Nano-Optics to controlled Nano-Chemistry Programme Grant (NOtCH)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

We can use intricately controlled assemblies of metals carved into structures on the scale of a billionth of a metre, to funnel and concentrate light into tiny volumes of space. This 'nano-optics' allows us to access for the first time small numbers of molecules and atoms moving around in real time. Even more interesting we can start to use light to control the movement of molecules and atoms, since it can produce strong forces directly at the nanoscale.

In this research, we plan to use our new-found ability to concentrate on a whole range of physical phenomena that underlie devices at the heart of healthcare, information technology, and energy production. For instance we can watch how lithium ions move into and out of a small fragment of battery, and how the deformations of the atomic lattice are produced, which is what determines how long batteries last and how much energy they can store. Another project uses light to move gold atoms around inside larger carbon-based molecules, to control what colour they absorb at, and what molecules they can sense. Further projects build wallpapers constructed from tiny flipping components that produce colour changes on demand, the precursor to walls that change colour at the flick of a switch or display images or text on the side of lorries.

Underpinning all this are serious advances in learning how to build such structures reliably, so anyone can make use of our new ideas. We understand very little about what happens when we put molecules inside such compressed nano-cavities for light, and these fundamentals will open up new areas. This research also crucially helps us understand what new properties we can create, and predicts how to improve them best. This will lay open many of the new technologies of the next century.

Planned Impact

Academic impact:
This research is right at the forefront of a number of fields, witness our high impact publications. The new focus of the programme grant outlined here would transform our capability to observe and control molecules and nanoparticles on the smallest scales. We go beyond study of ensembles, to watching the microscopic world directly. Our combination of novel developments in optical experimentation, combined with soft-matter assembly, and chemistry in nano-environments will allow us to access domains previously only a far off vision. We thus expect to make extremely strong academic impact, strong applications impact, and influence strongly also young generations of researchers entering this interdisciplinary field.
We have a wide variety of strong academic collaborations who will directly benefit including: Vignolini (Cambridge, cellulose), Hofmann (Cambridge, CNTs), Ying (Singapore, MoS2), Keyser (Cambridge, DNA Origami), Mullin (Manchester, bistable polymers), Grey (Cambridge, batteries), Kuhn (Bordeaux, nano-electrochemistry), Seffen (Cambridge, engineering bistability), and Berloff (Moscow, microcavities). Wider circles of disiplinary academic will benefit as the science advances are developed. Researchers are inspired by this focus, in which light is used to make things happen on the nanoscale, and chemistry becomes directly observable.

Economic impact:
As our capability to observe and control light at the nanoscale now becomes practical with our nano-assembly techniques reaching sub-10nm capabilities in highly-reliable and scalable fashion, many potential disruptive applications are thus a focus of our research. This informs our partnerships with a number of companies including Nokia, 3M, DSTL, Base4, Mars, Unilever, Smith&Nephew, and Detica who are investing >£1M for research in our centre. We expect this to expand, and have filed 8 patents in the last 3 years through Cambridge Enterprise (CE), that we develop as portfolios which we are managng strategically. Impact comes also in a wider series of looser partnerships with companies: IBM (Markt, organic microcavities), Schlumberger, Dyson and others, in which both sides improve their science impact but also advance key know-how and potential applications. The net result is societal impact in the key areas of national importance including Healthcare, Energy, Digital Economy and Manufacturing.

Training impact:
A crucial impact is the influence on young researchers who will be exposed to our collaborative, interdisciplinary, and high impact manner of work. These are tomorrow's leaders, and many previously recently gained academic or industrial positions. We use a variety of techniques to build strong interdisciplinary teams, and this style of research is seen to persist strongly as these researchers move on in their careers. Besides the postdocs funded in this grant, we will bring a number of PhD students into the research environment, developing their skills strongly. We interact widely, and this positive influence spreads throughout.

Societal impact:
Being able to see molecules directly in real-time has great influence on society. Such visions influence both younger generations, and open the eyes of industries and societal providers (such as healthcare or police/security) to new possibilities. This has immense long term impact. Our work is ideally suited to showing the value of nano-advances to the public, because we easily demonstrate optical effects based on structuring materials at the smaller nanoscales. This has led to Royal Society Exhibitions (2011, 2005), BBC Radio and TV appearances, Science Museum exhibits, and publicity in newspapers across the globe. One of our research fellows will specifically head an outreach team monitoring and improving this public outreach, and building exemplars for demonstrations to add to our current set (in partnership with the new Cambridge Science Museum).

Publications

10 25 50

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Aitchison H (2017) Analytical SERS: general discussion. in Faraday discussions

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Baumberg J (2018) Reality science in Physics World

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Baumberg JJ (2017) Carbon nanotubes: Wiry matter-light coupling. in Nature materials

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Bayer BC (2016) In Situ Observations of Phase Transitions in Metastable Nickel (Carbide)/Carbon Nanocomposites. in The journal of physical chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and interfaces

 
Description We have been able to watch single molecules undergoing chemistry in action. We have shown that molecules can behave as optomechanical devices.
Exploitation Route We are looking at applications for this, for instance in healthcare monitoring
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL https://www.np.phy.cam.ac.uk/publications
 
Description Sept'15: Jan Mertens, top poster prize at Ascona conference Sept'15: 3D printed microscope project on Kickstarter Aug-Oct'15: Nano^Art event, combining art-science practitioners in large public event Aug '15: public outreach: K is for Kingfisher, http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/features/k-is-for-kingfisher Jun'15: Italy schools workshop, 3D printed microscopes Jun'15: Perse school Cambridge, 9-10year olds, 2 workshops Mar'15: inelastic scattering NanoLett covered on nanotech.org here Mar'15: Au nanotube paper goes viral online, here Feb'15: Naked Scientist radio show; JJB, aired on BBC Oct'14: Nature Photonics N&V on our paper on nano-CdSe phonons, here
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Electronics,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Impact Accelaration Award EPSRC (CB sensing)
Amount £59,869 (GBP)
Funding ID X5:10877 CB sensing 
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Junior Research Fellowship, Rohit Chikkaraddy
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Department Trinity College Cambridge
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 05/2022
 
Description Leverhulme visiting Prof
Amount £122,984 (GBP)
Funding ID VP1-2013-011 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Winton Fellowship
Amount £500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2023
 
Title Data for Metasurfaces atop Metamaterials: Surface Morphology Induces Linear Dichroism in Gyroid Optical Metamaterials 
Description Data from all the figures in this paper. Please see the README file (Dataset.pdf) for descriptions of each subfolder. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data set supporting "Cucurbit[7]uril as a Supramolecular Artificial Enzyme for Diels-Alder Reactions" 
Description These are raw data files associated with the publication. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Dataset supporting "Plasmonic response and SERS modulation in electrochemical applied potentials" 
Description Author: Giuliana Di Martino email: gd392@cam.ac.uk Institute: NanoPhotonics Centre, Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge Principal Investigator: Jeremy J. Baumberg email of PI: jjb12@cam.ac.uk File formats: - raw data files are supplied as .txt files - images are supplied as .png or .pdf files 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Raw data for "Spin order and phase transitions in chains of polariton condensates" 
Description format: HDF5 datasets 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Electrically controlled nano and micro actuation in memristive switching device with on-chip gas encapsulation" 
Description Data related to plots and figures in associated publication. Datasets are provided as comma-separated values files, containing the raw data from experimental measurements. Raw image files are also provided for the images included in the publication figures. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "How Light is Emitted by Plasmonic Metals" 
Description The Data is collected and stored at the NanoPhotonics Centre, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge. This data was used to create the figures 1-4 in the associated publication "How light is emitted by plasmonic metals". 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "How ultra-narrow gap symmetries control plasmonic nanocavity modes: from cubes to spheres" 
Description Experimental and simulation data is collected at NanoPhootonics center, University of Cambridge. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Interrogating Nanojunctions Using Ultraconfined Acoustoplasmonic Coupling" 
Description Data supporting "Interrogating Nanojunctions Using Ultraconfined Acoustoplasmonic Coupling". Abstract: Single nanoparticles are shownto develop a localized acoustic resonance, the bouncing mode, when placed on a substrate. If both substrate and nanoparticle are gold, plasmonic coupling of the nanoparticle to its image charges in the film induces tight light confinement in the nanogap. This yields ultrastrong "acousto-plasmonic" coupling with a figure of merit 7 orders of magnitude higher than conventional acousto-optic modulators. The plasmons thus act as a local vibrational probe of the contact geometry. A simple analytical mechanical model is found to describe the bouncing mode in terms of the nanoscale structure, allowing transient pump-probe spectroscopy to directly measure the contact area for individual nanoparticles. The data is for the figures contained in the paper Interrogating Nanojunctions Using Ultraconfined Acoustoplasmonic Coupling. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Laser-Induced Reduction and In-situ Optical Spectroscopy of Individual Plasmonic Copper Nanoparticles for Catalytic Reactions" 
Description Author: Giuliana Di Martino email: gd392@cam.ac.uk Principal Investigator: Jeremy J. Baumberg email of PI: jjb12@cam.ac.uk Institute: NanoPhotonics Centre, Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge The data files contain optical spectra of the experimental and simulated data. Details on the acquisition method are included in the main manuscript. Igor Pro has been used to acquire and plot the data. PovRay and PowerPoint has been used to create Fig.1. File formats: - raw data files are supplied as .txt files - images are supplied as .png or .pdf files 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Mapping SERS in CB:Au Plasmonic Nanoaggregates" 
Description Dataset for paper: Mapping SERS in CB:Au Plasmonic Nanoaggregates 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Near-Field Optical Drilling of Sub-? Pits in Thin Polymer Films" 
Description see the figure captions in the paper 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Plasmonic Tunnel Junctions for Single-Molecule Redox Chemistry" 
Description Research data supporting the publication "Plasmonic Tunnel Junctions for Single-Molecule Redox Chemistry", including FDTD, and DFT simulation results and experimental SERS data in text form. Description of how data were collected is available in the associated publication. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Strain-assisted optomechanical coupling of polariton condensate spin to a micromechanical resonator" 
Description Data presented in Fig 3. and 4. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Strong-coupling of WSe2 in ultra-compact plasmonic nanocavities at room temperature" 
Description The Data was collected using costume build dark-field scattering microscopes and Photo emission setups. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Tracking Nanoelectrochemistry Using Individual Plasmonic Nanocavities" 
Description Author: Giuliana Di Martino email: gd392@cam.ac.uk Institute: NanoPhotonics Centre, Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge Principal Investigator: Jeremy J. Baumberg email of PI: jjb12@cam.ac.uk File formats: - raw data files are supplied as .txt files - images are supplied as .png or .pdf files 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting Dynamic- and Light-Switchable Self-Assembled Plasmonic Metafilms 
Description Research data supporting Dynamic- and Light-Switchable Self-Assembled Plasmonic Metafilms 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting Optical Imaging of Large Gyroid Grains in Block Copolymer Templates by Confined Crystallization 
Description datasets from figures in paper 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting [Mapping nanoscale hotspots with single-molecule emitters assembled into plasmonic nanocavities using DNA origami] 
Description Experimental and simulation data is collected at NanoPhotonics center, University of Cambridge. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting: The Crucial Role of Charge in Thermoresponsive-Polymer-Assisted Reversible Dis/Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles 
Description Research data supporting The Crucial Role of Charge in Thermoresponsive-Polymer-Assisted Reversible Dis/Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description PhD award from NPL 
Organisation National Physical Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PhD studentship running in NanoPhotonics, on studying catalysis at the nanoscale.
Collaborator Contribution Support for joint supervision, and advanced equipment for experiments at NPL
Impact Just started
Start Year 2015
 
Description light scattering project with NPL 
Organisation NPL Ltd
PI Contribution Developing new ways to look at light scattering of aggregates to provide detailed quantitative information
Collaborator Contribution advised on current technologies, current needs, typical aggregates and particles, application markets
Impact developing still. multi-disciplinary: optics, analytical chemistry, nanoscience
Start Year 2017
 
Company Name WaterScope 
Description No-for-profit social entreprenuer company making cheap water testing kits 
Year Established 2017 
Impact RAE Fellowship for Waterscope developments, £30k GCRF funding from University, supported £1M EPSRC funded open Open Instrumentation, competition wins include: EPOC Business Plan Competition, Cambridge University Entrepreneurs Competition, and Downing Enterprise Competition. Organised a successful field trial to Nyarugusu refugee camp, one of the largest refugee camps in the modern world, with our collaborator Oxfam, during which we obtained user data on our system. Nyarugusu camp, based in Tanzania, is home to over 150,000 refugees from Congo, Burundi and Rwanda, with Oxfam supplying the water from boreholes and shallow wells.
Website http://www.waterscope.org/
 
Description "The Making of a Scientist", L'Oreal Women in Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Cloudy Carnegie stars in "The Making of a Scientist", L'Oreal Women in Science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Italy schools workshop on microscopes 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Workshop building and demonstrating 3D printed microscopy to schools in Catania
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Materials movie, "The Secret Life of Materials" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact JJB in Materials movie, "The Secret Life of Materials", Mimicking Nature,
selected for Pariscience and the Goethe science film festivals receiving awards in the International Film Festival in Athens and in the Life Sciences Film festival in Prague so far...
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://youtu.be/SVGMhGualU0?list=PLmQdDYjAqXUk5jp7_xLYLFfIeH53Gl-bg&t=1
 
Description Naked Scientist interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact interview on our work recorded with Naked Scientist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Nano^Art event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Festuval of Ideas; public talks and sculpture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Perse school science workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 9-10year olds, 2 workshops (Will, Laura, Anna, Lee)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Royal Society Summer Exhibition 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Massive event at Royal Society, for 1 week in July 2018; reaching >13000 of the public. Also many radio, TV, and newspaper interviews
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://nanogap.nanodtc.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description SET for Parliment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Laura Brooks represented our work at SET in Parliment, won 2nd prize
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Science Festival talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talks and exhibits at the Cambridge Science Festival
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Science Society talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Talk for the Cambridge University Science Society
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stoner lecture, Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact JJB gave the Stoner lecture on translating research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Year of Light public talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Year of Light, Spanish-UK celebration meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description exibit in Cambridge Science Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact built polymer opals exhibit as part of Cambridge Science Museum display
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description general article on microcavities 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article on our general research in microcavities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://spie.org/newsroom/6743-a-sub-femtojoule-electrical-spin-switch-based-on-liquid-light?SSO=1