EPSRC Centre for Mathematics of Precision Healthcare

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Mathematics

Abstract

Medicine is undergoing a simultaneous shift at the levels of the individual and the population: we have unprecedented tools for precision monitoring and intervention in individual health and we also have high-resolution behavioural and social data. Precision medicine seeks to deploy therapies that are sensitive to the particular genetic, lifestyle and environmental circumstances of each patient: understanding how best to use these numerous features about each patient is a profound mathematical challenge. We propose to build upon the mathematical, computational and biomedical strengths at Imperial to create a Centre for the Mathematics of Precision Healthcare revolving around the theme of multiscale networks for data-rich precision healthcare and public health. Our Centre proposes to use mathematics to unify individual-level precision medicine with public health by placing high-dimensional individual data and refined interventions in their social network context. Individual health cannot be separated from its behavioural and social context; for instance, highly targeted interventions against a cancer can be undermined by metabolic diseases caused by a dietary behaviour which co-varies with social network structure. Whether we want to tackle chronic disease or the diseases of later life, we must simultaneously consider the joint substrates of the individual together with their social network for transmission of behaviour and disease. We propose to tackle the associated mathematical challenges under the proposed Centre bringing to bear particular strengths of Imperial's mathematical research in networks and dynamics, stochastic processes and analysis, control and optimisation, inference and data representation, to the formulation and analysis of mathematical questions at the interface of individual-level personalised medicine and public health, and specifically to the data-rich characterisation of disease progression and transmission, controlled intervention and healthcare provision, placing precision interventions in their wider context.
The programme will be initiated and sustained on core research projects and will expand its portfolio of themes and researchers through open calls for co-funded projects and pump-priming initiatives.
Our initial set of projects will engage healthcare and clinical resources at Imperial including: (i) patient journeys for disease states in cancer and their successive hospital admissions; multi-omics data and imaging characterisations of (ii) cardiomyopathies and (iii) dementia and co-morbidities; (iv) national population dynamics for epidemiological and epidemics simulation data from Public Health; social networks and (v) health beliefs and (vi) health policy debate. The initial core projects will build upon embedded computational capabilities and data expertise, and will thus concentrate on the development of mathematical methodologies including: sparse state-space methods for the characterisation of disease progression in high-dimensional data using transition graphs in discrete spaces; time-varying networks and control for epidemics data; geometrical similarity graphs to link imaging and omics data for disease progression; stochastic processes and community detection from NHS patient data wedding behavioural and social network data with personal health indicators; statistical learning for the analysis of stratified medicine. The mathematical techniques used to address these requirements will need to combine, among others, ingredients from dynamical and stochastic systems with graph-theoretical notions, sparse statistical learning, inference and optimisation. The Centre will be led by Mathematics but researchers in the Centre span mathematical, biomedical, clinical and computational expertise.

Planned Impact

The societal impact of the proposed research will be very broad as the Centre will be actively integrated with NHS bodies (including the 5 hospitals in the Imperial Healthcare Trust) Dementia UK and Public Health England. Our centre is explicitly targeted at the challenges these organisations face: large streaming, incomplete networked datasets which have to be used as a basis for both patient interventions and wider public health strategy. By proposing control strategies for both infectious and chronic disease we hope to move us towards an optimised use of resources in the health service.
The connections of the Centre with the Institute for Global Health Innovation and the eHealth Unit adds another axis of impact towards influencing policy making. An example is the analysis of patients according to their temporal patterns of NHS usage, which could be used to improve patient segmentation leading to improved resource allocation and patient satisfaction. We expect that the British and International public will be beneficiaries of this research through better decision making at the NHS, identification and intervention for complex diseases as well as social aspects of health.
In addition, we have specific interfaces with two third sector representatives: Cancer Research UK and the British Heart Foundation. In both cases precision data is being acquired at the individual level (omics, imaging) but the need is to distill from this data clinical categories, appropriate interventions and optimal symptom management. Our methods would help to bridge this gap and we will actively explore these possibilities with the clinical branches of CRUK and BHF associated with NHS Imperial hospitals. Prime examples of such applications are showcased by existing collaborations of Prof Rueckert with Prof Matthews and Prof Cook on therapeutic applications of medical image analysis.
We will also pursue the potential impact of our research on social network analysis, as a means of obtaining relevant information for healthcare provision and of influencing opinion formation. There are further connections with The Governance Lab at NYU and an NHS-funded project on the use of social networks to find relevant expertise for particular needs. We thus expect that our research can have an impact on social scientists as well as clinicians working on issues related to healthcare provision.
Another axis of impact is through industrial connections. We expect to have an impact on the computational side through the development of novel algorithms for Big Data approaches, imaging analyses, and specific sparse coding approaches for signal processing. Similarly, pharma companies and broad-based companies (such as Syngenta) will benefit from the characterisation of experimental processes where high-dimensional data is collected and from the development of detection markers.
Our work will impact other areas of basic research (specifically data science, network analysis, and systems and synthetic biology) and we will ensure that the impact is maximised by our extensive programme of workshops and challenge-led activities together with a visitor programme with high-profile speakers.
The researchers who will work in this Centre will be uniquely trained, acquiring expertise in mathematical tools coupled to big data as well as healthcare applications. Such expertise is in high demand and the researchers will be able to become national and indeed international leaders themselves in an area where there is a clear shortage of expertise, thus contribution to the UK knowledge base.
Finally the Applied Mathematics community will benefit by the recognition that excellent mathematics and computational skills can be brought together to help solve problems relevant to a broad section of society.

Publications

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Arnaudon A (2018) The stochastic energy-Casimir method in Comptes Rendus Mécanique

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Arnaudon A (2018) A Geometric Framework for Stochastic Shape Analysis in Foundations of Computational Mathematics

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Arnaudon A (2018) Structure preserving noise and dissipation in the Toda lattice in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical

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Arnaudon A (2018) String Methods for Stochastic Image and Shape Matching in Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision

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Aryaman J (2018) Mitochondrial Heterogeneity. in Frontiers in genetics

 
Description The award has only recently started, so these findings are preliminary.

* Use of social network analysis for the study of the debate on Twitter following the announcement of the release by the NHS of the care.data scheme identified the main players in the debate; the relative lack of response/influence of some of the official accounts related to the NHS and Department of Health; the identification of topics of conversation and communities of users with different interests and motivation; the different roles of users in the debate. This was done in collaboration with the Big Data Analysis Unit of the Institute of Global Health Innovation.
* Analysis of Twitter activity around the hashtag 'diabetes' over 1 year (several million tweets) was used to characterise the topics, users and communities surrounding the topic. This was done using a mixed-methods approach combining social science expertise and mathematical analysis of the networks and data. The analysis revealed a mixed landscape of users with heavy influence of commercial organisations and interests, and individual accounts (not institutional) which have gained considerable influence. These groups are sometimes non-profit organisations, many of which are locally organised. The influence of large public health bodies is not as widespread as expected. Commercial organisations also pass as authorities in the debate. The use of humour is also a constant in the debate. This has been done in collaboration with the Oxford School of Anthropology.
* Analysis of beliefs related to vaccine acceptance across the world. It has revealed the widespread differences in beliefs held with respect to vaccines across the world. Widely publicised outcomes in the press.
* Methods to infer pathways of trait acquisition from observational data have been developed and applied to malaria data collected in Equatorial Africa, as well as for the analysis of task completion on online courses by students at Imperial
* Unsupervised clustering of documents has been applied to NHS incident records from NHS Trusts associated with Imperial to establish the severity and types of incidents recorded online as an aid to monitor events
* Community detection algorithms have been used to detect the sharing of patterns across hospitals using 2 million of NHS patient records as a way to establish the interdependence of different hospitals and sharing of practice.
Exploitation Route The award has just started and will further connections with different healthcare areas. In particular, collaborations with CRUK, BHF, Dementia Research UK, MRC, pharma
Sectors Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/mathematics-precision-healthcare/
 
Description * Computational methods have been used by Sinnia Inc (Mexico) for data analytics * Astrazeneca and GSK have both given funds to pursue exploration of applications related to drug discovery through protein interactions * Methods for time series analysis of network usage have been used to analyse online behaviours of students taking courses at Imperial College. This has been funded by the educational programme at Imperial with an extra RA for two years and is being explored by a start up EdX.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
 
Description All-Party Parliamentary Group for Social Science and Policy: Prof Yaliraki has been invited to attend meetings of the All-Party Parliamentary Group for Social Science and Policy (previously known as All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Uncertainties) in the House of Commons. These meetings are open to all MPs and Lords, and their staff, plus leading policymakers and experts in fields of interest. They operate under the Chatham House Rule.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Department of Health: Dr Greenbury, formerly an analyst at the Department of Health, is liaising with personnel there to use the methods developed within CMPH on ageing surveys
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Dr Greenbury, formerly an analyst at the Department of Health, is liaising with personnel there to use the methods developed within CMPH on ageing surveys
 
Description Governmental Digital Services: Dr Expert acts as an academic consultant for the Data Science Team at the Governmental Digital Services, meeting regularly with team members;
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Prof Barahona has advised TheGovLab (Noveck) in issues related to Zika monitoring in the project Smarter Crowdsourcing for Zika with partners from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Panama and the Inter-American Development Bank.
Geographic Reach South America 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Prof Oyarzun is heavily involved with the World Economic Forum (WEF), sitting in the WEF Global Future Council on Biotechnologies alongside select experts from academia and the private sector, including a Nobel laureate and opinion leaders. Oyarzún has attended two WEF Summits in Dubai and has been invited to join the Scientific Board of the Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution to advise on governance frameworks for precision medicine globally. Oyarzún's recommendations on mathematics for precision healthcare and biotechnology have been published in high profile venues
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Health Data Research UK
Amount £1,353,838 (GBP)
Funding ID CAPL01 
Organisation Health Data Research UK 
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2023
 
Description Pilot - AI for Translational Myelin Imaging
Amount £440,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biogen Idec 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 12/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description CMPH and COXIC (Complexity OXford Imperial College) Workshop with Prof Cris Moore 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact There is a deep analogy between statistical inference and statistical physics. Just as a block of iron suddenly loses its magnetic field when it reaches a critical temperature, data can suddenly become impossible to analyze if it becomes too noisy or too incomplete. The event focused on the case of finding communities in social and biological networks, and the "detectability transition" beyond which we cannot classify nodes better than chance, or even tell whether community structure really exists. The aim of the workshop was to show how physics both helps us locate these phase transitions, and gives us optimal algorithms that succeed all the way up to this point.
Biography:
Cristopher Moore received his B.A. in Physics, Mathematics, and Integrated Science from Northwestern University, and his Ph.D. in Physics from Cornell. From 2000 to 2012 he was a professor at the University of New Mexico, with joint appointments in Computer Science and Physics. Since 2012, Moore has been a resident professor at the Santa Fe Institute; he has also held visiting positions at École Normale Superieure, École Polytechnique, Université Paris 7, the Niels Bohr Institute, Northeastern University, and the University of Michigan. He has published over 150 papers at the boundary between physics and computer science, ranging from quantum computing, to phase transitions in NP-complete problems, to the theory of social networks and efficient algorithms for analyzing their structure. He is an elected Fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Mathematical Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. With Stephan Mertens, he is the author of The Nature of Computation from Oxford University Press.
Agenda:
12:00-13:00 - Prof Cris Moore
13:00-14:00 - Lunch
14:00 - 15:00 - Contributed Talks
15:00-16:00 - Coffee
16:00-17:00 - Contributed talks
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/naturalsciences/mathematicsofprecision...
 
Description Cancer + Maths 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This half day workshop was opened to interested researchers across Imperial College, not just maths and cancer.
Scientific organisers:Profs Charles Coombes (CRUK Imperial Centre and CRCE) and Mauricio Barahona (EPSRC Centre for Mathematics of Precision Healthcare), and Dr Marina Evangelou (Mathematics in Medicine)
Speakers included:
Prof Michael Seckl - Can novel mathematical analyses of a large clinical and imaging data set aid treatment stratification?
Prof Eric Aboagye - Getting more out of medical imaging - mathematical modelling and feature extraction
Dr Holger Auner - Simultaneous monitoring of multiple systems-level processes during proteotoxic stress recovery in cancer cells
Dr Luca Magnani - Measuring phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells
Dr Ed Curry - Modelling local density of genomic features
Drs Nichola Cooper & George Adams - Do cytokine alterations in untreated Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) predict patient outcomes and response to treatment
Dr Biancastella Cereser - The association between pregnancy and breast cancer risk
Dr Nick Jones - Mitochondrial DNA mutation and Cancer
Dr Vahid Shahrezaei - Modelling and inference of stochastic gene expression using single cell data
Dr Matt Grech-Sollars - Imaging brain tumour growth using fractals and diffusion MRI
Dr Ed Cohen - Quantitative Bioimaging
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/naturalsciences/mathematicsofprecision...
 
Description EPSRC Centre for Mathematics of Precision Healthcare Launch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Precision healthcare seeks to deploy therapies that are sensitive to the particular genetic, lifestyle and environmental circumstances of each patient. Understanding how best to use these numerous features about each patient is a true mathematical challenge.
The EPSRC Centre for Mathematics of Precision Healthcare launch event brought together Imperial's mathematicians, engineers and computer scientists with medical scientists and clinicians to discuss such issues across different areas in healthcare. Our launch featured the following speakers: Professor Beth Simone Noveck, Director, GovLab and Professor Paul Matthews, Edmond and Lily Safra Chair and Head of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/naturalsciences/mathematicsofprecision...
 
Description Exploring Data-based and AI approaches to Healthcare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Institute of Global Health Innovation (IGHI) collaborated with the EPSRC Centre for Mathematics of Precision Healthcare to discuss and learn about the latest advances in data-based and AI approaches in healthcare.
The first talk of the Forum was delivered by Dr Aldo Faisal, Director of the Behaviour Analytics Lab at the Data Science Institute, who provided a look into how AI has been harnessing millions of doctor-patient interaction. Following this, Erik Mayer from IGHI's Centre for Health Policy and Clinical Senior Lecturer at Imperial's Department of Surgery & Cancer, spoke about 'Patient safety data and data analytics within Imperial NHS Trusts'. Here he highlighted some of the work being done with AI at the Patient Safety Translational Research Centre and IGHI's Helix Centre.
The final presentation was given by Professor Mauricio Barahona, Director of EPSRC Centre for Maths of Precision Healthcare and Chair of Biomathematics. Following Professor Barahona's talk titled, 'From free text to clusters of content in health records: an unsupervised graph partitioning approach', the speakers were then asked questions by the audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/185413/exploring-data-based-ai-approaches-healthcare/
 
Description Five EPSRC Maths-Healthcare Centres Meeting, University of Glasgow, 19th-21st Sept. 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact FIVE EPSRC Maths-Healthcare Centres (Cambridge, Exeter, Imperial, Liverpool and SofTMech) gathered together from the 19th to the 21st September 2018 at the University of Glasgow to exchange success stories and share experiences, and more importantly to consider future funding. Kings College London, UCLouvain, the University of Lancaster, Terumo Aortic and The Sick Children's Hospital in Glasgow were also represented by speakers who had been invited by one of the centres. Each of the Centres had recently completed their Mid-Term Review. Two portfolio Managers from the EPSRC, who fund the five centres attended, giving the centres the perspective of the EPSRC, as they discussed the way forward.
This was the first of two workshops. The centres gave an overview of the work at their centre, in particular highlighting new and exciting work where collaboration with other UK expertise would form a stronger funding application. In addition to the external speakers each centre had a number of internal speakers who gave presentations on their research and how it fitted in with the overall theme of their Maths and Healthcare Centre.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/headline_593316_en.html
 
Description Global Health Forum: Data-based and AI approaches to Healthcare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our monthly Global Health Forum brings together Imperial researchers, students, and staff from across all of the college's Faculties to highlight, discuss and disseminate findings on current global health research and innovations. The Forums encourage interdisciplinary discussions with the intention to foster inter-Faculty research initiatives and leverage the immense strengths of Imperial College to resolve global health priorities of the early 21st Century.

There is currently a surge of interest in the application and development of data-rich approaches in the healthcare sector for analytics, monitoring and decision-making. The range of applications extends from the patient level to organisational aspects of healthcare provision. This Forum highlighted some of the directions currently being pursued across academic departments at Imperial in close collaboration with Imperial NHS Trusts and Centres using healthcare data in conjunction with advanced computational and mathematical techniques.
The Forum was co-organised by the Institute for Global Health Innovation and the EPSRC Centre for Mathematics of Precision Healthcare and was followed by a Q&A answer highlighting ongoing research and opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/centres/globalhealth/eventssummary/eve...
 
Description Imperial Lates: Xmaths - Imperial Lates celebrate the latest in science and engineering at Imperial College London - bringing the public together with world leading minds in their respective fields, who not only love what they do, but also love sharing their work with new audiences. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Imperial Lates celebrate the latest in science and engineering at Imperial College London - bringing the public together with world leading minds in their respective fields, who not only love what they do, but also love sharing their work with new audiences. In December 2018 the public had an opportunity to meet Imperila's world leading mathematicians to learn e.g. how they visualise the equations they mull over, why the idea of inherent maths genius is a myth, and how Maths is being applied to understand everything from black holes to how people behave in crowds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/eventssummary/event_20-8-2018-16-14-44
 
Description International Conference on Complex Systems, Greece, September 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paul Expert (CMPH PDRA since March 2017): Co-organised satellite at international Conference on Complex Systems, Greece, September 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://ccs2018.web.auth.gr/
 
Description LMS-Math mixer 3.0 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This event was organised by the MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences (MRC LMS), the Quantitative Sciences Research Institute (QSRI), The EPSRC Centre for
Mathematics of Precision Healthcare (CMPH) and Mathematics in Medicine.The event is coordinated by Samuel Marguerat (MRC LMS), Marina Evangelou (Statistics) and Vahid Shahrezaei (Biomathematics), and Almut Veraart (QSRI). The aim of the event was to engage with PG and UG students who had an opportunity to find out about the work that is carried out by members of LMS and the Department of Mathematics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/naturalsciences/mathematicsofprecision...
 
Description London Chapter of Databeers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Expert (CMPH PDRA) is founding member and co-organiser of the London Chapter of Databeers. It is a free (roughly) bimonthly series of events aimed at a general audience where << data practioners >> present their work in short, 7 min, non technical talks, no equations/no code, to make it accessible to the greater number.Audience is composed of academics, civil servants and industry workers and we are now consistently at full capacity, 200+ attendance
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://databeersldn.tumblr.com/
 
Description MathsBioFest 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact MathBioFest 2018 took place at the Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London. The symposium celebrated the achievements of mathematics at the interface with life sciences in their broadest sense. The programme included an exciting mix of broad-audience talks and research presentations. The event showcased the pivotal role that mathematical reasoning plays in fields as diverse as molecular biology, animal behaviour and cancer biology.

The meeting was hosted by the EPSRC Centre for Mathematics of Precision Healthcare, as part of the Year of Mathematical Biology 2018 initiative, jointly run by the European Mathematical Society (EMS) and the European Society for Mathematical and Theoretical Biology (ESMTB).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/naturalsciences/mathematicsofprecision...
 
Description Panel debate: Big data and the future of social #TheNewNow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Social media is changing rapidly. We are going from a world of simply tweeting about our cat and periscoping about our lives, to analysing that information to create more impactful and tailored messages. Social data provides a new, unsolicited, uncensored and real-time view into the minds of existing and potential customers. But does it hold the key to future success for brands looking to harness big data and understand their customers better? To answer this question and more, we hosted a panel discussion with some of the most authoritative experts on the topic of big data and the future of social. Our panel included Twitter's VP for Europe, and three leading academics actively involved in the analysis and visualisation of the big data associated with social media.

Our panellists included:
Bruce Daisley, Vice President, Twitter Europe
Bruce runs Twitter's business in Europe, was dubbed "one of the most talented people in advertising" by Campaign magazine and voted individual of the year at the Drum Social Buzz Awards.

Professor Ken Benoit, Quantitative Social Research Methods, London School of Economics
Professor Benoit's current interests focus on big data analysis and text mining, including in social media.

Professor Sophia Yaliraki, Theoretical Chemistry and Professor Maurico Barahona, Biomathematics - both from Imperial Collage Data Science Institute's Social and Cultural Analytics Lab. Professors Yalikari and Barahona have developed a series of methods that derive interest communities and roles in Twitter based on flows to understand who is talking about what and the various roles they play.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://jaywing.com/news/panel-debate---big-data-and-the-future-of-social---thenewnow