Low carbon climate-responsive Heating and Cooling of Cities (LoHCool)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Architecture

Abstract

LoHCool focuses on topic T1 'Delivering economic and energy-efficient heating and cooling to city areas of different population densities and climates'. It confronts directly the conundrum of offering greater winter and summer comfort in a Continental climate zone whilst mitigating what would be a carbon penalty of prodigious proportions. It concentrates on recovering value from the existing building stock, some 3.4 Billion m2 in which dwell and work some 550 Million citizens. It is highly cross-disciplinary involving engineers, building scientists, atmospheric scientists, architects and behavioural researchers in China and UK measuring real performance in new and particularly in existing buildings in Chinese cities to investigate the use of passive and active systems within integrated design and re-engineering. It focuses on the very challenging dynamic within China's Hot Summer/Cold Winter HSCW climate zone. It aims to enable the much desired improvements in living conditions and comfort levels within buildings through developing a keen understanding of the current heating and cooling technologies and practices in buildings by monitoring, surveying and measuring people's comfort and capturing this understanding through developing systems modelling including energy simulations. It will borrow on UK research for comparative purposes, for example work examining the current and future environmental conditions within the whole National Health Service (NHS) Hospital Estate in England and the practical economic opportunities, very considerable, for significant improvement whilst saving carbon at the rate required by ambitious NHS targets. It will propose detailed practical and economic low and very low carbon options for re-engineering the dominant building types which we will identify in a series of cities, as developed with local stakeholders, contractors and building professionals, exploring economic and energy-efficient low carbon district heating and cooling systems. Finally, it will test them in the current climate, 'current' extreme events, future climates and will estimate the carbon implications and cost of widespread implementation. Findings for the existing stock will be equally applicable to new-build, in many ways a simpler prospect.

Planned Impact

Project Sounding Panel members have wide-reaching constituencies in China/UK ie Policy-advisors/-makers: China Academy of Building Research, input into national energy/carbon programmes, connections to UK academics/leading companies; UK NHS Sustainable Development Unit Asia context for Carbon Reduction Target; MOHURD Centre for Energy Efficiency in Buildings informing national policy and regulation on building energy efficiency, future Energy Efficient Demonstration Project types (asPI's FutureHouse); China Green Building Council, Training Programmes, presentations/exhibition at annual pre-eminent Int. Conf. on Green and Energy-Efficient Building Expo Beijing; China Association of Building Energy Efficiency, MOHURD exploitation of LoHCool technologies/techniques, training, database; Chongqing Municipal Commission of Urban-Rural Development Bureau of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, implementation 'coal face' in Chongqing, reinforces timely interest in retrofit; Chongqing Green Building Council develops its collaborations with UoR/Chongqing Univ. adds Cam/Lboro; Ministry of Science and Technology funded National Centre for International Research in Low Carbon and Green Building, Co-I Li is current Director, PI Short founding Academic Leader, £33K investment buys more PI/Co-I visits, local film-making, Visiting PhD to L'boro. UK Researchers, academics, companies benefit from China Partners' critiques of practicability, economy, social acceptability of emerging proposals, extremely interesting comparative studies. Urban Design/Masterplanners, Cook Chairman/Thompson Dir. BuroHappold v.active in China, insights, new approaches, advantage; Zhejiang Shimao Real Estate Group similar new urban approaches; Shenzhen Institute of Building Research, techniques, connections; AECOM Masterplanning Directors Nanda/Rose + Chi Chung Wong very active in China; AECOM Engineering infrastructure insight ; Zhejiang Province Construction Technology Promotion Center, techniques, data, connecions; SPIE UK, engineering insights/advantage; China Southwest Architectural Design and Research Institute new approaches, connections; Chongqing Construction Engineering Group Real Estate Development, all will acquire quite new approaches to the retention, environmental upgrading and low carbon adaptation of the existing urban building stock at unparalleled scale in workable costed detail, transfer straightforwardly to new build situations. Construction: SKANSKA, H. of Sustainability, insights practical environmentally responsible, safe construction worldwide; Centre of Science and Technology in Construction, MOHURD, highly influential, acquires findings, co-organising China workshops and conferences; Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences acquire data, case studies, insights, connections; Shenzhen Institute of Building Research, adds to database, keen to share outcomes; UKTI China-Britain Business Council networking, commercial insights; Chongqing Construction Engineering Group Development and Mgmt. Co. 'backbone of construction in Chongqing' enthusiastic to apply innovative LoHCool re-engineering solutions in live projects; similarly Hangzhou Municipal Construction Commission (HMC); Department of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of Zhejiang Province Zhejiang Province Construction Technology Promotion Center, sizeable housing, urban developer eager to receive solutions; the Chartered Institute of Building promoting innovative construction via all its platforms (supplementing project team's links to the Cambridge Centre for Smart Infrastructure). The broadcast quality film will reach many thousands of citizens worldwide, Cam YouTube, streaming media, new dynamic TV ie Propellor (DeDeRHECC film winner 2013 tv\e Global Sustainability Film Award at BAFTA. Wholesale replacement is not an option at the HSCW region scale in carbon terms alone but 550 million total citizens deserve the conditions they aspire to.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The research is ongoing but already we have discovered from real data collection that typical apartment towers in the Yangtse River Hot Summer Cold Winter Region are not resilient, the interiors track external temperatures closely particularly in host summers but with an added increment making summers intolerable by Western comfort standards and at the peak by the Chinese guidance authored by our Co-Is Li and Yao. However we have designed forms of practical affordable implementation for a number of adaptation measures which significantly reduce peak temperatures in summer. Reducing the demand for mechanical cooling is the problem faced in this region with 550 Million inhabitants and we believe by the project end March 2019 we will have a portfolio of adaptation recipes for 23 storey plus towers, lower rise 4-5 storey walk up apartment buildings, 12-14 storey multi use buildings with internal streets, standard mid rise office buildings, research laboratories, medium rise classroom buildings, all costed with a commentary on build ability and method from our Chinese industry partners in Hangzhou and Chongqing.
Exploitation Route We propose to attend the major conference/Expo on sustainable and green design in Beijing April 2019 with a stand and conference session where we will launch the film we are making with Screenspace of the project findings.
Sectors Chemicals,Construction,Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Retail

 
Description - The Adaptation Sub-Committee Report publ. 9th July 2014 'Managing climate risks to well-being and the economy' cites the project findings that the NHS Acute Hospital Estate is vulnerable to overheating in warm summers and will become increasingly so. Lord Krebs described the project at the 8th July Press briefing and The Daily Telegraph July 9th p.4 focused particularly on the risks to hospitals based on readings of the key DeDeRHECC papers sent to the editors as did the Times, The South Wales Argus and other regional papers coordinated by the Cambridge University Press Office, whilst BBC Breakfast News carried the story, Short was interviewed on BBC Radio Cambridge. - By chance the next DeDeRHECC outcome, the paper on the adaptive potential of the pre-1939 Nightingale ward [C. Alan Short, Catherine J. Noakes, Carl A. Gilkeson & Alistair Fair (2014): Functional recovery of a resilient hospital type, Building Research & Information: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2014.926605] was published in open access mode on 9th July and cited by the Times online. - The 10 minute version of the film of the project findings 'Robust Hospitals in a Changing Climate' funded by EPSRC won the tv/e Global Sustainability Film Award for Governance at BAFTA in Oct 2013, available at http://sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1559781. The Awards ceremony was screened on Propellor TV across China, India and Africa, the show was syndicated to other tv stations, in 2013 some 18 million people watched the programme. The full length 30 minute version which includes other hospital types, most notably the remarkably resilient Nightingale wards, is available at www.sms.cam.ac.uk/media/1446036. - Findings cited in the National Climate Change Risk Assessment for the Built Environment Sector Jan. 2012 and DEFRA's 'Adapting to Climate Change: National Adaptation Programme 2013 p.146. - As a consequence of DeDeRHECC involvement with the DH Short was appointed as the external member of the Department of Health Energy Efficiency Working Group in Jan. 2013, adjudicating the distribution of the £50 million Energy Efficiency Fund from Public Dividend Capital to 50+ Trusts in NHS England out of 360+ applications. The Director of the DH Estates & Facilities Policy Division, Peter Sellars, comments in a letter to Cambridge University: "This valuable research project ... demonstrated that the existing estate is capable of being sustainably improved to achieve levels of ventilation and cooling which will extend the estates functional suitability for the foreseeable future Cambridge University's research [is] at the heart of government policy on making the country resilient to climate change." - Short was subsequently commissioned to administrate and monitor the scheme and report to Ministers in Sep 2014. Prof. Peter Guthrie and members of the Cambridge University Centre for Sustainable Development are assisting, two Interim Reports to Ministers delivered. Our message is that with Mitigation comes an Adaptation co-benefit. The Under-Secretary of State Dr. Dan Poulter is enthusiastic about early outcomes and, we understand from DH officials, is considering the deployment of more resources to extend the scheme. - The research team is appointed as Trust Advisor for the new Watford General Hospital to the West Herts. NHS Trust funded by NIHR by Sir Neil McKay former Director of the East of England Strategic Health authority on the advice of DH Estates and Facilities Policy, having formerly been included in the PFI project team, a very revealing engagement in which the project managers explained that the team was de-barred from considering climate change effects on the emerging design. The former W. Herts Chief Exec. Prof. Jan Filokowski sat on the DeDeRHECC Sounding Panel, now at Gt. Ormond St. - The research team is appointed as advisor to Skanska for its current Papworth Hospital proposals which the Treasury has very recently sanctioned. Skanska's Head of Environment Greg Hall-Chant sat on the DeDeRHECC Sounding Panel and writes that our work has influenced the design of the new Karolinska Hospital in Solna, intended to be an exemplary sustainable hospital.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Construction,Energy,Environment,Healthcare
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description I am appointed Co-Chair of the newly formed CHINA-UK GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL 
Organisation Chongqing University
Department School of Electrical Engineering
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution First meeting of the newly formed CHINA-UK GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL will be at Reading University on 24th April 2017 with distinguished guests from China.
Collaborator Contribution We plan together an ambitious programme of events and exchanges between Chinese and UK academic and professional institutions.
Impact To come through 2017 and beyond
Start Year 2017
 
Description LoHCool is now heavily involved in the organisation of the annual SUDBE Conference at Chonging University 4-7Nov 2107 
Organisation Chongqing University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution LoHCool partners Chongqing University with matching NSFC grant have involved our shared project fundamentally in the conference, introducing it comprehensively in November 2016 and devoted a major session to our joint work in the 2017 Conference, funding LoHCool Co-Is and RAs Mottet and Song to attend and present entirely at the organisers' cost. SuDBE Conference, Chongqing: The 8th International Conference - Sustainable Urban Development in the Built Environment. LITY, models of Hangzhou and Chongqing.oHCool invited its MAGIC project collaborators Prof. Chris Pain and his Imperial team with our joint RA Dr.Laetitia Mottet to present joint LoHCool MAGIC research outputs in FLUID UK & Chinese project team members met and discussed progress. Papers were presented at the conference by project team members, see below for titles.
Collaborator Contribution Conference themes, lists of invitees including LoHCool partners in Central and City Government in China and industry partners in China with UK partners also attending. Very valuable networking opportunities with, not least, the Director of the China Academy of Building Science in Beijing.
Impact SuDBE Conference, Chongqing: The 8th International Conference - Sustainable Urban Development in the Built Environment. UK & Chinese project team members met and discussed progress. Papers were presented at the conference by project team members, abstracts included: Alan Short: Chair of UK-China session with Prof Runming Yao. Alan Short: Keynote speech: The recovery of natural environments in architecture. Jiyun Song: Impact of building design on natural ventilation and energy conservation in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region of China. Laetitia Mottet: Effect of urban and building design on air flow and pollution dispersion in cold winter and hot summer zones in China. Christopher Pain (MAGIC): Effect of tall buildings in the dispersion of pollution in the urban environment. Baizhan Li: Chair of conference Meng Liu: Energy savings in Yangtze River region.
Start Year 2015
 
Description 4-7 November 2017 SuDBE Conference, Chongqing: The 8th International Conference - Sustainable Urban Development in the Built Environment. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 4-7 November 2017
SuDBE Conference, Chongqing: The 8th International Conference - Sustainable Urban Development in the Built Environment, many regional and national practitioners and contractors present.
UK & Chinese project team members met and discussed progress. Papers were presented at the conference by project team members, abstracts included:
Alan Short: Chair of UK-China session with Prof Runming Yao.
Alan Short: Keynote speech: The recovery of natural environments in architecture.
Jiyun Song: Impact of building design on natural ventilation and energy conservation in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region of China.
Laetitia Mottet: Effect of urban and building design on air flow and pollution dispersion in cold winter and hot summer zones in China.
Christopher Pain (MAGIC): Effect of tall buildings in the dispersion of pollution in the urban environment.
Baizhan Li: Chair of conference
Meng Liu: Energy savings in Yangtze River region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sudbeconference.com
 
Description Meeting with Chinese Vice-Premier and senior Beijing officials with UK Minister for Universities Jo Johnson at the Royal Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 6 December 2018 at the Royal Society: Forum meeting with Vice Premier of China and the UK Minister for Science, Royal Society, London: Co:Is Runming Yao & Peter Guthrie invited to present LoHCool project to the Vice Premier of China, Liu Yandong, and the UK Minister for Science, Jo Johnson, Senior Beijing Ministry Official, at a special event celebrating the launch of the UK-China joint Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Cooperation. The joint strategy aims to strengthen science and innovation collaboration between the UK and China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017