target the healing at the individual scales (micro/meso/macro) and the fourth which addresses the integration of the individual systems, their compatibility and methods of achieving healing of recurrent damage. This will then culminate in a number of field-trials in partnership with the project industrial collaborators to take this innovation closer to commercialisation.

An integral part of this project will be the knowledge transfer activities and collaboration with other research centres throughout the world. This will ensure that the research is at the forefront of the global pursuit for intelligent infrastructure and will ensure that maximum impact is achieved. One of the primary outputs of the project will be the formation and establishment of a UK Virtual Centre of Excellence in Intelligent Construction Materials that will provide a national and international platform for facilitating dialogue and collaboration to enhance the global knowledge economy.

Planned Impact

The development of a new class of intelligent construction materials through the proposed high level academic research, by the academic investigators, as well as addressing scale-up, commercial and cost aspects through the extensive network of the project's industrial collaborators, is expected to have direct and significant economic and social impacts on the wide range of stakeholders involved in current and future development of our civil engineering infrastructure and the built environment. The proposed developments are expected to achieve significant reductions in whole-life costings of projects, by significantly reducing maintenance and repair costs; a 15% reduction could amount to over £5 billion/annum. The development of such resilient materials which will significantly enhance and extend the life of structures will lead to significant reductions in the production and use of cements and aggregates and hence will significantly reduce their impacts (~8% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions from the ~2.8 billion tonnes/year and ~100 million tonnes/year extraction of natural resources for cement and aggregates respectively which also constitute a large proportion of construction and demolition waste of ~20 million tonnes/year). The beneficiaries include:
(i) all those involved with construction materials, products and systems: material suppliers, consultants, contractors, clients, architects, planners, local authorities;
(ii) civil engineering consultants and contractors who: (a) are involved in asset management and support for a wide range of infrastructure projects; (b) are involved in the design, construction, management and maintenance of different types of relevant structures: underground structures in strategically important installations e.g. tunnels and waste repositories; high risk infrastructure projects such as nuclear decommissioning and installations and those in highly aggressive environments: off-shore installations and energy related (geotherma, geological sequestration) installations; (c) put sustainability at the heart of their projects and see resilient materials as a key component of sustainable development, and those who have to meet sustainability targets.
They will all benefit by being directly involved in the project activities, with the opportunity to influence the research and to improve the performance of construction materials and their design. Such innovations will also provide them with a leading edge over competitors;
(iii) government and policy makers who have the mission to embed carbon and energy reductions in infrastructure and built environment developments and to reduce the whole life costs of infrastructure and local government who have the responsibility for the management and maintenance of their stock of infrastructure and built environment structures; where such developments will have a direct impact on their efficiency and cost reductions;
(iv) UK companies working abroad, including China with their significant construction growth, as well as in parts of the world where particularly aggressive construction conditions exist e.g. construction in highly saline soils in the Middle East;
(v) Research and development organisations who will be able to work closely with the consortium and to take forward innovations to commercial scale applications;
(vi) those groups involved in design codes and standards by the provision of sufficient data and field evidence of performance to enable a move towards incorporation;
(vii) Professional engineering institutions by raising the profile of UK civil engineering research with allied research fields and industrial sectors;
(viii) the wider public by significantly reducing delays and disruptions and costs to them through fewer maintenance and repair activities and the production of a greener infrastructure with much reduced environmental impacts; as well as school pupils will also benefit from the public outreach initiatives proposed.
 
Description We have developed unique and novel multi-scale self-healing systems for concrete, mortar, grout and cemented soils using microcapsules, bacteria, shape memory tendons and flow networks. A wide range of laboratory tests have been used to validate healing processes and both laboratory and field trials of combined systems for multi-scale healing have been carried out. Full-scale trials of concrete block walls and RC panels have been conducted in collaboration with Costain to monitor the success of the techniques in the field.
Exploitation Route We are now discussing the application of these techniques with a number of stakeholders and will look to develop their use in both new and repair materials and for specific applications.
Sectors Construction,Transport

URL http://m4l.engineering.cf.ac.uk/
 
Description The research has generated societal impact as a consequence of the general publicity that it has received, raising awareness of the benefits that can be achieved by the development of self-healing construction materials by reducing the disruption caused by maintenance activities. From an economic perspective the research has generated significant interest from material suppliers and featured in the Travis Perkins stand at the Ecobuild 2016 show and at the UK Construction Week 2016 show held at the NEC in Birmingham.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Construction
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description National Infrastructure Commission - Technology Study, Call for Evidence
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-infrastructure-commission-technology-study
 
Description EPSRC DTP/Industry Studentship
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Description Impact Acceleration Award (IAA) Follow-on-funding. Microcapsule-based self-healing cementitious construction repair materials
Amount £112,389 (GBP)
Funding ID Internal Award Ref: NMZJ/137 - RG81609 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions - Individual Fellowships (Standard European Fellowship)
Amount € 183,455 (EUR)
Organisation Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions 
Sector Academic/University
Country Global
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Programme Grant
Amount £4,837,625 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P02081X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2022
 
Description Costain Lecturer in Construction Materials 
Organisation Costain Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution A teaching and research lectureship post has been created at Cardiff University with the title "Costain Lecturer in Construction Materials".
Collaborator Contribution Costain Group have committed to partly fund this position over the net 5 years.
Impact Creation of a lectureship position at Cardiff.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation Polytechnic University of Milan
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation Polytechnic University of Valencia
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation Technical University of Darmstadt
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation Technical University of Dresden
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation Technical University of Dresden
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation University of Ghent
Department Department of Civil Engineering
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation University of Lisbon
Department Instituto Superior Tecnico
Country Portugal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Self-healing As preventive Repair of COncrete Structures (SARCOS) - COST Open Call Proposal Reference OC-2015-2-19953 
Organisation École Polytechnique de Montréal
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We were invited participate in early discussions to submit a COST open call proposal. We contributed by giving specific input into forming the work plan working groups. We led on the modelling of crack healing and service life prediction group by suggesting the need for tasks for crack healing models and improving the prediction of of entire service life due to preventive repair. We also contributed, commented and gave feedback on the main proposal document.
Collaborator Contribution The cost proposal was led by CSIC, Madrid Spain. They coordinated the inputs of 25 proposers from ten COST countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Israel, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and Canada. The COST action main aims are to build strong links between different scientific communities across Europe, promote early career researchers,ensuring reasonable gender balance in the network team and promoting the research to have an impact on regulatory bodies and private companies.
Impact Our application to COST was approved on 12th February 2016. This collaboration is multidisciplinary involving Civil Engineering, Construction Engineering, Chemical Engineering Materials Engineering, Chemical Science.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Shenzhen Sino UK link workshop 
Organisation Shenzhen University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Presented 4 presentations at a workshop in Shenzhen, China. We explored the possibility of applying for research funding.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners at the Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Durability for Civil Engineering setup and hosted the workshop.
Impact Collection of workshop presentations presented in a pdf proceedings.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Submission of successful (Newton Fund equivalent) application with University Sans Malaysia 
Organisation University of Science Malaysia
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We hosted a Prof from University Sans Malaysia for 9 months in Cardiff. During this period we identified synergies in our work. We applied for a Newton Fund for collaboration between the UK and Malaysia for collaboration between the UK and developing countries. The title of the proposal was "Materials for Life Malaysia (M4LM): Biomimetic multi-scale damage immunity for construction materials enhanced with cement replacement materials". The rationale behind this proposed Institutional Links collaboration is for Cardiff University (CU) to share their knowledge of self-healing concrete and for Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) to share their knowledge of alternative cementitious materials. We co-wrote the bid document. The Newton fund application was not successful but the Malaysian Industry-Government Group for High Technology (MIGHT) approved the submission for an institutional linkage grant.
Collaborator Contribution We identified the collaboration opportunity and co-wrote the bid document. Our partner funded their visiting professor for 9 months.
Impact The outcome of the collaboration has resulted in being awarded funding to the value of £47,410. We haven't started to work on this collaboration yet and await to hear from our partners.
Start Year 2014
 
Description ITV News Anglia - Self healing materials 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact As a result of the growing interest on self-healing construction materials, ITV News Anglia reported our research in their evening news. A reporter and a cameraman visited University of Cambridge and Prof. Al-Tabbaa and her team explained in brief the ongoing research.

Requests for more interviews.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.itv.com/news/anglia/2014-12-05/scientists-work-on-solution-that-can-self-heal-cracks-in-p...
 
Description Advances Wales - Concrete that can heal its own cracks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wider awareness of our research

Enquiries from Welsh businesses and professional organisations for more information and access to results
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.expertisewales.com/advances
 
Description Australian Broadcasting Corporation Science Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Podcast and transcript on Website

Led to enquiry from Concrete Technologist and Civil Engineer responsible for concrete road construction specification development for the largest road agency in NSW.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC News - Cardiff University research into the self-healing pothole (Wales) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC News (Wales) filmed and released a new item on "Cardiff University research into the self-healing pothole" on 10th December 2014. This news item was in response to the article in the Telegraph. Prof Lark R. J. and Harbottle M. J. described how the project had been taken out of context when referring to "pot holes", however, gave an over view of the project and the potential application for the technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-30395485
 
Description BBC Points West - Self Healing Concrete 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Further press enquiries

Wider public awareness
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bath.ac.uk/play/video/1370969700
 
Description BBC Radio 4 - Frontiers, Self-Healing Materials. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Further requests for media interviews

Greater public awareness
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03jdw72
 
Description BBC Wales news item, short video broadcast on regional TV and interview on Radio (Wales) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Following the Cardiff university press release, BBC Wales created a short clip for the Wales day and evening news. The purpose was to disseminate and communicate our research to the wider public of Wales. A number of general inquiries came to the project team following the press release and regional TV news item/video/radio interview.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-south-east-wales-34658038;
 
Description CIHT Transportation professional magazine article on site trial 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CIHT Transportation professional magazine article following the Cardiff University press release about the site trial starting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwjL3L7m2ZXLAhUBbRQKHSopA...
 
Description CIRIA Webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A webinar that comprised a presentation and a question and answer session with CIRIA members. This has led to further enquiries about the research but no formal collaborations or opportunities to exploit the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.ciria.org/CIRIA/Navigation/Events/Event_Display.aspx?EventKey=E16253
 
Description CNBC's The Edge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Increased public awareness as Dr Kevin Paine appears on CNBC's The Edge of sustainable construction research at Bath.

More interest in the research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bath.ac.uk
 
Description Chemical and Engineering News magazine item (Worldwide) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chemical & Engineering News is a weekly magazine published by the American Chemical Society. C&EN editors and reporters based in Europe, the U.S., and Asia cover science and technology, business and industry, government and policy, education, and employment aspects of the chemistry field. Paine K. was quoted in the article that was released in February 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://cen.acs.org/articles/94/i6/Helping-Concrete-Heal-Itself.html
 
Description Concrete Show Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Stimulated discussion with industrialists on the practicalities and application of the proposed material systems.

Further requests for additional detail and notice of the outcomes of the research when available. Expressions of interest in future projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Concrete Test Blocks Top 'Living Building' (Article on the Civil Engineering the magazine of the American Society of Civil Engineers). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article in an ASCE magazine after an interview with Prof. Al-Tabbaa
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.asce.org/magazine/20151215-concrete-test-blocks-top--living-building-/
 
Description Concrete that can repair itself (The Naked Scientists podcasts) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof. Al-Tabbaa during this interview explained the concepts behind self-healing concrete.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/interviews/interview/1000500/
 
Description Conference Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at the 6th International Conference on Self-Healing Materials, 2017: Friedrichshafen, Germany entitled "Self-healing geotechnical structures via microbial action" by Botusharova, S.P., Harbottle, M. and Gardner, D.R.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://dechema.de/en/shmprogramme.html
 
Description Construction enquirer news item about the self-healing trials starting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Construction enquirer news item about the self-healing trials starting on site. This was published following the Cardiff University press release.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.constructionenquirer.com/2015/10/29/costain-starts-self-healing-concrete-site-trials/
 
Description Costain Concrete Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The activity involved participation in a workshop aimed at identifying and addressing how Costain can improve and enhance their business with respect to the use and application of concrete as a construction material. The delegates were Costain employees from across the UK and the discussion centred around challenges that they were facing and the opportunities that they might have to exploit innovation. The event highlighted a number of applications where self-healing concrete may be of benefit to their activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description EPSRC's 'Science for a Successful Nation 2018' Event-21/2/2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council's 'Science for a Successful Nation 2018' event showcased the revolutionary impact that engineering, maths and the physical sciences has on the UK and the world. RM4L was among the 14 EPSRC-supported research projects selected to exhibit their findings and underpinning research to promote the importance of EPSRC research in the context of UK prosperity and in particular aligned to the Resilient Nation EPSRC Prosperity Ourcomes . More than 200 delegates attended the event which sparked questions and discussion afterwards, increasing the interest in the RM4L project and engaging future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.epsrc.ac.uk/newsevents/news/sfsn2018/
 
Description Future technologies news article New Civil Engineer industry magazine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Future technologies news article in the New Civil Engineer industry magazine linked to the press release about our major self healing concrete trial getting underway. This magazine is published for the civil engineering professional body, ICE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.newcivilengineer.com/future-tech/major-self-healing-concrete-trial-gets-underway/8691164....
 
Description Here is the concrete that repairs itself 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The M4L team appeared in La Stampa, which is the Italian equivalent of the Guardian newspaper.

Increased interest in project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.lastampa.it
 
Description ICE Wales Evening Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation sparked many questions and much discussion and an agreement to give another talk when the work is more advanced.

Local interest and opportunities for further collaboration with Welsh based companies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited guest speaker ICE graduates and students Swansea evening meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited guest speaker ICE graduates and students Swansea evening meeting in March 2015. The title of the talk was 'Self-healing cementitious materials'. The audience were introduced to some of the ideas of the M4L project and a new philosophy for design with built in maintenance regimes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited guest speakers at The Sino-UK Workshop on Self-healing Materials 2015, Shenzhen University, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 3 invited guest speakers at The Sino-UK Workshop on Self-healing Materials 2015, Shenzhen University, China. Dr Davies, Dr Kanellopoulos and Mr Ma. The purpose was to foster collaboration between Uk and China. Four University from China were present and questions and discussions took place after the presentations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited key note lecture on Self-healing construction materials at SPE Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The purpose of this activity is to stimulate thinking between oil and gas practitioners on how self-healing conglomerate materials can potentially provide solutions in the problems they experience in relation to zonal isolation. The presentation followed by break out sessions, discussion and brain storming on how self-healing materials can be used in the oil and gas sector.

After the talk people from various companies contacted me and showed interest in our work and as a result we started communication on the matter with companies like Shell, Schlumberger, Halliburton and Tullow Oil.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.spe.org/events/13fse3/
 
Description Invited talk on Self-healing conglomerate materials at Tullow Oil plc 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Following up from the "Zonal Isolation Forum", I was invited in Tullow Oil HQs in April 2014 to give a talk on self-healing conglomerate materials to senior staff of the company in order to stimulate thinking and explore potential collaboration.

In the discussion after my talk people from Tullow Oil mentioned that they will think seriously the possibility of funding a student to work on the field of self-healing materials in relation to oil and gas applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Jornada Tecnica: Materiales de Construccion Auto-Reparables / Workshop: Self-Healing Construction Materials 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentations sparked many questions and much discussion amongst researchers working in similar areas.

Agreements to explore opportunities for further collaboration through Horizon 2020 projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Lark R.J. presented at "Issues in Concrete" workshop (CIRIA, London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Lark R.J. was invited and presented "Materials 4 life: Biomimetic multi-scale damage immunity for construction materials" at "Issues in Concrete" workshop organised by CIRIA, London on 17th April, 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.ciria.org/CIRIA/Navigation/Events/Event_Display.aspx?EventKey=E15227
 
Description Lunch time lecture on self-healing construction materials at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Following the end of the talk I received many questions and approached by few people interested in further discussions and exploring potential collaborations.

A research meeting has been arranged to discuss ideas and potential collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description M4L Presentation at Hong Kong City University and Hong Kong University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Whilst in China for the Sino-Uk workshop, the M4L team too the opportunity to give a guest lecture at both Hong Kong City University and Hong Kong University in Jan 2015. The topics presented sparked discussion around the development of new novel materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description M4L Presentation at Swansea University Professional Development (Swansea) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Prof Lark and Dr Davies presented the M4L project at Swansea University for their undergraduate student Professional Development Club in December 2015. The students were from all the engineering disciplines including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description M4L project and trial panels part of UCAS visit tour (Cardiff) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The M4L project, specimens and trial panels in the school of engineering laboratory have been used a research demonstration project for Cardiff University UCAS visits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description M4L team visit to TU Delft (Netherlands) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The M4L team visited TU Delft research facilities in the Netherlands to participate in a self-healing workshop. A presentation was given by Davies R., Kanellopoulos A. and Sharma T with the title "M4L: Multiscale self-healing for conglomerate materials". A presentation was also given by Jonkers H. on the research work carried out in TU Delft. Further more a tour of their facilities and demonstration project was also undertaken.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description M4L team visit to TU Ghent (Belgium) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The M4L team visited TU Ghent research facilities in Belgium to participate in a self-healing workshop. A presentation was given by Davies R., Kanellopoulos A., Sharma T and Pilegis M. with the title "M4L: Recent advancements". A presentation was also given by De Belie N. on the research work carried out in TU Ghent. Furthermore a tour of their facilities and demonstration projects at the Magnel Laboratory was also undertaken.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Materials 4 Life end of project industry conference, 2016, London, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact End of project workshop to disseminate the findings of the research and to ask the question "what next?" Comprised presentations and a discussion forum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Materials for Life (M4L): Research at Cardiff School of Engineering 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Enquiries about project

Greater awareness of project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://t.co/TdgnUUkKOb
 
Description Microbiology Society - Bacteria that heal concrete 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A presentation on the research that was used as material to promote our work to the wider microbiology field and which was published on You Tube for viewing by the wider public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7frDSx9js8
 
Description NCE Future Technology Forum, 2016, London, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of research and participation in workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Paine, K. A. gave a keynote lecture at UKIERI (India) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paine, K. A. presented "Biomimetic multi-scale damage immunity for concrete" as Keynote lecture at UKIERI:UK India Education Research Initiative in November 2015. The presentation created much debate on the possibility of using biomimetic materials for civil engineering application.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ukieri.org/
 
Description Presentation at Britpave industry conference (Midlands) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact O Teall presented the M4L project and current development at the Britpave industry seminar and dinner. The purpose was to disseminate knowledge and awareness about the M4L project amongst industry and business. This presentation led to discussions about how the new work could be applied in the highways sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.britpave.org.uk
 
Description Presentation at Weber Saint Gobain Chemist European Conference (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr R Davies was invited to give a presentation at Weber Saint Gobain's Chemist European Conference in London in May 2015. The title of the presentation was 'Self-Healing cementitious materials and the Materials for Life Project'. The audience were interested in our new techniques and the development of our new products. The discussion after the presentation included debate on the best method of bringing these new technologies to market. The presentation was key in setting up a follow up meeting to discuss how Weber and the project could collaborate on this project or future research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation by Dr C Litina at Shenzhen University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker on "Overview of the durability of different types of microcapsules for self-healing cement-based composites" at 5th International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures organised by Shenzhen University, Shenzhen-People's Republic of China, 30/6-2/7/16
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation by Prof. Al-Tabbaa at the Chongqing University (China) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation by head of department of materials engineering.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation by Prof. Al-Tabbaa at the World Economic Forum 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact World Economic Forum, presentation to leaders in wide range of sectors, presenting leading edge technologies and research as selected by the WEF that is likely to have a major impact globally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-concrete-that-heals-its-own-cracks
 
Description Presentation to Concrete Society Wales at Heads of the Valleys project, hosted by Costain. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Concrete Society is represents a network of people working within this engineering field in Wales. This activity day consisted of 5 presentations on the theme of concrete, one of which was the Materials4Life project. The Delegates also made a site visit to see the self-healing concrete site trial panels. This was a CPD opportunity for practitioners and and opportunity to see the self-healing concrete materials first hand.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Press release Cardiff University - UK's first trial of self healing concrete 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release for the start of the UK's first trial of self healing concrete issued on Cardiff University website.
This led to a number of different media organisations and companies making contact to ask for further information or how they could get involved in the research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/news/view/152733-uks-first-trial-of-self-healing-concrete
 
Description Prof Lark presented at the Association for Public Service Excellence (Wales) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Prof Lark R.J. was invited and presented "Developing a self-healing material for roads and concrete structures", at Association for Public Service Excellence, Wales workshop on the 2nd October 2015. This was a good opportunity to raise the awarenesses of self-healing technologies amongst the policy makers in Wales. The client organisations were interested in being involved in further research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.apse.org.uk/apse/
 
Description Public exhibition and talk on Self-healing Construction Materials 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Cambridge Science Centre - "Lifeworks" exhibition: Public exhibition and talk on Self-healing Construction Materials, scheduled for October 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Putting Welsh universities at the forefront of research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Greater public awareness of the research

Further general enquiries
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.walesonline.co.uk
 
Description SARCOS COST Action Training School-invited speakers, 23-25/1/2018, Lisbon 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The "Self Healing concrete: the path to sustainable construction" Training School was organised by the Self-healing As prevention Repair of COncrete Structures COST Action in Lisbon, Portugal 2018. The course consisted of invited presentations, lectures and student-led lectures. Members of the RM4L group were invited as trainers to disseminate the findings of previous research and to answer questions on important topics related to the state and future of different self-healing strategies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.sarcos.eng.cam.ac.uk/activities/trainingschools/Portugal2018
 
Description SHeMat training school 2 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Robert Davies and Maritins Pilegis attended the training school in Bristol on 2nd to 10th April 2014, where they participated in discussions covering trade-off analysis, scale-up and standardisation. They also presented their work to the group. SHeMat is a "Training Network for Self-Healing Materials: from Concepts to Market", more information can be found on their project website.

Research visits by M4L team to Delft and Ghent
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.shemat.eu/
 
Description School visit (South Wales) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dr Robert Davies was invited into a local primary school to discuss his role as an engineer and to describe his current research work. The talk focused on STEM activities and the use of biomimicry in design. The school children were asked to solve an engineering problem and challenged to use biomimicry when designing machines/robots later in the term.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Chinese Weekly - Self-healing concrete 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Journalists from "The Chinese Weekly" requested an interview with Prof. Al-Tabbaa regarding self healing concrete. They visited the Department of Engineering and recent advancements on self-healing research were explained to them by Prof. Al-Tabbaa and her team.

The interview was published on July 2015 issue, pages 68-73.

Increased interest by third parties.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description UK Construction Week 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The activity involved the manning of a display on our research at the UK Construction Week show and participation in one of the main stage debates on the opportunities for innovation in construction. The event was an ideal opportunity to publicise the benefits of EPSRC funded research and reached a much wider audience than would have been possible through conventional academic or business focussed seminars.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description University of Bath Team hope to create concrete that heals itself - Bath Chronicle 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Wider public knowledge.

Wider public awareness.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bathchronicle.co.uk/University-Bath-team-hope-create-concrete-heals/story-19205435-detail...
 
Description World Economic Forum blog - The concrete that heals its own cracks 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof Al-Tabbaa wrote a blog items for the World Economic Forum. The title is "The concrete that heals its own cracks" and addresses global environmental issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-concrete-that-heals-its-own-cracks