Control and Trust as Moderating Mechanisms in addressing Vulnerability for the Design of Business and Economic Models (ConTriVE)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Surrey
Department Name: Business

Abstract

Personal data holds great potential to benefit commerce and society, but, at the institutional level, concerns are rising over the risks associated with data access, ownership, privacy and confidentiality. The main purpose of this project is to investigate whether and how these institutional concerns are reflected in the perceptions of individual users. This proposal will establish a new programme of research in digital economy by understanding how individual subjective perceptions of users with regard to cybersecurity relate to organizational and institutional views on cybersecurity. By gaining this understanding we seek to develop new business models which would allow businesses to minimize individual perceptions of vulnerability with regard to issues of privacy, security, and trust.

We propose that individual subjective vulnerability with regard to cybersecurity issues is an important factor which impact upon business models and the development of digital economy. We consider vulnerability from three perspectives:
1) An individual's perspective of their own vulnerability;
2) The perspective of the entity the individual is interacting with in the digital domain (which could be another individual, or a business); and
3) The institution that is tasked to regulate and protect all entities within the system (e.g., the state, regulatory body, etc.).
All three entities are likely to assess individual vulnerabilities in different ways and would have a separate sets of trade-offs against the risks. An individual considers the trade-off between the choice/freedom to use a service against the risk of being vulnerable. A business, on the other hand, approximates individual's vulnerability and makes an assessment of risk which is important for its business model in order to trade off revenues and provide additional service to mitigate that risk to the extent that it would pacify the user and the regulator. Finally, from a state point of view, the aggregation of a large numbers of users creates a complex system of data sharing which bears a systemic risk that may result in individual vulnerabilities which are hard to quantify and manage.
Proposed project will implement "in-the-wild" strategy in order to:
(i) Measure individual vulnerability with regard to cybersecurity issues using different contexts and taking into account individual heterogeneity;
(ii) Using these context-dependent measure, propose new business models which would mitigate perceptions of cybersecurity risks;
(iii) Suggest tools for policy makers and regulators to decrease cybersecurity risks via bridging the gap between subjective vulnerability of users and objective vulnerability measured by businesses and other institutions.

Publications

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Maull, R (2018) The age of peak mobility

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Peters, Christoph (2016) Communications of the Association for Information Systems in Communications of the Association for Information Systems

 
Description Personal data holds great potential to benefit commerce and society, but, there are many risks associated with data access, ownership, privacy and confidentiality. The main purpose of this project was to investigate whether and how these institutional concerns are reflected in the perceptions of individual users.
We propose that individual subjective vulnerability with regard to cybersecurity issues is an important factor which impact upon business models and the development of digital economy. We consider vulnerability from three perspectives:
1) An individual's perspective of their own vulnerability;
2) The perspective of the entity the individual is interacting with in the digital domain (which could be another individual, or a business); and
3) The institution that is tasked to regulate and protect all entities within the system (e.g., the state, regulatory body, etc.).
All three entities are likely to assess individual vulnerabilities in different ways and would have a separate sets of trade-offs against the risks. An individual considers the trade-off between the choice/freedom to use a service against the risk of being vulnerable. A business, on the other hand, approximates individual's vulnerability and makes an assessment of risk which is important for its business model in order to trade off revenues and provide additional service to mitigate that risk to the extent that it would pacify the user and the regulator. Finally, from a state point of view, the aggregation of a large numbers of users creates a complex system of data sharing which bears a systemic risk that may result in individual vulnerabilities which are hard to quantify and manage.

The project has (i) Measure individual vulnerability with regard to cybersecurity issues using different contexts and taking into account individual heterogeneity;
(ii) Using these context-dependent measure, propose new business models which would mitigate perceptions of cybersecurity risks;
(iii) Suggest tools for policy makers and regulators to decrease cybersecurity risks via bridging the gap between subjective vulnerability of users and objective vulnerability measured by businesses and other institutions.
Exploitation Route The Contrive project was a major part of the development of the HAT eco-system. Dataswift Ltd is a commercial enterprise spun out from the HAT research project tasked to build the decentralised HAT Infrastructure and the governance model. From 2015-18, Dataswift built a suite of technology services and set up the legal, and economic model (the HATDeX Governance Platform) around the open-sourced HAT to scale the issuance of HAT personal data accounts.

Dataswift operates under licence from the HAT Community Foundation, a members' organisation that sets the top-level requirements for the trust framework. Dataswift and HATCF work together to promote data rights and data mobility for innovation on the HATDeX platform.

In the innovation environment, Dataswift works with HATLAB and HAT Accelerator support the HAT R&D environment.

In the live environment, Dataswift creates contracts for data exchanges between websites/applications and HAT owners; review and approve them, manage the HATStore and the certifications necessary for a tool, app or plug to go live.

Dataswift is responsible for:

Creating new contracts between website/applications and HAT owners based on requests and review the website/application for release into the live environment

Check that all contracts are valid whenever a HAT owner logs into a website/application

Ensuring data exchanges between all entities in the ecosystem are safe, speedy, secure, smooth and legally allowable

Ensuring data contracts, when implemented in the live platform, are transparently displayed for data usage, purpose and duration; logged and executed.

Providing metadata services to grow and facilitate data exchanges

Continuing to improve the HATDeX platform with inputs and advice from HATLAB research and innovation on the technological, legal and economic engineering of the HATDeX platform and the HAT ecosystem.

Enabling and supporting new cross application functionalities, data exchanges, data repositories, views, analysis and intelligence for HAT owners.

Maintaining and updating the open-sourced HAT baseline technology
Sectors Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Energy,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Healthcare,Retail,Transport

URL https://www.hubofallthings.com/
 
Description One good example is the use by small companies to target money off campaigns to consumers that trade vouchers for information about a consumer's calendar. this will enable better targeting of campaigns and a better match of capacity and demand. The research team have permission to run a series of experiments with a small student group, identifying what data they will 'trade' for reward. We are also linking to the data collected from the COMEHERE project. We have now completed a large survey on trust in financial services which was additional funding supplied to the project by an external consultancy. in 2018 we have also begun to run experiments on the HAT platform. We developed a protocol to examine first use of the HAT among a student population, having first completed a survey on attitudes to personal data, which also asked questions about willingness to pay for privacy protection. The aim of the survey was to firstly assess willingness to pay and secondly to see how respondents might value and categorise these payments within mental constructs of monetary worth to identify how important this might be when compared within a cognitive payment hierarchy of most to least significant. In doing so our aim was to link use of the HAT to both the willingness to pay literature and Thaler's work on mental accounting. Willingness to pay has been shown to exhibit a low priority in mental accounting contexts and our experiment with the questionnaire was designed to demonstrate the nature of this positioning among students, as an initial test group of approximately 36 people. The research design also included a simulation exercise with the HAT, which reached a first stage of HCI testing with a self selecting group of volunteers who had filled in the questionnaire. The aim at the HCI stage was to acquire feedback on what it was like to interact with the HAT for the first time. This aspect of the research aimed to fill a gap in the willingness to pay literature concerning the circumstances within which individuals give away their personal data. In most cases money dictates the outcome and we wanted to see what would happen when the financial offer was set at equivalent price points. This aspect of the research was guided by the question of whether decisions made under experimental conditions might be made when reputation was the key factor influencing decision making.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Retail,Other
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description British Academy/Leverhulme Small Grants Award
Amount £9,979 (GBP)
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2017
 
Description Dynamic, Real time, On-demand Personalisation for Scaling (DROPS)
Amount £148,971 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R033560/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2020
 
Description Technology Driven Change and Next Generation Insurance Value Chains (TECHNGI)
Amount £996,073 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/S010416/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description The Internet of Food Things
Amount £1,139,958 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R045127/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 05/2021
 
Description 1. Workshop with James Scott, director of planning Great Ormond Street Hospital October 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop delivered with James Scott from GOSH with digital healthcare theme. Provoked discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 9th Service Operations Management Forum - Copenhagen 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Maull, R; Godsiff P; Mulligan C present 'Digitalization: Towards a Research Agenda' to an international audience. This increased debate from participants in industry and academia in this area, as well as sharing knowledge and experience of servitization
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference paper from Elizabeth Kewell: Digital Literacy and Datalockers: a Research Agenda. CADE, University of Warwick, Venice, 18th-20th of June. Competitive Advantage in the Digital Economy Forum (CADE). 18th - 20th Jun 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact CADE facilitated interdisciplinary collaborations and built a platform for the development of a common language for digital economy research. The Forum created new synergies between research groups both at Warwick and other institutions, and opportunities were created for collaboration between participants at CADE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/wmg/research/business_transformation/ssg/ssgabout/sswmgactivities/cade...
 
Description Executive briefing in the future the digital economy to Lloyds Insurance market, November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A discussion with executives from Lloyds Insurance and other Operations leader on innovation and tech adoption within the insurance industry. Roger Maull spoke about some how technological developments are impacting the way the business sector is operating and thinking. In particular Roger spoke about the plethora of data that is now changing everything, especially that emanating from Internet of Things. An interactive 'open table' discussion. This lead to follow up conversations and meetings with Lloyds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Frontiers in Service Conference 2017 Presentation of a Paper 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presentation Davies P; Ng, I.C.L; Maull, R & Gibbons G (2017).'Product Modularity in a Service Context -Does it hold?', Fordham University, New York. Imapct was in fostering greater knowledge transfer across a wider spectrum of disciplines and company best practices.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Maull, R workhop Behavioural Visibility in Data (BeVID)- Experiencing New Research Methods with Reality Mining CADE Conference Venice May 17-20 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The workshop led by Prof Maull explored how to develop research projects and use these new scientific research tools and methods in social sciences based on these observations, particularly through the use of the HAT Micro-server data account that allows research respondents to donate their actual behavioural data (spending, location, activities, sleep) to research. The participants had an opportunity to practice with simulated HAT data, and discussed how to use behavioural visibility in the form of data to craft a robust and useful research project, how to set up respondent panels, create rules and put in place tests for reliability, and validity, ensure robust and unbiased experimental design, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of results. This provoked a great deal of questions and discussions and increased interest within the 30 people who were involved.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/wmg/research/business_transformation/ssg/ssgabout/sswmgactivities/cade...
 
Description Multrees Investor Services, Ruffer LLP - Shoreditch, London, February 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Accademia presentation to industry and executives. Topic of finance and investment was covered creating debate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Panel CoDE Roundtable, Academy of Management Symposium on Big Data, 20th of April, 2018, Surrey Business School, University of Surrey. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A roundtable discussing CONTRIVE project and issues around personal data and privacy. Attendees from the AoM Symposium, mostly academics, PhD students, Academic expert input from Alan Brown and David Lopez provoked discussion abd dialogue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Seminar with HSBC bank January 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A seminar presenting to senior HSBC staff regarding the technological innovations and adaptions that could be made in the financial sector. Created debate and questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Seminar with the Law Society, June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A seminar to create networking opportunities with law professionals and create opportunities to deliver outputs for the AUUTO (Innovate UK) grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop with National farmers Union September 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Seminar presented to farmers and the farming community. Food traceability discussions and exploration of collaborations during networking.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop with Total Mobile, September 18 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact As a result of the Workshop, a report called The Age of Peak Mobility was produced for Total Mobile.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Workshop with the Digital catapult December 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar discussing advanced digital technologies through adoption and innovation. lead to other follow up meetings with Digital Catapult
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018