Gyrotron Travelling Wave Amplifier for high field Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and high frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation

Lead Research Organisation: University of Strathclyde
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

The aim of this program is to develop a stable, high power, wideband vacuum tube amplifier and sub-millimetre wave solid state driver, and demonstrate their use for a wide range of applications that cover the scientific spectrum from biochemistry through physics, electrical engineering and energy studies. In the proposed gyrotron amplifer, electrons are made to travel along a helical path in a magnetic field. The design of the device is such that the electrons' kinetic energy is transferred to electromagnetic radiation confined to the same region, thereby amplifying the latter. We will investigate a novel concept which uses a 5-fold helical corrugation on the inside surface of a 'cylindrical' waveguide to radically modify the electromagnetic wave dispersion giving eigenmodes with finite, constant group velocity in the region of near infinite phase velocity. This novel dispersion opens up for the first time the potential for a high power (100 W), broadband (~10 %), high gain (>40 dB) gyrotron amplifier in the 360 to 395 GHz frequency range.

We have performed a preliminary experiment at W-band, 92 to 98 GHz, frequencies and will build on our lead to create an amplifier in the 360 to 395 GHz frequency range based on the best understanding of this new concept and perform precision measurements of its gain, bandwidth, efficiency and stability against oscillations. This development would represent a generic technology with major commercial and scientific applications. These include improving NMR sensitivity through Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation techniques, high field pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy, materials processing, fusion diagnostics and long range, high bandwidth, line of sight communications. The proposal is a collaboration between two of the UK's leading millimetre wave groups: the Atoms, Beams and Plasmas Group at the University of Strathclyde and the Millimetre Wave Technology Group at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). Collectively these groups have decades of experience and strong international reputations in the development of high power mm-wave sources, instrumentation and components, with a strong track record in commercialisation, links with industry and delivering on project objectives. The proposed work is in a core area that is likely to lead to UK leadership in advanced high frequency, high power millimetre wave amplifiers and solid state sources that will impact on studies on high field EPR/DNP spectroscopy in years to come.

In the course of the work, Strathclyde staff will design the gyrotron amplifier and pass the designs to RAL for precision manufacture of the fine features, which will be cut into a helix with the diameter of the pencil lead using state of the art computer controlled milling machines. After preliminary testing of their waveguiding properties at RAL, the components will be passed to Strathclyde for final testing and integration with the custom built electron source and vacuum enclosure. RAL will also design and build the frequency multiplier cascade required to drive the novel amplifier: they will use new configurations of their GaAs Schottky diodes to make these components. The frequency coverage, gain and maximum output power of the new amplifiers are such that world class sources are needed to provide the high input powers necessary to exploit fully the amplifier properties.

Planned Impact

Pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) experiments are used to characterise paramagnetic (unpaired electron spin) centres, which often play a central role in determining a materials electrical, magnetic, optical, catalytic and mechanical properties. Transient radicals (paramagnetic centres) are central to understanding electron transfer processes, such as those used in photosynthesis in biochemistry, and techniques based on site directed spin labelling techniques are currently becoming the method of choice for characterising many types of biomolecular processes and interactions. In moderately high magnetic fields, the resonant frequencies of electron spins are in the mmw and sub-mmw range and can hugely benefit from technologies that provide high power amplification over high bandwidths, due to improved absolute and concentration sensitivity, higher electron polarisation, improved spectral resolution and orientational selectivity. High frequency pulse EPR is also key to next generation Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) techniques that have recently dramatically improved the sensitivity of NMR (by orders of magnitude) for many types of sample. DNP has also been used to produce highly polarised samples (metabolites) for enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging that hold great promise for the detection and monitoring of cancer. Both NMR and MRI represent $Billion industries and so DNP is currently a very active field of research in the magnetic resonance community. There is a strong requirement for the development of high peak power pulse sources at modest average power and bandwidth at 395GHz for pulse DNP. Both Strathclyde and RAL have strong track records in engagement with industry, commercialisation of technology and delivering on both Research Council and commercial research or equipment development contracts. Strathclyde is presently working on several contracts directly placed by UK industry to provide novel solutions for identified future markets. RAL has undertaken many tens of commercial contracts and commercialised the mm-wave instrumentation. We plan to pursue commercialisation opportunities as they arise.
 
Description A research team consisting of Dr. Craig Donaldson, Dr. Liang Zhang with contributions from PhD students Jason Garner and Paul McElhinney in the Department of Physics at the University of Strathclyde achieved the world's highest power (3.4kW), broadest instantaneous bandwidth (5%), low noise, frequency agile (91GHz to 96GHz) amplifier operating in the mm-wave range. The amplifier known as a gyrotron travelling wave amplifier had a gain of 36dB in the frequency range of 91GHz to 96GHz over this 7% frequency range. The gyro-amplifiers offer a unique opportunity to fill a long standing gap in the generation of high power, coherent millimetre wave radiation which can be scaled to the sub-millimetre (THz) range. The two novel concepts that enable this amplifier to have unrivalled performance is the use of 1/ a CUSP electron beam source coupled to a beam-wave interaction based on a 2/ a high-fold helically corrugated waveguide. Both concepts require world leading knowledge, understanding and expertise to enable their design, construction and operation. Strathclyde researchers have developed a way to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), a technique used to study the structure and composition of many kinds of molecules, including proteins linked to Alzheimer's and other diseases. Using a new THz amplifier in NMR spectroscopy, scientists should be able to analyse in mere minutes structures that would previously have taken weeks to decipher. The new approach, relies on short pulses of millimetre wave power, to enable researchers to determine structures for many complex proteins that have been difficult to study until now. Traditional NMR uses the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei to reveal the structures of the molecules containing those nuclei. By using a strong magnetic field that interacts with the nuclear spins of hydrogen and other isotopically labelled atoms such as carbon or nitrogen, NMR measures a trait known as chemical shift for these nuclei. Those shifts are unique for each atom and thus serve as fingerprints, which can be further exploited to reveal how those atoms are connected. The sensitivity of NMR depends on the atoms' polarization-a measurement of the difference between the population of "up" and "down" nuclear spins in each spin ensemble. The greater the polarization, the greater sensitivity that can be achieved. Another approach is to further enhance the polarization using a technique called dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). This technique involves transferring polarization from the unpaired electrons of free radicals to hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus nuclei in the sample being studied. This increases the polarization and makes it easier to discover the molecule's structural features. DNP is usually performed by continuously irradiating the sample with high-frequency millimetre waves, using an instrument called a gyrotron oscillator. This improves NMR sensitivity by about 100-fold. However, this method requires a great deal of power and doesn't work well as the frequency and power cannot be adjusted quickly. To overcome that problem the Strathclyde team have come up with a way to deliver short pulses of millimetre wave radiation using a high power (3kW), broadband (5%) THz amplifier, instead of continuous millimetre wave exposure from an oscillator. By delivering these pulses at a specific frequency, they will be able to enhance polarization by a factor of up to 660 requiring much lower power. With this improvement in sensitivity, samples that would previously have taken nearly weeks to analyse could be studied in a single day. The gyro-TWA is a technology with potential for high societal impact on a large number of themes, with strong public recognition, such as 1) fast wireless internet and telecommunications; 2) well-being and longevity of society: through its high sensitivity NMR and MRI as methods of biomarkers, imaging and medicine discovery for large numbers of diseases including cancers; 3) security and safety of society: real time security imaging (through clothes and bags) for contrabands such as explosives, illegal drugs, long range high resolution radar imaging of invading flying objects or space debris; 4) better environment and weather predictions: monitoring of volcanic ash, cloud and pollutant profiling.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Environment,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Gyro-TWA new amplifier technology
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Thz Technologies and Mm-wave amplifiers beyond 5G communications as a member of IET RF and Microwave Network
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact IET committee on mm-wave 5G program is aligned to the strategic objectives of delivering mobile communications and wireless connectivity capable of meeting the needs of tomorrow's connected society and digital economy.
URL https://communities.theiet.org/groups/blogpost/view/41/168/2270
 
Description 1 year China Scolarship Council, studentship for Kun Dong to carry out PhD studies in the ABP group Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde
Amount £14,400 (GBP)
Funding ID 201606070036 
Organisation University of Leeds 
Department China Scholarship Council
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2017
 
Description 1 year China scholarship council studentship for Yanyan Zhang to carry out PhD studies in the ABP group, university of Strathclyde
Amount £13,800 (GBP)
Organisation University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country China
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2014
 
Description Commercialization of high power broadband terahertz Gyrotron Travelling Wave Amplifier (Gyro-TWA) technology
Amount £55,500 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2015
 
Description DTA Department Studentship
Amount £67,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Description DTA Department Studentship
Amount £67,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Description EPSRC strategic equipment grant 2014, "Cryogen free superconducting magnet to enable a terahertz amplifier to be employed in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation Spectroscopy
Amount £448,500 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K011952/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
 
Description Permanent reloaction of mm-wave heads for a mmillimetre wave Vector Network analyser
Amount £230,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 126981EP02114 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
 
Description SHeet Electron beam vacuum eLectronic Devices for the generation of hIGH power THz radiation
Amount £598,368 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S00968X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2020
 
Description STFC Global Challenge Concepts, PI Dr. Wenlong He
Amount £62,100 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/M007278/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description STFC Innovation Partnership Scheme
Amount £449,300 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/P001890/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 01/2020
 
Description STFC follow-on grant, PI Dr. Wenlong He, Development of a W-band gyro-amplifier for high power, wideband pulsed coherent application
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/N002326/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2015 
End 05/2016
 
Title Copper deposition of 3-fold helically corrugated waveguide 
Description A positive 3-fold aluminium mandrel was designed at Strathclyde, manufactured the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and electrochemically deposited at the University of Strathclyde with aluminium was then dissolved away leaving the hollow helically corrugated waveguide beam wave interaction region. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The University of Strathclyde team have developed the copper deposition techniques needed to manufacture the helically corrugated waveguide beam/wave interaction region of the gyro-TWA. 
 
Title Input coupler 
Description CST Microwave studio model for high frequency input couplers for Gyro-TWAs 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact A crucial component for future high frequency input couplers has been designed enabling construction 
 
Title Vacuum brazing of 90GHz to 100GHz pillbox window for gyro-TWA input coupler 
Description A pillbox window with low loss transmission characteristics from 90GHz to 100GHz for the gyro-TWA input coupler was designed at Strathclyde. The design was passed to UK company Corvotech Ltd for vacuum brazing. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The UK company Corvotech Ltd now posses the design of a 90GHz to 100GHz input coupler and the knowledge of how to vacuum braze such a window. The only other company in the world that has been able to manufacture such an input coupler at a similar frequency 93GHz) is Calabazas Creek Research Inc based in Sam Mateo, CA, USA. 
URL http://calcreek.com/windows.html
 
Title Components measurement data for project "Gyrotron TWA for High Field EPR and high field DNP" 
Description This data set contains the vector network analyzer measured and processed data for individually component used for the gyro-TWA that has been developed for EPR and DNP. Data embargo until 01/04/18 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Unknown 
 
Title Data for: "Amplification of Frequency-Swept Signals in a W-Band Gyrotron Travelling Wave Amplifier" 
Description "This dataset contains the experimental measurement data published on paper ""Amplification of Frequency-Swept Signals in a W-Band Gyrotron Travelling Wave Amplifier"", which is partially supported by EPSRC. The data files are recorded by using Keysight VSA software 89600, which can be downloaded from https://www.keysight.com/zz/en/software/application-sw/89600-vsa-software.html. The data files recorded the beam voltage signals as well as the microwave signals when the gyro-TWA was driven by a CW signal and a chirp signal. Data embargo until 01/01/19 due to commercial constraints" 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact
 
Title Measurement of components of a W-band gyro-amplifier using VNA 
Description Input coupler, beam tube, mode converter horns and multilayer window were calibrated and their microwave properties were measured by a W-band VNA. The setup and results are recorded in this report. Data embargo until 01/04/18 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Unknown 
 
Title Particle-in-Cell computation modelling of CUSP electron gun 
Description Dr. Liang Zhang and Dr. Wenlong He have developed computational expertise with the development of a model to design CUSP electron guns for a 100GHz gyro-TWA. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This model will greatly assist cryo free superconducting magnet venodors in the construction of superconducting magnets for gyro-TWAs at present operating at a frequency of 100GHz. 
URL https://pure.strath.ac.uk/portal/en/datasets/simulation-report-of-cusp-electron-beam-source-for-tera...
 
Description Corvotech Ltd 
Organisation Corvotech
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The University of Strathclyde devised a new method to manufacture a mm-wave klystron multiplier using the 3D printing of silver. The 3D printing technique has the potential to manufacture annular and planar structures for millimeter and sub-millimetre wave cylindrical and planar, respectively Backward Wave Oscillators or Extended Interaction Oscillators.Corvtech also provided engineering expertise on the brazing of ceramics into a pillbox structure for the input window for a 90GHz to 100GHz Gyro-TWA.
Collaborator Contribution Corvotech Ltd provided advice on low temperature brazes that would be needed to ensure the 3D printed structure was vacuum tight, a necessary requirement for a vacuum electronic device as well as the brazing of a think ceramic in a W-band pillbox structure. Collaborators at the University of Lancaster provided the klystron multiplier design.
Impact A new manufacturing technique for the construction of a millimetre wave klystron using the 3D printing of metal was investigated for the first time by the Strathclyde team.
Start Year 2013
 
Description High power, high frequency amplifiers for high field ESR spectroscopy 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Adrian Cross and his team Dr Craig Donaldson and Dr. Liang Zhang are working on developing high power, high frequency amplifiers urgently needed for the UK Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy community. Collaborated with millimetre wave and EPR spectroscopy.group in the School of Physics & Astronomy, at the University of St Andrew.
Collaborator Contribution Provide advice on amplifier performance to enable EPR spectroscopy to make a major advance in the field.
Impact The collaboration is multi-disciplinary and has resulted in the preparation and submission of a research proposal to EPSRC
Start Year 2013
 
Description High power, high frequency amplifiers for high field Electron Spin Resonance applications in Biological Sciences 
Organisation Thomas Keating Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developing high power, high frequency amplifiers for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for biological applications
Collaborator Contribution Provide advice on amplifier performance (output power, frequency, bandwidth, pulse duration and duty cycle) required for EPR applications.
Impact Support for research proposal submitted to RC UK
Start Year 2016
 
Description Joint research with Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution University of Strathclyde researchers worked on this project with researchers from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
Collaborator Contribution A major challenge is the fabrication of Hellically Corrugated Waveguide (HCW) aluminium formers with an adequately accurate profile and a sufficiently smooth surface to produce the required dispersive properties with a tolerable loss. This has been overcome in the 90GHz to 100GHz frequency range by the group at Strathclyde working with the Millimetre Wave Technology Group at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory who are manufacturing the aluminium HCW formers. Strathclyde has developed its own in-house capability to deposit copper on the aluminium formers and then dissolve the aluminium away leaving the gyro-TWA interaction region.
Impact The output is design and manufacturing capability for the helically corrugated aluminium formers for the gyro-TWA,.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Keysight Technologies Ltd 
Organisation Keysight Technologies
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Keysight Technologies Ltd provided frequency swept mm-wave source to act as the input source to the gyro-TWA as well as frequency diagnostics and trained personnel to carry out joint experiments at Strathclyde.
Collaborator Contribution Keysight as well as providing approximately £100k of capital equipment for a two week loan period in support of the project also provided key personnel in the form of Peter Cain to carry out joint frequency swept experiments at Strathclyde.
Impact Join paper published in IEEE Electron Device Letters in 2018 https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8359325
Start Year 2016
 
Description Project partnership with TMD Technologies Limited 
Organisation TMD Technologies Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution TMD Technologies Limited worked with the research team and assisted/contributed to the project outcomes
Collaborator Contribution TMD advised on the possible use of a pseudospark discharge as an electron beam source in an X-ray baggage screening system.
Impact The secondment of Dr, Craig Robertson to TMD Technologies Ltd occurred via the Impact Acceleration Account 2015 to 2016. Dr. Robertson while working with TMD were able to prepare an ESA: European Space Agency procurement tender AO 1- 8716/16/NL/HK/hh for a "High Power W-Band Travelleing Wave Tube Amplifier" which was awarded to Dr. Kevin Ronald, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde working in collaboration with TMD Ltd and RAL Space. This two year knowledge exchange procurement grant for €449,999 Euros is for a high power amplifier for satellite to satellite communications.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Project partnership with Thomas Keating Ltd 
Organisation Thomas Keating Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Thomas Keating Ltd worked with the Dr Wenlong He's research team and assisted/contributed to the project outcomes
Collaborator Contribution Thomas Keating Ltd are developing a technique to deposit copper onto aluminium formers and then dissolve the copper away to leave the helically corrugated waveguide (HCW) interaction region of the gyrotron TWA. They are also developing a technique to attach stainless steel knife edge flanges onto the copper while it is being grown to enable the HCW to be attached to the output horn and for the input coupler to be vacuum tight with the use of knife edge stainless steel flanges and copper gaskets making the vacuum seal.
Impact The output from this collaboration partnership is that the manufacturing methods to make the HCW are being developed by UK industry in collaboration with the University of Strathclyde.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Project partnership with University of St Andrews 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of St Andrews worked with the research team and assisted/contributed to the project outcomes with regard to the specification of the gyro-TWA needed for EPR and DNP/NMR applications.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Graham Smith at the University of St. Andrews a world expert in Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopy has advised that the gyro-TWA would result in a significant breakthrough for EPR where at least two orders of magnitude increase in concentration sensitivity for pulsed EPR for wideline samples would be expected (compared to current instrumentation at this frequency) in a spectral range that offers high resolution, high polarisation, access to faster dynamics, higher energy scales and orientational selectivity. These advances can be expected to contribute to advances in next generation smart materials, batteries, solar cells, catalysts, new device physics, new quantum computing methodologies, medicine and understanding of structure function relationships in molecular biology, as well as impacting on a $1B annual instrumentation market (NMR, DNP and EPR).
Impact The University of Strathclyde and the Unversity of St. Andrews are investigating ways for the gyro-TWA to reach its full potential in EPR and DNP/NMR spectroscopy.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, (RAL) Space Division 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department RAL Space
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design of the positive aluminium formers for the high frequency hectically corrugated waveguide gyro-TWA interaction regions centred at 365GHz
Collaborator Contribution Manufactured 3-fold helically corrugated aluminium formers using CNC KERN machine at RAL Precision Development Facility - Millimetre Wave Technology
Impact Strathclyde has developed its own in-house technique to electrochemically deposit copper onto the positive aluminum formers manufactured by RAL for the high frequency (millimetre and sub-millimetre) helically corrugated interaction regions for gyro-TWAs.
Start Year 2013
 
Title Gyro-TWA for high sensitivity for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 
Description The gyro-TWA is a technology with potential to high societal impact, with strong public recognition in the area of well-being and longevity of society: through its high sensitivity Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as methods of biomarkers, imaging and medicine discovery for large numbers of diseases including cancers. 
Type Diagnostic Tool - Imaging
Current Stage Of Development Initial development
Year Development Stage Completed 2017
Development Status Actively seeking support
Impact Active support is being sought to develop higher frequency gyro-TWA's up to 1.2THz as there is a significant application for these terahertz amplifiers in NMR, EPR and medical imaging. 
URL http://thzpower.com/about.html
 
Title Software has been developed by Dr. Craig R Donaldson for the design and modelling of low reflection utput widows for gyro-TWAs 
Description A mu-wave programme has been developed to computationally model low reflection multi-layers windows for gyro-TWAs. This has not as yet been made open source as it could have commercial applications 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact It greatly reduces the time required to optimise the output window for gyro-TWAs. 
 
Company Name THz Power Ltd 
Description One of the researchers Dr. Helen Yin was awarded a Royal Society of Edinburgh Enterprise Fellowship for one year (2014 to 2015) to setup a spin out company and to prepare a business plan to commercialise the gyro-TWA. Dr. yin has now left the Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde and pursuit of setting up a spin out company will be carried out by Dr. Craig Donaldson. . 
Year Established 2014 
Impact The impact of the spinout company could be great in terms of creating new jobs and profits for the UK as the commercial potential of the gyro-TWA has recently begun to be realised by scientists working on dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) enhancement of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and engineers working in wireless communications.
Website http://thzpower.com/about.html
 
Description 2nd Microwaves in Plasmas and Beams Workshop 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The 2nd Microwaves in Plasmas and Beams (MPB) workshop was held at the Technology and Innovation Centre, University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, on the 12th and 13th of December 2016. The MPB workshop is principally a UK-based international forum in science and technology of microwave diagnostics and microwave heating for magnetic confined plasmas. The meeting was opened by Martin O'Brien from the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy UK, who gave an update on the impressive progress being made with the MAST upgrade and the opportunities for collaboration with university groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Invited to give a 1 week lecture course to undergraduate students (20 lectures) at the 2016 University of Electronic Science and Technology China International Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact As a consequence of my research output I was invited and gave a 1 week lecture course from the 9th to the 17th July 2017 at the University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu, China to undergraduate students. This has enabled links to be forged to new academic partners in China to scope research projects that will address some of the challenges facing the developing world. As a consequence of giving these lectures two graduating students from UESTC enrolled for PhD studies in the Atoms, Beams and Plasmas group at the University of Strathclyde, Guoxiang Shu (2016) and Kun Dong (2017)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Open day event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Research staff manned an information desk and helped with the university open day where the physics of the gyro-TWA was explained to school children interested in studying at the University of Strathclyde.

After the open day there was an enthusiasm demonstrated by the pupils to pursue a career in science and engineering
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.strath.ac.uk/researchday/schoolsinvolved/
 
Description Plenary talk at the 2016 IEEE UK-Europe-China Workshop on Millimeter Waves and THz Technologies (IEEE UCMMT 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact I gave a plenary talk at the 9th IEEE UK-Europe-China Workshop on Millimeter Waves and THz Technologies (IEEE UCMMT 2016) in Qingdao, China during 5-7 September, 2016. It is a unique forum for presenting advances in millimeter waves and THz technologies as well as facilitating collaboration and exchange opportunities between the UK, mainland Europe and China. I gave one of the 4 invited keynote plenary talks titled "Strathclyde millimetre wave and THz source research" in a conference consisting of 110 oral presentation (22 invited papers) in 12 oral sessions and 2 poster sessions. The outcome that has arisen two visiting scientists to Strathclyde, Dr. Junping Zhao from High Voltage Division, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China and Dr. Wang Li from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ucmmt2016.com/
 
Description Talk at Microwave Technology and Techniques Workshop at the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Present an overview of the performance of the 3.4kW, 91GHz to 96GHz Gyro-TWA to satellite experts to show the unique performance of the gyro-TWA for Space Object Identification radar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://atpi.eventsair.com/QuickEventWebsitePortal/19a05---mtt-2019/home/ExtraContent/ContentSubPage...
 
Description Visit of high school children to research laboratory (Glasgow) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A gyro-TWA talk was given during a visit by secondary school children interested in studying physics at the University of Strathclyde. This talk highlighted the research group's activities with emphasis on high power millimetre wave source research. An experiment was shown to visiting secondary school children who came around the laboratory. Research staff also showed international secondary schoolchildren visiting from the Netherlands the millimetre wave research laboratory

After the presentation many of the secondary school children enquired about studying physics at Strathclyde.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Visit to primary schools 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The staff working on the project helped organise and participate in the University Research Day event held at the University of Strathclyde by serving on the organising committee running this public engagement event with local primary schools. As part of this event staff were involved in public outreach at a local primary school. This involved visiting the school and giving talks on millimetre wave research. A poster making competition relating to the research group's interests was held. The school was visited on 3 occasions with staff interacting directly with the class of school pupils on how best to prepare a poster for presentation at the University of Strathclyde.

After the poster competition many of the primary school children expressed a renewed interest in studying science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.strath.ac.uk/researchday/schoolsinvolved/