Advanced Waste Management Strategies for High Dose Spent Adsorbents

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: Materials Science and Engineering

Abstract

The Great East Japan Earthquake, on 11 March 2011, triggered a devastating tsunami, leading to the loss of at least 19,000 lives and partial melt down of three boiling water reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ici site (Units 1-3). A key technology need in the site stabilisation, recovery and decommissioning programme at the Fukushima Dai-ici site is the decontamination of water used to cool the damaged reactor cores and ground water infiltrating the damaged reactor buildings. This is achieved by use of commercial inorganic ion exchange materials to strip the radionuclide contaminants in several purpose built facilities, which yield a variety of highly radioactive and dispersible "High Dose Spent Adsorbents". Of key concern is the production of hydrogen from radiation induced degradation of water within the adsorbent material, which poses an explosive hazard. The overarching aim of this project is to improve the passive safety of the high dose spent adsorbents to assure prolonged near surface storage and / or disposal in an engineered facility, in accordance with IAEA Safety Standards for the storage and pre-disposal management of radioactive wastes. To achieve this goal, we will develop novel thermal treatment approaches to transform the wet, granular, and dispersible material into an immobile monolithic form which is chemically and physically stable, eliminating the key hazard of hydrogen production. The approaches developed in this project will address a common need in international decommissioning and civil nuclear energy programmes, in which inorganic ion exchange materials find common application. In particular, the research will provide a route to treat a substantial volume of clinoptilolite waste present on the Sellafield site (classed as intermediate level waste) for which there is no currently accepted treatment route.

Planned Impact

We have identified four groups of beneficiaries who will gain from the proposed research
1. Public and private sector organisations engaged in nuclear decommissioning, will benefit directly from the knowledge and understanding generated by the research, which will assist in reducing the overall cost and hazard of radioactive waste management in future and legacy programmes.
2. The public will benefit from reduced hazard, cost and timescale of nuclear decommissioning and improved environmental outcomes as a result of more robust radioactive waste management processes.
3. Policy makers will benefit from improved scientific underpinning of radioactive waste management
strategies, which will assist in reducing uncertainties, leading to more accurate economic assessments.
4. Academia will benefit from new scientific discoveries through dissemination in peer-reviewed journals and at national and international conferences.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This project is focused primarily on development of hot isosatic pressing as a technology for treatment of high dose adsorbent (HDSA) materials on the Fukushima site. The project is still in progress, but already substantial progress has been made toward achieving objectives. The project has been supported by several bi-lateral visits in 2016-17. The project has featured in several broadcast interviews and features.
The first phase of our research has investigated the high temperature conditioning of commercial ion exchange materials, loaded with stable-isotope fission and activation products, as glass-ceramic material by hot isostatic pressing. A comprehensive investigation of the potential processing envelope was completed to achieve production of acceptable and optimised wasteform materials. A key outcome of this research has been to demonstrate the processing of materials without additives, achieving the maximum possible waste incorporation rate and minimum packaged volume, which is essential for industrial application. The results of this research were presented by invitation at the Atomic Energy Society of Japan Spring Meeting 2016 and by contribution at the MRS Fall Meeting 2016 (runner up for best poster prize). The second phase of our research involved assessment of the disposability of the glass-ceramic wasteforms, using a suite of dissolution methodologies. Our results demonstrate that these materials perform as well as, or better than, high level waste glasses intended for disposal in a UK geological disposal facility, tested under similar conditions. Additionally, we have investigated the encapsulation of simulant high dose spent adsorbents and have determined the adsorbent material to be compatible with the encapsulation matrix, providing an alternative viable pathway for immediate treatment of these high hazard materials. These research outcomes are currently being prepared for peer reviewed publication. The project also succeeded in meeting a stretch objective to investigate the potential of Spark Plasma Sintering of HDSAs to afford a passively safe glass-composite material. This has proven a remarkably effective, and potentially disruptive, approach to conditioning of HDSAs, achieving partitioning of Cs (the key radionuclide of concern) into a durable crystalline feldspar phase, encapsulated in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. This research was invited for publication in a special issue of Journal of Nuclear Science & Technology (currently in review).
Exploitation Route When matured, research could be taken up by industrial organisations in designing and implementing flow sheets for immobilisation of ion exchange materials on the Fukushima and Sellafield sites.
Sectors Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description A key outcome of this research is an understanding of how thermal treatment processes can be exploited to condition radioactive wastes and produce passively safe products suitable for interim storage and disposal. This outcome has attracted commercial interest with two contracts awarded for application and maturation of general and specific concepts developed in this project. More widely, this research has further developed our understanding of how advanced waste treatment technologies can radically change the risk posed by the inventory of radioactive waste consigned to geological disposal, by eliminating waste reactivity, achieving effective immobilisation of long lived radionuclides, with substantial reduction in waste volume. This evidence was provided to the House of Commons Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee on the Draft National Policy statement for Geological Disposal Infrastructure. The evidence was cited as the key basis for Recommendation 5 in the Committee report, "We recommend that the Government clarifies in the NPS the level of uncertainty regarding the inventory and explains to prospective host communities how this will affect their right to reject the GDI at any point during the siting process" - as set out at paragraph 34 in the body of the report.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Impact on Draft National Policy Statement for Geological Disposal Infrastructure
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Written evidence to the House of Commons Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee on the Draft National Policy statement for Geological Disposal Infrastructure, was cited as the key basis for Recommendation 5 "We recommend that the Government clarifies in the NPS the level of uncertainty regarding the inventory and explains to prospective host communities how this will affect their right to reject the GDI at any point during the siting process" - as set out at paragraph 34 in the body of the report.
URL https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmbeis/1092/1092.pdf
 
Description NIRAB II membership
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description A new precision cutting saw for radiological materials science
Amount £10,990 (GBP)
Organisation University of Sheffield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description CHaracterisation, Imaging and MaPping of fuel debris for safe retrieval (CHIMP)
Amount £253,279 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R01924X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description DECC - MIDAS capital grant
Amount £800,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Energy and Climate Change 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description DISCO - Horizon 2020
Amount £3,450,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2021
 
Description ERDF: Royce Translational Centre
Amount £4,005,654 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Department European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 02/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description ICARUS: Improving Chernobyl by Assistive Research at the University of Sheffield
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description MIDAS Collaboratory
Amount £800,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Energy and Climate Change 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description NDA - Plutonium Disposition / IAA match
Amount £214,712 (GBP)
Organisation Nuclear Decommissioning Authority NDA 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description NDA Bursary Scheme - damaged fuels
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Nuclear Decommissioning Authority NDA 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Simulated Used Nuclear Fuel Dissolution as a Function of Fuel Chemistry and Near Field Conditions
Amount £338,984 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R006075/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 04/2021
 
Description Sir Henry Royce Institute - Sheffield Build
Amount £8,770,885 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P025285/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2019
 
Description Sir Henry Royce Institute -Sheffield Equipment
Amount £15,229,114 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P02470X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2021
 
Description Thermal Treatment of Spent Ion Exchange Resins
Amount £25,010 (GBP)
Funding ID Award value is confidential 
Organisation Ministry of Defence (MOD) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description UoS & Suppliers - MIDAS equipment match
Amount £335,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Sheffield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Description Collaboration with ESRF XMAS and DUBBLE beamlines 
Organisation European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Extended application focus of beamline techniques to XAS data acquistion in the hard X-ray regime.
Collaborator Contribution Beamline optimisation to acquire XAS data from glass and ceramic materials in support of plutonium disposition.
Impact See publications section.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Kyushu University 
Organisation Kyushu University
Department Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Glass formulation design and characterisation for conditioning of high dose spent adsorbents at the Fukushima site.
Collaborator Contribution Formulation and characterisation of hot isostatically pressed ceramic wasteforms for high dose spent adsorbents at the Fukushima site.
Impact See research publications.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Tohoku University 
Organisation Tohoku University
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Glass formulation design and characterisation for conditioning of high dose spent adsorbents at the Fukushima site.
Collaborator Contribution Formulation and characterisation of hot isostatically pressed ceramic wasteforms for high dose spent adsorbents at the Fukushima site.
Impact See publications section.
Start Year 2015
 
Description DELTA (Dortmunder ELekTronenspeicherring-Anlage) 
Organisation Technical University of Dortmund
Department Dortmund Electron Storage Ring System (DELTA)
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of beamline XAS applications to low concentration detection in disordered systems and expansion of international user programme.
Collaborator Contribution Acquisition of XAS data in hard X-ray regime.
Impact See publications section.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Photon Factory KEK Hard X-ray Beamline BL9 
Organisation High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Application of total electron yield detection to characterisation of ion beam amorphised surface layers on ceramic wasteforms.
Collaborator Contribution Access to and training on Photon Factory BL9.
Impact See publication section.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Washington State University at Pullman 
Organisation Washington State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Investigation and understanding of phase separation and crystallisation in glass-ceramics for immobilisation of high level radioactive waste from future fuel cycles.
Collaborator Contribution Investigation and understanding of phase separation and crystallisation in glass-ceramics for immobilisation of high level radioactive waste from future fuel cycles.
Impact See publications section.
Start Year 2015
 
Description 3rd UK - Japan Nuclear Forum, UK Embassy, Tokyo, Japan. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Prof. Neil Hyatt was invited to attend the 3rd UK - Japan Nuclear Forum at the UK Embassy, Tokyo, on 5 February 2019, as the lead of the JUNO network and a joint research project funded under the UK - Japan EPSRC / MEXT civil nuclear programme. The event provided an opportunity to disseminate (by poster, literature and face to face discussion) the activities and outcomes of the network and project to industry leaders, policy makers, and senior academics in Japan, and promote wider UK - Japan collaboration in nuclear energy and decommissioning. Several follow up requests for further information were received following the event and three new collaborations are under development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Co-ordinated Research Project on Management Degraded Nuclear Fuel and Corium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Collaborative integrated knowledge exchange project to share understanding of degraded fuel and corium characterisation and treatment. Research outcomes will form an IAEA technical document.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Collaboration building meeting with Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 30 March 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A bilateral meeting was organised with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency to showcase joint UK / Japan research in civil nuclear energy and potential opportunities for future collaboration. The meeting highlighted characterisation and retrieval of corium material at Fukushima as a topic of particular interest, which seeded a successful grant application under the phase four of the UK EPSRC / Japan MEXT civil nuclear energy collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Collaboration building seminar on thermal treatment of radioactive wastes with leading researchers from Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar involving ca. 30 leading researchers from Japan and University of Sheffield to explore opportunities for collaboration in thermal treatment of radioactive wastes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Feature article on Fukushima and Chernobyl related research sponsored by EPSRC 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature interview in Sheffield Star and Sheffield Telegraph on radioactive waste management research, with particular focus on applications at Chernobyl and Fukushima.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sheffieldtelegraph.co.uk/news/star-interview-with-richard-blackledge-how-sheffield-expert...
 
Description IAEA Summer School on Radiation Effects on Radioactive Wasteforms 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Forms and their Consequences for Storage and Disposal, 12-16 September 2016, with engagement of over 30 international researchers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://indico.ictp.it/event/7633/
 
Description Joint Workshop for the UK-Japan Civil Research Programme: Nuclear Decommissioning 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The JUNO Network co-organised, with the Nuclear Safety Research Association (Japan), a workshop from 6 - 7 February to develop UK - Japan collaboration in nuclear decommissioning. An open process was managed to select a UK team of 25 senior and early career research leaders, to attend a two day workshop in Kyoto, with counterparts in Japan, with the aim of defining common research challenges in UK - Japan nuclear decommissioning to inform future funding calls to the joint civil nuclear research programme. Delegates worked through a series of facilitated sessions to capture and prioritise research challenges, methodologies, and facility requirements. Participant feedback from the event was overwhelmingly positive, with ca. 95% of participants indicating that the event had met or exceed their expectations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Jointly organised a session at the Atomic Energy Society of Japan Spring Meeting, to showcase outcomes of joint UK EPSRC / Japan MEXT projects, Tokai, Japan, 29 March 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A session was organised at the Atomic Energy Society of Japan Spring Meeting in Tokai, which took place on 29 March 2017, to showcase joint UK / Japan research in the civil nuclear energy programme. The session attracted ca. 50 participants and elicited discussion both on the technical aspects of the research and the opportunities and benefits of UK / Japan collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MRS Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XL 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised flagship 40th anniversary MRS symposium on scientific basis for nuclear waste management, showcasing research in multiple EPSRC sponsored projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Media and public engagement workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Delivered a media and public engagement skills summer school for postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers in DISTINCTIVE consortium, which was open to attendance to EPSRC sponsored researchers in nuclear energy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Organised: MRS Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management Symposium, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised the MRS Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management Symposium, 2018, which attracted more than 100 experts from around the world for a 4 day symposium on state of the art research outcomes in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation in International Glass Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participation in International Glass Working Group - dissemination of research outcomes from multiple EPSRC sponsored projects with the aim of developing a state of the art unified model for glass corrosion, relevant to radioactive waste disposal; participation in expert group designing collaborative international experiments using International Standard Glass.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation in Seventh UK / Japan Nuclear Dialogue, London, 24-25 October 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The JUNO network was invited to present its mission and activities supporting joint UK / Japan research in civil nuclear energy at the 7th UK - Japan Nuclear Dialogue, which took place at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo, Japan, co-chaired by Prof Robin Grimes (Chief Scientific Adviser, FCO, UK) and Mr Kawasaki,(Deputy Director-General, Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and Science Department, MOFA, Japan). The meeting was attended by senior policy makers in civil nuclear energy in the UK and Japan (including representatives of BEIS and MEXT). Participants from Japan requested further information on the network and its activities to disseminate to key research leaders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/seventh-annual-uk-japan-nuclear-dialogue
 
Description Participation in expert panel on decommissioning Fukushima Dai-ici at ICONE 26 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participation in expert panel on decommissioning Fukushima Dai-ici at ICONE 26, London, UK, and contribution of UK research groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at UK - Japan Technology Showcase, Tokyo, 26 March 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to audience at joint UK / Japan networking and collaboration building workshop, to disseminate the role and opportunities of the JUNO network in supporting bilateral collaboration in civil nuclear energy. The presentation elicited interest from new members to join the network and participate in its activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://junouk.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/juno-jst-workshop-2017.pdf
 
Description Radiation affected robots in decommissioning the Fukushima Dai-ici site 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A recorded interview with the PI was broadcast on Sputnik Radio - World in Focus, 6 March 2017, giving an up to date assessment of the situation at Fukushima Dai-ici and the problematic effects of radiation fields on the performance and failure of robots used in the decommissioning process; the broadcast elicited direct contact from members of the public interested in finding out more about our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Radio interview on Fukushima decommissioning and our related research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio interview on Fukushima decommissioning and our related EPSRC sponsored research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://sputniknews.com/radio_world_in_focus/201703061051319142-hollande-le-pen-turkey-syrian-kurds-...
 
Description SMEA Lecture: Putting the Mission into UK Nuclear Decommissioning 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact New research collaborations identified with attending industrial companies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Sheffield scientists pioneer new method for managing radioactive waste 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Television interview as part of World Science day, discussing radioactive waste management research associated with EPSRC sponsored projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://vimeo.com/191056195
 
Description UK - Japan Collaborative Research Showcase in Nuclear Decommissioning at Spring Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, 27 March 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In partnership with the UK Embassy in Japan, a UK - Japan Collaborative Research Showcase in Nuclear Decommissioning was organised at Spring Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, on 27 March 2018. The JUNO network supported attendance by 15 UK delegates from universities and research organisations. The UK and Japan PIs (or their delegates) of joint UK - Japan EPSRC / MEXT research projects presented the key outcomes of their research in Phase 1-3 projects to an audience of ca. 100 conference delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UK - Ukraine workshop on Chernobyl Decommissioning 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised a bilateral workshop to develop UK - Ukraine collaboration in decommissioning of Chernobyl Unit 4 in association with EPSRC sponsored research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description UK / Japan Technology Showcase, 26 March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A networking event organised to bring together research leaders in civil nuclear energy in Japan and UK. Approximately 40 participants co-created a set of research challenges around themes in nuclear decommissioning, waste management, environmental remediation and reactor technology to identify and prioritise UK - Japan collaboration. The networking was successful in developing new collaborations which were successful in grant application for the fourth phase of the UK EPSRC / Japan MEXT collaboration in civil nuclear energy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017