An New Frontier in Design: The Simulation of Open Engineered Biological Systems

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

Biology will lie at the heart of many 21st century technologies to sustainably address the numerous challenges facing societies such as waste, energy, water, healthcare, new chemicals and materials, and agriculture. This ambitious project seeks to develop a suite of universal principles and models for the scalable simulation of open biological systems thereby allowing the engineering of new functionalities offered by natural or synthetic, mainly micro-, organisms for the benefit of mankind.

We live in a world that is increasingly urbanising and populated putting many pressures on the globe and its natural resources. One of the biggest challenges is sustaining global health, prosperity and well-being in a way that does not harm societies requiring these benefits nor the earth's natural resources. In the last two centuries, engineering has been central in providing the infrastructure and resources responsible for these societal gains. The engineering challenge in the 21st century is to continue to make these, and new, provisions for more people in a more sustainable way.

Thomas Tredgold, the first President of the Institute of Civil Engineers, defined engineering as "the art of directing the great sources of Power in Nature for the use and benefit of mankind". Engineering has expanded as it has sought and exploited new sources of Power in Nature and new concepts and tools by which said sources can be manipulated. Many believe that Biology is the next source of Power and that Engineering Biology it will be central to our goal of generating a new suite of intrinsically sustainable technologies. However, there is a substantial gap between rhetoric and reality in many accounts of the application of engineering biology. We will only open up this frontier if we are a brutally honest about the limitations, astute in our analysis of the bottlenecks and effective in innovations to obviate them. Though this is a contemporary challenge, it is something engineers have always done, using mathematical models and scientific principles to winnow the pipe dreams from the awesome but achievable (Rankine, 1855).

One of the greatest limitations in biology is taking what is possible in the test-tube and making it a reality in the reactor or environment; using relatively cheap resources and in the face of a large and highly diverse natural microbial population. In this project, we seek to use the best scientific principles and theories to develop a suite of universal principles and models for the scalable simulation of open biological systems. These models will allow the engineering design of new functionalities offered by natural or synthetic organisms for the benefit of mankind for a range of technologies addressing a range of different challenges.

Planned Impact

The potential impact of this research is as broad and ubiquitous as microbial communities themselves. We hope to transform our ability to predict and engineering naturally occurring microbial communities where ever they are found. The water industry is hopefully but a launching pad for our approach. But here transformative biological technologies could change the treatment of wastes in temperate climate from a net energy consumer to a net energy generator. We might, at the same time, find ways to rationally engineer low energy attached growth systems to remove micropollutants. This will benefit the industry and their customers by lowering costs and insulating consumers from the effect of higher energy costs. At a totally different scale, in a totally different industry, we could design personal care products in simulated hair follicles, reducing the cost and time of getting an idea to market and widening the range of biota friendly products. In the oil industry corrosion is thought to cost between 10 and 100 billion dollars a year: valid multiscale model of may allow us to ameliorate or avoid this cost by conceiving of corrosion resistant pipe surface geometries or by using ecological principles to discourage the bacteria responsible for corrosion. The impact of paints used in the shipping industry to reduce drag could be tested in silico before ever being applied to a ship. The wealth of microbial resource in the natural world could be harnessed more predictably and more quickly with benefits that we have not yet conceived. This would allow engineers to use microbes in areas where, for cultural or technical reasons, synthetic biology may not be an option. And where synthetic biology does have a role to play in an open microbial system, the "synbio" solutions will be found faster and more cheaply. If these ideas are even half right, we could enter a generation of engineering biology with broad applications opening up new lines of business for start-ups and established enterprises alike.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This award, we we seek to use the best scientific principles and theories to develop a suite of universal principles and models for the scalable simulation of open biological systems. These models will allow the engineering design of new functionalities offered by natural or synthetic organisms for the benefit of mankind for a range of technologies addressing a range of different challenges.

The award has brought together researchers with expertise in a range of disciplines, from biology to mechanical engineering. Whilst it is still early in the grant period, the team has begun to achieve promising results.
Exploitation Route We have strong collaboration with our partners, Northumbrian Water and Mott MacDonald. These organisations are actively participating in our research and, when the project is more mature, will work with us to put the findings into practice.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://research.ncl.ac.uk/nufeb/
 
Description It is still too early in the grant for the findings to have been used, but we have a detailed impact plan to take this forwards as the project progresses.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description AI Summer Institute Project
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation Oak Ridge National Laboratory 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 06/2019 
End 08/2019
 
Description CASE Studentship
Amount £76,000 (GBP)
Organisation Unilever 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description EPSRC Equipment Business Case
Amount £1,196,635 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P001564/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 06/2019
 
Description EPSRC Strategic Equipment Award
Amount £487,050 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2020
 
Description Interdisciplinary Prize
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Funding ID A1175 
Organisation Rosetrees Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2020
 
Description NUFEB fellowship
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Newcastle University 
Department School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 10/2018
 
Title Conjugative CRISPR-Cas9 vector based system 
Description A single vector CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering of bacterial species, delivered by conjugative transfer between mixed donor and recipient species 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Still in development. In testing phase now. 
 
Title 2D microbial growth model 
Description A comprehensive individual based model (2D) that describes the microbial growth as a function of the energy available in the surroundings. It includes a detailed sub model of the physico chemistry of the system: gas-liquid and acid base equilibriums are considered with the aim of understanding how environmental changes affect the growth of the different microorganisms in a population. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This individual based model is the first one able to describe comprehensively the physico chemistry of the system and how it affects the microbial growth. The growth parameters are estimated using the information of the surroundings and it employs only first principles like thermodynamic calculations, instead of relying on measurements at the population level. 
 
Title Individual-based modeling of microbial communities 
Description The model is used to simulate bacteria communities in biofilms. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This model can be used to address some scientific problems related to biofilms. 
URL https://github.com/nufeb/NUFEB
 
Title NUFEB github repository 
Description For warehousing relevant data and computer codes. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Academic impact, improved understanding and warehousing of data and computer codes 
 
Title NUFEB model 
Description Individual-based model of microbial communities 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact NUFEB team internally shortlisted for bidding for an EPSRC CDT 
URL https://github.com/nufeb/NUFEB
 
Description Biosensor for estrogen detection 
Organisation Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Plasmid cloning and experimental assays for estrogen detection
Collaborator Contribution Provision of plasmid, reporter inserts and general experimental protocol
Impact Sharing of experimental protocol
Start Year 2016
 
Description Cécilia GEFFROY internship student from Polytech, MARSEILLE, France 
Organisation Aix-Marseille University
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Time devoted to student internship
Collaborator Contribution Sponsored and hosted by Erasmus
Impact Enhancement of student skills
Start Year 2014
 
Description Felix Maximilian Stoll internship student from University of Applied Sciences Lübeck, Germany 
Organisation University of Applied Sciences Lübeck, Germany
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Time devoted from staff to the collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Sponsored and hosted by Erasmus
Impact Student skills development
Start Year 2016
 
Description Full and pilot-scale wastewater treatment facilities 
Organisation Northumbrian Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Design of pilot plants and inserts for full-scale trickling filter wastewater treatment plants and liaison with NWL
Collaborator Contribution Time, materials and an opportunity of access to and insertion of rigs into a real full-scale plant that would not normally be possible
Impact Infrastructure facilities for monitoring microbial communities
Start Year 2014
 
Description Northumbrian Water 
Organisation Northumbrian Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We work with Northumbria water on biofilm from trickle filter.
Collaborator Contribution The in-kind support from Northumbrai Water is to provide us free access to harvest biofilms in their trickle filters.
Impact Access to facilities
Start Year 2016
 
Description ORNL 
Organisation Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Working to develop a parallel implementation of the NUFEB codebase which can be deployed on the computer system at ORNL (Titan). Development of experimental designs to be tested on the equipment at ORNL.
Collaborator Contribution Access to computer time on their supercomputer (Titan) along with technical support for using this system. Access to fabrication labs for constructing nano-scale experiment equipment. The conducting of experiments
Impact There are currently no outputs from this collaboration. A number are planned but have yet to be achieved. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration including: Computing, Biology, Civil Engineering, and Engineering.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Oak Ridge 
Organisation Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing the current NUFEB software, Providing knowledge and experience of biological processes This has been interactions to exchange ideas and provide access to the skills and code developed through NUFEB
Collaborator Contribution Access to world-leading supercomputers, access to support for how to use said computers, access to bespoke experimental equipment. $250,000 in-kind contributions
Impact Summer AI internship
Start Year 2016
 
Description Sam Charlton internship student from Newcastle University 
Organisation University of Newcastle
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Time devoted towards internship support
Collaborator Contribution Enhanced collaboration with the host organisation.
Impact Enhancement of skills developed by student during placement.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Wenbo Wang internship student from Zhejiang University, China 
Organisation Zhejiang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Time devoted towards supervision of student internship.
Collaborator Contribution Enhanced collaboration with the host organisation. Sponsored by Lin Guangzhao & Hu Guozan Graduate Education International Exchange Fund
Impact Enhancement of student skills during placement.
Start Year 2015
 
Title BioPSy 
Description Parameter synthesis tool for SBML models. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Development of biological tools. Biopsy is a tool that performs parameter set synthesis on biological models specified using the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and corresponding time series data. 
URL https://github.com/dreal/biology
 
Title NUFEB1.0 
Description An individual based model of bacteria was implemented on open source platform LAMMPS. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2006 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The software can be used to address some scientific problems related to bacterial communities. 
URL https://github.com/nufeb/NUFEB
 
Description 14th IWA Leading Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologies LET2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The IWA Leading Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologies is designed to be the place where new ideas are introduced and the opportunity is provided to interact with the "best of the best". This is the global conference where new insights into how pioneering science, technological innovation and leading practices shape the major transformation in water management that is underway
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 3rd IWA Specialized International Conference Ecotechnologies for Wastewater Treatment 2016 (ecoSTP16) Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote: Measurement and Theory in Wastewater Treatment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ecostp2016.com/
 
Description 43rd International Conference On Metallurgical Coatings & Thin Films (ICMCTF), April, 2017, San Diego, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr. Chen was the Session chair and session organizer for Biointerface Biointerface

Description : This session is to study the bacterial adhesion, cell mechanics, biofilm mechanics, cell-materials interactions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description American Society for Microbiology Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited: Improving the Design of Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems through Theoretical Ecology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.asmmicrobeglobal.com/Home.aspx
 
Description American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation: Towards multiscale modelling of microbial communities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://conferences.asm.org/index.php/2012-02-09-21-04-52/past-conferences/2-uncategorised/400-confer...
 
Description CIWEM Wastewater Treatment Intensification Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact CIWEM Technical Seminar, Reader in Environmental Engineering, Invited Speaker (Russell Davenport)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description EuroBiofilm conference, Amsterdam, Sept. 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This is a typical conference for biofilm modelling, biofilm mechanics and biological aspects of biofilms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Formal Methods for the Synthesis of Biomolecular Circuits 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Formal Methods for the Synthesis of Biomolecular Circuits were presented and discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.dagstuhl.de/en/program/calendar/semhp/?semnr=18082
 
Description Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment FICWT 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment 2017, aimed to create a forum for promoting the discussion amongst scientists, professionals and academia in different areas of the broader theme of environmental engineering and sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://ficwtm.unipa.it/
 
Description ISME Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote: The Numbers Game
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.isme-microbes.org/isme16
 
Description International Conference on Environmental Protection and Simulation, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote: Progress and Problems in the Design of Wastewater Treatment systems
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MRM2: From synthetic ecology to natural ecosystems 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The second international symposium on "Microbial resource management (MRM)" focuses on the transition "from synthetic ecology to natural ecosystems". In the past few years many exiting new technologies have led to an increased understanding of microbial community composition. Now, especially with the rise of synthetic ecology approaches, microbial ecologists try to breach the gap between in vitro assemblies and natural ecosystems
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.mrm.ugent.be/mrm2
 
Description Materials Research Society Annual meeting, Boston, Dec 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This is one of the largest conferences on materials research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Materials Research Society of Singapore conference, June 2017, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This is one of the largest conferences on materials research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Molecular Microbial Ecology Group conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research conference with presentation given by MS to post-doctoral researchers and post-graduate students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Multiscale Biology Summer School,Date: 11 - 14 September 2017, University of Nottingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Summer School Workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description New Horizons in Atomistic Simulation; N8 HPC, CCP5 & UKCP Network Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The annual N8 HPC / CCP5 / UKCP Atomistic Simulation Network event is an annual event to discuss new trends and directions in atomistic simulations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://n8hpc.org.uk/new-horizons-in-atomistic-simulation-n8-hpc-ccp5-ukcp-network-event/
 
Description Oral Presentation "Virus abundance dynamics and their biotic and abiotic interactions in a full scale activated sludge plant", 16th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology (ISME), Montreal, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attended and presented research at both the International symposium on microbial ecology and microbial ecology in wastewater engineering conferences. Purpose - disseminate research to an international audience. Impacts - NA. Outcomes - NA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Oral Presentation "Virus abundance dynamics and their biotic and abiotic interactions in a full scale activated sludge plant", 6th IWA International Conference on Microbial Ecology and Water Engineering (MEWE), Copenhagen, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attended and presented research at both the International symposium on microbial ecology and microbial ecology in wastewater engineering conferences. Purpose - disseminate research to an international audience. Impacts - NA. Outcomes - NA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seeing is Believing - Imaging the Processes of Life, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany, 4 - 7 Oct 2017, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Event exploring the Imaging of the processes of life
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar presentation - April 2017: Montana State University, USA. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar presentation - Dec 2016: Beihang University , China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar presentation - Dec 2016: Perking University (Beida), China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar presentation - Dec 2016: Tsinghua University, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar presentation - Dec.2017: Jinan University, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar presentation - Dec.2017: South China University of Technology, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar presentation - Jan 2017: Chongqing University , China 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar presentation - July 2016: Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar presentation - July 2016: University of Malaya, Malaysia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar presentation - Nov 2016: National Physical Lab, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar presentation- July 2016: National University of Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar presentations - Dec.2017: South China Normal University, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar presentations - Dec.2017: Xi'an Jiao Tong University, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Sensitivity Analysis of Model Outputs (SAMO) Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference on Sensitivity Analysis of Model Outputs (SAMO)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The 12th OpenFOAM Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The annual OpenFOAM® Workshop is the premier international forum for researchers, industrial users, code developers, consultants and academics to come together and present their work, discuss the code, network, and learn about new developments in OpenFOAM®. It is a community event, welcoming all users from novice to experienced, and users of all branches of the code.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://openfoam-extend.sourceforge.net/OpenFOAM_Workshops/OFW12_2017_Exeter/index.html
 
Description The 4th Stevens Conference on Bacteria-Material Interactions, June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This is a typical conference for bacteria-materials interactions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The 6th Thesinge biofilm meeting, Netherland, Sept. 2016, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This is a typical conference for bacteria-materials interactions, biofilm mechanics and biological aspects of biofilms.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description UK-Brazil Workshop on Wastewater treatment 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote: : Measurement and Theory in Wastewater Treatment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Unilever Colworth 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited Presentation:
Modelling and Simulation in Microbial Ecology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshops and conferences 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Researchers from the same area as mine presented their works and discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016