THE FUTURE COMPOSITES MANUFACTURING HUB

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract

Advanced composite materials consist of reinforcement fibres, usually carbon or glass, embedded within a matrix, usually a polymer, providing a structural material. They are very attractive to a number of user sectors, in particular transportation due to their combination of low weight and excellent material properties which can be tailored to specific applications. Components are typically manufactured either by depositing fibres into a mould and then infusing with resin (liquid moulding) or by forming and consolidation of pre-impregnated fibres (prepreg processing).

The current UK composites sector has a value of £1.5 billion and is projected to grow to over £4 billion by 2020, and to between £6 billion and £12 billion by 2030. This range depends on the ability of the industry to deliver structures at required volumes and quality levels demanded by its target applications. Much of this potential growth is associated with next generation single-aisle aircraft, light-weighting of vehicles to reduce fuel consumption, and large, lightweight and durable structures for renewable energy and civil infrastructure. The benefits of lightweight composites are clear, and growth in their use would have a significant impact on both the UK's climate change and infrastructure targets, in addition to a direct impact on the economy through jobs and exports. However the challenges that must be overcome to achieve this growth are significant. For example, BMW currently manufacture around 20,000 i3 vehicles per year with significant composites content. To replace mass produced vehicles this production volume would need to increase by up to 100-times. Airbus and Boeing each produce around 10 aircraft per month (A350 and 787 respectively) with high proportions of composite materials. The next generation single aisle aircraft are likely to require volumes of 60 per month. Production costs are high relative to those associated with other materials, and will need to reduce by an order of magnitude to enable such growth levels.

The Future Composites Manufacturing Hub will enable a step change in manufacturing with advanced polymer composite materials. The Hub will be led by the University of Nottingham and University of Bristol; with initial research Spokes at Cranfield, Imperial College, Manchester and Southampton; Innovation Spokes at the National Composites Centre (NCC), Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC), Manufacturing Technology Centre (MTC) and Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG); and backed by 18 leading companies from the composites sector. Between the Hub, Spokes and industrial partners we will offer a minimum of £12.7 million in additional support to deliver our objectives. Building on the success of the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Composites (CIMComp), the Hub will drive the development of automated manufacturing technologies that deliver components and structures for demanding applications, particularly in the aerospace, transportation, construction and energy sectors. Over a seven year period, the Hub will underpin the growth potential of the sector, by developing the underlying processing science and technology to enable Moore's law for composites: a doubling in production capability every two years.

To achieve our vision we will address a number of research priorities, identified in collaboration with industry partners and the broader community, including: high rate deposition and rapid processing technologies; design for manufacture via validated simulation; manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures; inspection and in-process evaluation; recycling and re-use. Matching these priorities with UK capability, we have identified the following Grand Challenges, around which we will conduct a series of Feasibility Studies and Core Projects:
-Enhance process robustness via understanding of process science
-Develop high rate processing technologies for high quality structures

Planned Impact

There are numerous beneficiaries outside the six academic groups involved. The 18 initial industrial partners (OEMs, Tier 1 Suppliers and SMEs) and four HVM Catapult Centres (NCC, AMRC, MTC and WMG) who are financially supporting the Hub to the tune of £9M will benefit directly from the research outcomes through close interaction at project level, by representation on the Advisory Board, and by frequent engagement with the Hub's Business Development staff and Platform Fellows. This interface allows industry the best opportunity to support the research and advise on direction in order to best serve industry's productivity requirements for the medium to long term. The Hub will offer the understanding and fundamental technology developments necessary to deliver growth in established sectors, develop technologies and supply chains for increased volumes, and diversify to take advantage of emerging sectors. It will feed into the relevant HVM Catapult Centres, providing a rapid route to exploitation for UK industry. In particular, £1.3M funding from the NCC for a Technology Accelerator Fund will support the transfer and development of Hub technologies into the NCC with a strong UK industry involvement.

The wider composites manufacturing community will benefit by regular research updates via newsfeeds on our website, participation in national and international shows and events, and Open Days and sponsored conferences organised by the Hub. We will have a strong focus on ensuring cross-sector involvement: manufacturing advances resulting from the research will balance generic and process specific outcomes, ensuring benefits across a broad range of sectors. Many applications will offer opportunities for weight saving leading to, for example, significant improvements in performance and reduction in emissions in transportation, offering major benefits to society. Other societal benefits will include the development of recycling and re-use technologies to process waste and end-of-life components.

The Hub seeks to enable a step-change to the UK composites manufacturing industry by enhanced process robustness via understanding of process science and novel process technology developments. This will greatly enhance efficiency, quality and productivity in composites manufacturing technologies, therefore opening up a broad range of applications for advanced composites. This will assist UK industry to achieve the upper estimate of composites sector growth to £12 billion by 2030. All academic partners have an excellent track record of publication in high impact factor journals and of achieving real impact with industry, ensuring rapid take up of our ideas alongside a high standing within the international academic community. The training programme developed by the Hub's Industrial Doctorate Centre for its community of researchers will be extended to staff from key industrial partners. In addition new companies will be recruited as partners in the development of our research programme and as hosts for future EngD students. Our research students and staff will have opportunities to undertake both international academic and UK industrial placements, to support their personal development and to facilitate knowledge exchange. In this way the Hub will act as a focus for training of a new generation of composites engineers and will enhance the UK skills base in the vitally important Composites Manufacturing sector.

Organisations

Publications

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Description Since January 2017, the Hub has funded 24 Feasibility Studies, 6 Core Projects, 3 Innovation Fellowships and 4 Synergy projects. The Synergy projects are ongoing and findings will be reported on next year. Below is a list of key findings:

Core Projects
New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures Core Project - still active
1. Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed.
2. A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain.
3. The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners.
4. Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts.
5. Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel.
6. Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture.
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Technologies Framework for Automated DFP Core Project - still active
1. Development of a network based flow modelling approach
2. Flow / permeability characterisation of gapped ADFP preforms
3. Development of knowledge of raw material behaviour - thermal, electrical and compaction characteristics
4. Increased understanding of the joule heating mechanism for carbon fibres
5. Development of a digital twinning methodology based on the HDF5 database format
6. A real-time control strategy combining multi-physics co-simulation of thermal and mechanical properties of carbon fibre tapes
7. Experimental trials and finite element (FE) models were conducted and developed to demonstrate the differences of steerability and formability between a representative continuous fibre and HiPerDiF prepreg preforms on different manufacturing environments.
8. High-fidelity and cost-effective forming simulations with embedded material model were developed and validated by double diaphragm forming (DDF) tests (a representative comparison between experimental and numerical results). In DDF simulation, the forming was modelled by changing the pressure load acting on the diaphragms.
9. The virtual "unforming" is realised by directly reversing process of forming. An initial forming simulation was first performed; nodal displacement histories of the diaphragms were extracted, stored and used for the un-forming simulation. During "unforming", these nodal displacement histories were reversed and assigned to the same nodes of diaphragm models but with the opposite sign so that both diaphragms can deform back from formed geometry to their original states and the preform model sandwiched between the diaphragms was also deformed from its 3D 'as-designed' shape.
10. Development of a set of validated numerical tools significantly reduced the amount of experimental trials, as well as to elevate productivity and production qualities of high-volume fibre-steered forming technology for both continuous and discontinues prepreg systems.
11. Development of a modified picture frame test rig to experimentally study the in-plane shear characteristic of unidirectional tape materials.- It successfully managed to introduce high shear strain without causing major tape buckling.
12. An in-house double-diaphragm forming rig was fabricated for forming trials. Wider HiPerDiF tapes are currently being produced to manufacture fibre-steered and multi-layered preforms for further validating the unforming simulation model.
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Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites Core Project - completed
1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production.
2. Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch.
3. The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations.
4. A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass).
5. Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered.
6. Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up.
7. Application of this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles) - Use of structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range.
8. Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments.
9. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties.
10. A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project.
11. A tool to assess properties of a Hybrid tufted braid has been developed.
12. Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches.
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Resin injection into reinforcement with uncertain heterogeneous properties: NDE and control Core Project - still active
1. An algorithm for analysis of in-process data has been developed and validated in the virtual and lab experiments. - This was shown to accurately capture both race tracking and other defects.
2. The inversion algorithm can be used either for characterisation of material or for defect detection to estimate the manufacturing process and product quality.
3. A new demonstrator is in development -With the expectation to test inversion algorithms on detecting race tracking as well as layup and material defects within this new demonstrator, to be utilised by industry.
4. A three month impact exploration conducted (ended in December 2019; £8K of additional impact EPSRC funding was secured for that). Several companies were contacted, discussions were held with 7 of them. All expressed an interest in the project and provided valuable feedback for further shaping the project towards the industrial needs. With three companies (JLR, Surface Generation and ESI), where further collaboration is being developed.
5. EPSRC Case studentship granted Mar 2020 - ESI committed £32K cash and £260K in-kind contribution.
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Layer by Layer Curing Core Project - still active
1. Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves. The LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction.
2. Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C.
3. Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development.
4. Cure kinetics characterisation.
5. Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL.
6. Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices.
7. Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring.
8. Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
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Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming Core Project -still active
1. Two process improvements have been developed - Modification of inter-ply friction by local lubrication and the removal of intra-ply stitches to minimise the local shear angle across the surface of the ply.
2. Numerical tools have been developed to enable the design and forming of large industrial structures with greater confidence.
3. Fabric deformation during forming processes was advanced for uniaxial and biaxial NCF materials applied to automotive and aerospace components.- Two wrinkling mechanisms were discovered: via shear lockup and via compression.
4. Three numerical forming tools were developed to efficiently predict the manufacturing defects generated during the DDF of dry fabrics. In addition, an analytical tool based on the eigenvectors of lamina stiffness matrices was developed to rapidly calculate the ply compatibility in complex NCF multi-layer layups.
5. To improve the quality of NCF preforms and to reduce the forming forces during the DDF process, a range of process developments were proposed to industrial partners.
6. The friction modification methodology was also successfully applied to an automotive seatback geometry.
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Feasibility Studies:
Rewinding Tape Laying: can Direct End-of-Life Recovery of Continuous Tapes be a Step-change in the Sustainability of Thermoplastic Composites? Feasibility study -This study has recently commenced (January 2022) therefore there are no findings to report at this stage.
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Manufacturing Value-Added Composites for the Construction Sector Using Mixed Waste Plastics and Waste Glass Fibre Feasibility study - This study has recently commenced (January 2022) therefore there are no findings to report at this stage.
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ADvanced Dynamic REpair Solutions for Sustainable Composites (ADDRESS) Feasibility study - This study has recently commenced (January 2022) therefore there are no findings to report at this stage.
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Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR) Feasibility study - This study has recently commenced (January 2022) therefore there are no findings to report at this stage.
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Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing Feasibility study - This study has recently commenced (January 2022) therefore there are no findings to report at this stage.
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COMPrinting: Novel 3D Printing of Curved Continuous Carbon Fibre Reinforced Powder-based Epoxy Composites Feasibility study
1. Modification of an existing towpregging tapeline for producing low-cost carbon fibre reinforced powder-based epoxy filament (1 to 3k tows, fibre Vf up to 65%) bringing a faster, more controlled and optimised way to manufacture composites.
2. Design and manufacture of a novel printer nozzle with a rectangular cross-section at the outlet.
3. 3D printing powder-based epoxy composites with identified performance-driven curved continuous fibre paths.
4. Testing and characterisation of the printed composites.
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Optimised Manufacturing of Structural Composites via Thermoelectric Vario-thermal Tooling (VarioTherm) Feasibility study
1. The development of the VARIOTHERM prototype tooling systems was performed in a step-wise manner, delivering multiple tooling systems of increasing capability and complexity.
2. The '1-D' system was run without any TPC material and the heating/cooling and control characteristics were evaluated. Achieving heating/cooling rates of 1-3°C/s, dependent upon the temperature differential.
3. The Peltier technology as applied to a simple flat aluminium plate tooling system here has delivered typical heating/cooling rates of >1°C/s (peak rates of 3°C/s).
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Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming Feasibility study
1. Production of a small scale forming system- To minimise risks to users and to avoid damage to the existing larger system in early trials.
2. Production of a flat panel in rigid tooling using vacuum forming.
3. Production of a flat panel in flexible tooling, using the forming frame, with only the vacuum providing rigidity to the system (unsupported diaphragms).Infusion achieved excellent wet out and the resin successfully polymerised to produce approximately 60% fibre volume fraction composites. However, interlaminar consolidation was poor, essentially resulting in a stack of well wet out thermoplastic tapes. This was ascribed to potential loss of vacuum consolidation as a result of a blockage in the vacuum line and/or the action of gravity on the unsupported diaphragms. A number of solutions were investigated, including heated vacuum lines and angled fill, but with mixed success. Ultimately this proved to be a less significant issue when forming.
4. Production of formed components using the in situ polymerisation process and to demonstrate the benefits of filling prior to forming. Effectiveness is limited by the consumables and there is an apparent imbalance in pressure acting on the hemisphere. However, the result was well consolidated in the sections that did not experiencing fabric bridging. The Ph.D. student at Nottingham is continuing with this work and additional examples are expected soon. Further refinement of the infusion equipment would improve the result.
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Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites Feasibility study
1. Understanding of the forming limits of neat TP materials in relation to thinning and tearing.
2. Removal of rigid peripheral clamping systems to permit thermoforming of continuously reinforced TPs using vacuum pressure.
3. The ability to robotically manipulate fabric reinforcement under the constraint of vacuum clamping.
4. Recognition that forming of continuously reinforced TP sheet material as a superposition of fabric forming limits and plastic deformation limits of homogeneous materials.
5. Realisation that the combination of bulk diaphragm and detailed incremental forming of TP sheet is not sequential, but an iterative combination of both manufacturing processes.
6. The technology developed in the feasibility study (HyVR) has been submitted as a NCC Technology Pull Through project. It has progressed past the first round.
7. Hub funded PhD student is developing a thermo mechanical forming model to simulate the HyVR process. This model is an extension to the successful mechanical model developed by another Hub project.
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Virtual un-manufacturing of fibre-steered preforms for complex geometry composites Feasibility study
1. Development of a numerical framework for un-forming of an ideal 3D part design
2. Proof of concept of the feasibility of the forming of steered preforms for fast deposition and waste reduction in composite part manufacturing.
3. Development of double-diaphragm forming of steered preform onto complex shape mould
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Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition Feasibility study
1. Development of microwave cavities suitable for in line heating of tows at 2.45 GHz and to couple to an existing 2 kW microwave system was achieved.
2. Assessment of the potential heating rates achievable on narrow static tows in the laboratory using a sealed system was achieved.
3. Investigation designs of microwave choke or screening to ensure that the microwave radiation is contained during processing with conductive fibres were explored - the modelling showed that a choke would not be practical in an AFP system because it would need to be very large to work and a Faraday cage would be the best solution.
4. Access to equipment at UoB was not available due to the pandemic and so a rig to pass 8 mm tape through a microwave cavity operating at 200 W was manufactured at WGU. This showed that the process was feasible.
5. Consideration of methods for increasing the power delivered in follow on projects were explored- 2 most promising are the truncated waveguide and an open horn applicator. The latter would be compatible with a combination of microwave and diode laser heating.
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Controlled Micro Integration of Through Thickness Polymeric Yarns Feasibility study
1. Ability to produce through-thickness reinforced composites with no knock-down on in-plane properties.
2. Test results that validate the tensile properties.
3. Quality micrograph and CT images that can be used by modellers to build representative unit cell.
4. Ability to make a stabilised curved preform using the technique.
5. Ability to make a low bulk-factor preform with +- 45 deg fibres and through thickness reinforcement.
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An innovative approach to manufacturing closed-section composite profiles Feasibility study
1. A novel and feasible manufacturing technique to produce complex tubular composites by post-forming braided sleeves, which is promising to offer a step change in manufacturing rate
2. A numerical model to simulate braiding process based on FE method, enabling to design the braiding process and predict the production quality
3. An explicit FE model to simulate forming braids, suitable for process design
4. An excellent extension to the capability of braiding process by post-forming in producing concave features and axial curvatures
5. A feasible solution to manufacture an automotive cant rail
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Evaluating the potential for in-process eddy-current testing of composite structures Feasibility study
1. Demonstrated the relationship between applied pressure and carbon fibre inductive response, showing material relaxation over time is measurable via inductive signature.
2. Confirmation of absence of multi-layer response in un-cured composite layup. Proves that in-line ECT of CFRP would be require only simple analysis.
3. Developed a bespoke AFP environment simulation rig for ECT testing
4. Characterised ECT sensitivity to fibre angle as a function of material standoff
5. Identified most sensitive operating frequencies for un-cured CFRP
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Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves Feasibility study
1. Electromagnetic (EM) heating confirmed as being able to act as the sole heat source in an in-situ polymerisation reaction for a composite part
2. Dielectric measurements indicate a 6 cm penetration depth in this material (meaning a ~12 cm thick part could be cured)
3. Extremely rapid heating is achieved (< 3 mins to reach 180 °C) and this temperature maintained throughout
4. Microwave assisted pre-drying of glass fibres is extremely effective, resulting in an improved part (higher final molecular weight)
5. Process options limited by the behaviour of the monomer - e.g. poor fill under vacuum related to surface tension/viscosity. Positive pressure filling preferred
6. Heat loss profile different from conventional heating and more affected by the presence of the fibre.Control of the EM field was limited and requires optimisation
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Affordable Thermoplastic Matrix CFC/Metallic Framework Structures Manufacture Feasibility study
1. New joining concept for thermoplastic matrix composite laminates conceived
2. Novel joining concept demonstrated using PA6 matrix braided CFC tubing
3. Forming technique demonstrated using compression moulding and punched metallic plates for embedding metallic plates into thermoplastic matrix composite laminates
4. Concept for robotic joining of metallic joints to thermoplastic matric composite frame sections using induction heating and squeeze forming
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Simulation of forming 3D curved sandwich panels Feasibility study
1. FE models have been developed to simulate the process of forming curved sandwich panels with variable thickness.
2. The meso-scale model was employed to identify the relevant forming mechanisms, while the macro-scale model was used to replicate the overall forming response.
3. macro-scale model was developed to efficiently predict the homogenised behaviour, enabling process optimisation. A generic component was simulated, where a flat sandwich panel blank was formed into a 3D configuration.
4. The developed FE model was employed to optimise the blank shape for net-shape forming. The manufacturing solution determined by simulation shows a good agreement with experiment, indicating the suitability of the numerical tool for industrial applications.
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Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms Feasibility study
1. Demonstrated, in virtual and lab experiments, that a novel Bayesian Inversion algorithm (BIA) can successfully estimate local permeability and porosity of a preform using in-process information.
2. The algorithm was able to determine locations and shapes of defects in fibre preforms. This outcome is important for making non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of composites faster and more robust, which in turn can deliver more reliable and cheaper manufacturing of composites.
3. Demonstrated feasibility of an Active Control System (ACS) based on the BIA to ensure that the RTM process satisfies one of the key requirements of the composite industry: to have repeatable production cycles.
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Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed? Feasibility study
1. Demonstrated that an experimental set-up using digital image correlation is able to provide data correlating fabric deformation with wrinkling.
2. The strain measurements can be manipulated to find strains in critical directions, for example along the tows or in the direction of maximum compressive strain. For the NCF fabric considered, there does not appear to be a simple correlation between the observed strains and the onset of wrinkling.
3. The hybrid approach, of using experimental characterisation in conjunction with a simple FE model, shows considerable promise as a way of defining the forming limits for composite fabrics. Further work is needed, particularly on extending the range of deformation processes and understanding better the link between changes in tow architecture and wrinkling.
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Layer by Layer curing Feasibility Study
1. Delivered a 75% reduction in process time without degrading product quality by achieving equivalent interlaminar properties and porosity.
2. The above is accomplished within the actual stage of deposition of the material, which assuming a consolidation stage duration similar to curing means that the overall LbL process can be completed in less than one quarter of the duration of the conventional process.
3. LbL process can complete the cure of the 40 mm thick laminate with moderate or low temperature overshoot.
4. The LbL process can exploit process time savings found by eliminating thermal mass heat up/down of tooling by processing at isothermal conditions. This is not possible with conventional curing at this level of thickness with reactive thermosetting polymers.
5. The quality of the LbL laminates was investigated using microscopy and was found to be adequate with porosity kept at low levels, microstructure/morphology similar and finer than in conventional processing.
6. The mechanical behaviour of material produced using the LbL route was compared with that of conventional laminates and testing showed that laminates produced using LbL curing match those of conventional laminates.
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Manufacturing Thermoplastic Fibre Metal Laminates by the InSitu Polymerisation Route Feasibility Study
1. New type of hybrid composites developed.
2. Low cost processing at room temperature.
3. Reshapable, repairable and recyclable. Scientific investigations are required in future projects.
4. Use of different metallic layers with varied thicknesses possible, leading to diverse range of performance.
5. Explore TP-FMLs as structural capacitors.
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Multi-Step Thermoforming of Multi-Cavity, Multi-Axial Advanced Thermoplastic Composite Parts Feasibility Study
1. Demonstrated the principle of induction-melt forming of advanced composites using molten metal as the heating agent.
2. Demonstrated the principle of expelling the molten metal during the subsequent forming process
3. Designed and manufactures a multi-step forming tool allowing automatic incremental forming of advanced composites using a standard press.
4. Demonstrated a process of quantifying the residual tin inside the composite after the induction-melt process (subsequent to feasibility study - part of the PhD student's current project)
5. Currently in the process of assessing the influence of the residual tin on the interlaminar strength of the induction-formed composite
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Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects Feasibility Study
1. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of evolving damage states in structural applications of composites.
2. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of variability and heterogeneity in-situ in discontinuous compression moulded preforms.
3. Demonstration of simultaneous use and integration of DIC and TSA for quantitative assessment of evolving damage states, material heterogeneities and manufacturing defects.
4. Fundamental developments in the use of low cost cameras for TSA.
5. The groundwork to develop two successful high value EPSRC proposals, strongly supported by industry.
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Microwave (MW) heating through embedded slotted coaxial cables for composites manufacturing (M-Cable) Feasibility Study
1. A fractal antenna was manufactured on a PCB board and slotted in a ceramic tool. The resulting temperature distribution of cured laminates was within 10°C
2. The laminates manufactured using MW heating had the same glass transition temperature to laminates manufactured using conventional oven
3. The heating rates achieved using MW heating were between 7°C/min - 9°C/min. This is almost double to the 4°C/min achieved using conventional oven
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Platform Fellowship - Permeability Testing
Statistical analysis of a large data volume generated during the program allowed identification of most critical error sources in reinforcement permeability testing.
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Human-Robot collaborative composite layup Platform Fellowship
1. Separated the process layup into activities better suited to Robots or humans based on their respective capabilities and task requirements.
2. Demonstrated how a human and robot can share a composite layup workspace
3. Reduced the physical effort exerted during manual layup
4. Created a human/robot layup process which users regarded as 'safe' and 'useful'
5. Developed a package to facilitate simultaneous working in a shared workspace which is safe and use friendly
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Tactile sensing of defects during composite manufacture Platform Fellowship
1. Demonstrated the use of tactile sensing to find defects in composite layups.
2. Combined tactile sensing with application of significant force.
3. Demonstrated tactile sensing combined with composite layup.
4. Real time defect detection in composite layup..
5. The automated categorisation of composite defects using tactile sensing
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Platform Fellowship - Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites
1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
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Local Resin Printing for Preform Stabilisation Platform Fellowship
1. Demonstration of localised resin deposition onto dry fibre textiles by use of printing methods.
2. Understanding the feasibility of various resin printing technologies.
3. Demonstration of textile deformation characteristics being modified by use of localised resin printing.
4. Tailored modification of textile deformation characteristics by use of localised resin printing.
5. Instigation of new multidisciplinary cooperation between Composites and Additive Manufacturing research groups.
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Innovation Fellowship - Compression moulding simulation for SMC and prepreg
1. Prepreg material characterisation and model development
Deliverable 1 - A prepreg compaction model is currently under development with the support from Bristol's former DefGen project. Correct force-displacement response has been achieved using the original hyperelastic model generated through the DefGen project. However, Bristol's original model was developed in ABAQUS/standard using a UMAT subroutine, which is being converted to a VUMAT for ABAQUS/explicit in this project, enabling ALE adaptive mesh (for SMCs undergo large deformation) to be applied in hybrid moulding simulations. Further experimental testing will be performed to characterise the material behaviour at much higher pressures, and the new model will be validated using the corresponding experimental data.
2. SMC material characterisation and model development
Deliverable 2 - A comprehensive assessment of existing SMC compression moulding simulation models has been conducted. Commercial software including Moldex3D, 3D TIMON and Moldflow have been compared where the accuracy of each software is benchmarked against experimental moulding trials in terms of the compression forces and filling pattern predictions. All commercial models assessed have adopted shear viscosity based constitutive material models which have failed to correctly predict the compression forces or the filling patterns in both in-plane and out-of-plane scenarios. It is difficult to fully understand the limitations of each the software due to the confidential nature of commercial products. Nevertheless observations from this study suggest that developing dedicated constitutive models for SMC compression moulding is necessary. A dedicated material model has therefore been developed for SMC flow simulation. The model describes the flow behaviour of SMC using a compressive stress-strain relationship and the squeeze flow test has been employed to determine the material input data. The squeeze flow testing results suggest that the material behaviour is both rate dependent and temperature dependent. The new material model has been implemented in ABAQUS using an in-built plasticity model and validated through simulation of the squeeze flow test. Due to the approximation used in the ABAQUS in-built plasticity model, the predicted compressive forces diverted from the experimental values towards the end of the test. The proposed model has demonstrated significant improvement compared to commercial
A new squeeze flow rig has been manufactured of which the design is based on an existing rig at WMG. The new squeeze flow rig will be used for both SMC flow characterisation and prepreg compaction testing. The new rig features greater testing area, enabling representative sample sizes to be tested for long fibre based SMC, and various instrumentation such as LVDTs and pressure transducers can also be accommodated. The new squeeze flow rig also features guide columns to ensure parallelism between the plates during the tests.
3. SMC mechanical properties model development
Deliverable 3 - This has been added to the project due to the ongoing Covid pandemic, which has been causing significantly delay to the experimental aspect of the project.
This work package aims to assess the predictive validity of existing fibre orientation models. The selected fibre prediction models include the Folgar-Tucker (FT) model and the Direct Fibre Simulation (DFS) model. The experimental data are obtained using CT scanning technique, developed through the feasibility study "Experimental investigation of fibre content and orientation distributions in compression moulded sheet moulding compound" Funded by the EPSRC Future Metrology Hub. Both models have demonstrated adequate accuracy when predicting the fibre orientation. The DFS model offers added benefit of taking into account the random nature of the material, although it cannot accurately capture the physical behaviour of individual fibres in the areas where high level of fibre/mould and fibre/fibre interactions present.
A meso-scale RVE modelling approach has then been developed where the fibre orientation resultant from the manufacturing process can be accounted for mechanical properties prediction. The new modelling approach has been demonstrated through a case study where the tensile properties of samples in the longitudinal and transverse to the flow direction are investigated. The results predicted using the new model show good agreement with the experimental data.
4. Process simulation model development for SMC/prepreg hybrid
Deliverable 4 - This will be conducted on completion of the above.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Innovation Fellowship- Powder-Epoxy Carbon Fibre Towpreg for High Speed, Low-Cost Automated Fibre Placement
1. Production of carbon fibre tape "as is" for Coriolis Composites. (deliver a substantial length (over 200 meters) of tape of the right width (12.7mm) with a consistent FVF, for initial trials on Csolo©.)
Deliverable 1 - Tape "as is" was produced be December 2019 and delivered to Coriolis Composites in January 2020.
2. Automation and control of the tapeline to produce a high quality, homogeneous and optimized tape with low-cost, high-volume characteristics.
Deliverable 2 - The infrared sensors were installed and working in September 2020, the pandemic delayed this by 4 months due to non-access to the lab. Tension and speed sensors & regulators were installed in November 2020. The LabVIEW system was operational with full control of temperature, tension and speed by March 2021. The LabVIEW system is continually improving as the system is modified and optimised. (PID controls, new sensors for fibre volume fraction calculations).
3. Manufacture AFP grade tape and CFRP parts; compare cost and mechanical properties of TPTL based-CFRP to standard process-based CFRP and technology transfer.
Deliverable 3 - This work has recently been submitted and soon be published.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Innovation Fellowship - Permeability variability of textile fabrics for liquid moulding -This study has recently commenced (March 2022) therefore there are no findings to report at this stage.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Exploitation Route The National Composites Centre has developed a Technology Pull-Through scheme to take successful research at TRL1-3 and evaluate to transfer suitably mature technologies from CIMComp into the National Composites Centre (NCC), an advanced composites research hub based in Bristol. The NCC use their capabilities to industrialise lab-based technologies and increase their palatability to potential commercial users. The programme runs on an open call process, issued annually; proposals are assessed and selected through the input of NCC technical experts, supported by the Knowledge Exchange Committee of the CIMComp Hub.
The following CIMComp projects have been piloted during the first round:

Braid winding - University of Manchester: A technology that combines braiding and filament winding combining beneficial properties from both capabilities
DiSenC - Cranfield University: linear and woven dielectric sensors that can be used for flow and cure monitoring respectively in liquid moulding processing carbon fibre thermosetting composites.
SimpleCure2 - University of Bristol: feasibility study of using a portable device that scans a material's fingerprint, defines a robust cure cycle and automatically programs the production equipment controller
Braiding Simulation - University of Bristol: Validated modelling capability for mapping local permeability in braided preforms

The dissemination process will include the exploitation of technologies into trademarked brands, showcasing demonstrators and processes at engineering shows (i.e. JEC) and integrating the technology into industrial applications through CR&D / privately funded projects. As part of this dissemination process, the successful projects are advertised to the NCC's Tier 1&2 members at the monthly Research Committee meetings. This creates a seamless communication channel across the 'valley of death' between the academic innovators and the industrial users.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Education,Energy,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

URL http://www.cimcomp.ac.uk
 
Description Prof Nick Warrior - Member of UK Composites Leadership Forum
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact UK Composites Roadmap
 
Description UK Composites Leadership Forum
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description (SORCERER) - Structural pOweR CompositEs foR futurE civil aiRcraft
Amount € 1,650,632 (EUR)
Funding ID 738085 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 02/2017 
End 01/2020
 
Description 2-D forming of low cost steered fibre laminates.
Amount £28,492 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P021379/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Achieving a Predictive Design for Manufacture Capability in Composites by Integrating Manufacturing Knowledge and Design Intent
Amount £101,082 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R021597/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 07/2019
 
Description Advanced Continuous Tow Shearing in 3D (ACTS3D): Advanced fibre placement technology for manufacturing defect-free complex 3D composite structures
Amount £518,156 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R023247/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2021
 
Description Beyond structural; multifunctional composites that store electrical energy
Amount £273,365 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P007546/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 07/2020
 
Description Chair in Emerging Technologies (Structural Power) awarded to Prof Emile Greenhalgh
Amount £2,700,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2020 
End 10/2030
 
Description EP/S017038/1 Certification for Design - Reshaping the testing pyramid
Amount £6,900,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S017038/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2025
 
Description EPSRC Impact Accelerator Grant - University of Manchester and Axon Automotive
Amount £210,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2020
 
Description Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding - ENACT
Amount £72,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 40546 
Organisation Surface Generation 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 06/2021
 
Description European Commission H2020,Next generation methods, concepts and solutions for the design of robust and sustainable running GEAR (NEXTGEAR)
Amount £116,512 (GBP)
Funding ID 881803 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 12/2019 
End 12/2021
 
Description European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), Damage Tolerance and Durability of Structural Power Composites
Amount £393,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Office of Aerospace Research & Development (EOARD) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 07/2020
 
Description Funding awarded by the DETI initiative; To further develop software simulation tools developed within CIMComp; The DefGen project
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Composites Centre (NCC) 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description HEFCE Composites Curriculum Development project
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Organisation NIHR/HEFCE Higher Education Fund for England 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2019
 
Description High Performance Discontinuous Fibre Composites (HiPerDiF)
Amount £1,036,426 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P027393/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 12/2020
 
Description High-Volume Composites Manufacturing Cell with Digital Twinning Capability
Amount £454,736 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T006420/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2019 
End 02/2021
 
Description Horizon 2020 Multiscale Analysis of Airframe Structures and Quantification of Uncertainties System (MARQUESS)
Amount £591,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Project ID: 754581 
Organisation Clean Sky 
Sector Private
Country Belgium
Start 05/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description Investigation of fine-scale flows in composites processing
Amount £938,435 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S016996/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2022
 
Description Low emission vehicle systems Integrated Delivery Programme 13 (IDP13)
Amount £1,637,086 (GBP)
Funding ID 103362 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 02/2021
 
Description Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre
Amount £4,049,203 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/V061798/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2021 
End 02/2025
 
Description Novel Tow termination technology for high-quality AFP production of composite structures with blended ply drop-offs
Amount £101,114 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P027288/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 06/2019
 
Description SIMulation of new manufacturing PROcesses for Composite Structures (SIMPROCS)
Amount £1,115,704 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P027350/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2022
 
Description Structures 2025
Amount £1,200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R008787/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2020
 
Description Student internship: Estimation of permeability of composite materials using efficient Bayesian inversion algorithms
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 08/2018
 
Description Technology Pull Through Fund - University of Manchester - To develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation High Value Manufacturing Catapult 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 12/2018
 
Description Thermoplastic fibre metal laminates for applications in renewable energy - CAMREG Flexi Fund Project awarded to Prof Vasileios Koutsos
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID FP11 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles: Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials
Amount £4,436,877 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2021 
End 12/2024
 
Title A New Approach to Measuring Local Properties 
Description Data for the paper of M.Turk et al on measuring local properties in enhanced preforms 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://data.bris.ac.uk/data/dataset/1jsmmz8a3kp7y2ss529sf3sti7/
 
Title Data set for Thermoelastic Response Data 
Description Data to support article "On the source of the thermoelastic response from orthotropic fibre reinforced composite laminates. in the journal "Composites Part A". Data contains Thermoelastic Stress Analsys, Digital Image Correlation, strain gauges and test machine data for GFRP and CFRP samples tested. There is a readme file for each type of data inside the subfolders. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/449501/
 
Title Electrical conductivity of hybrid threads and tufted composites 
Description Measurements of electrical conductivity evolution in tensile tests on hybrid carbon-copper braided threads (the tests and data processing are conducted by Caroline O'Keeffe). Measurements of electrical conductivity of panels tufted with the hybrid threads (measurements are conducted by Juan Cao) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://data.bris.ac.uk/data/dataset/28mdwiikm2tw31z25aaga7p3za/
 
Description ADvanced Dynamic REpair Solutions for Sustainable Composites (ADDRESS) 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'ADvanced Dynamic REpair Solutions for Sustainable Composites (ADDRESS)'.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves 
Organisation The Mx Group
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Nottingham for the six-month funded project 'Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves'. Contributions: 1. Electromagnetic (EM) heating confirmed as being able to act as the sole heat source in an in-situ polymerisation reaction for a composite part 2. Dielectric measurements indicate a 6 cm penetration depth in this material (meaning a ~12 cm thick part could be cured) 3. Extremely rapid heating is achieved (< 3 mins to reach 180 °C) and this temperature maintained throughout 4. Microwave assisted pre-drying of glass fibres is extremely effective, resulting in an improved part (higher final molecular weight) 5. Process options limited by the behaviour of the monomer - e.g. poor fill under vacuum related to surface tension/viscosity. Positive pressure filling preferred 6. Heat loss profile different from conventional heating and more affected by the presence of the fibre.Control of the EM field was limited and requires optimisation
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. 3 days use of Vötsch oven at AMRC Additional personnel time on microwave polymerisation testing of matrix materials Additional personnel time on developing higher viscosity infusion mixture University of Edinburgh included in technical meetings and are providing materials to the project The development of relationships with AMRC and with the University of Edinburgh has been beneficial and has linked both into the development of the Hub thermoplastics working group and has directly into the feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming".
Impact The project investigated the feasibility of using microwave heating to accelerate in-situ polymerisation sufficiently that monomer solutions could be used directly to make composite articles. The project successfully achieved the objective of establishing benefits of using microwave heating for (a) glass fibre pre-preparation and (b) the resultant quality of matrix polymers produced when in contact with glass fibre. It also met the objective of defining benefits that are related to the preparation of composites from a monomer pre-solution rather than a polymer resin precursor system. The project partially achieved the objective of producing small scale flat panel via microwave polymerisation (Instrumented domestic microwave) The project was successful in delivering a mould designed and built to account for requirements/restrictions of both Monomer Transfer Moulding (MTM) and Microwave Heating/Processing, taking into consideration any manufacturing limitations due to materials choice. In addition, it successfully delivered manufacturing parameters determined for successful small-scale component.The project was considered to have achieved a Limited success overall. This also led to the submission of a joint EPSRC proposal (November 2019) by Nottingham, Sheffield, Aston and Bradford Universities. (£3.4 million) currently in review.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Nottingham for the six-month funded project 'Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves'. Contributions: 1. Electromagnetic (EM) heating confirmed as being able to act as the sole heat source in an in-situ polymerisation reaction for a composite part 2. Dielectric measurements indicate a 6 cm penetration depth in this material (meaning a ~12 cm thick part could be cured) 3. Extremely rapid heating is achieved (< 3 mins to reach 180 °C) and this temperature maintained throughout 4. Microwave assisted pre-drying of glass fibres is extremely effective, resulting in an improved part (higher final molecular weight) 5. Process options limited by the behaviour of the monomer - e.g. poor fill under vacuum related to surface tension/viscosity. Positive pressure filling preferred 6. Heat loss profile different from conventional heating and more affected by the presence of the fibre.Control of the EM field was limited and requires optimisation
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. 3 days use of Vötsch oven at AMRC Additional personnel time on microwave polymerisation testing of matrix materials Additional personnel time on developing higher viscosity infusion mixture University of Edinburgh included in technical meetings and are providing materials to the project The development of relationships with AMRC and with the University of Edinburgh has been beneficial and has linked both into the development of the Hub thermoplastics working group and has directly into the feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming".
Impact The project investigated the feasibility of using microwave heating to accelerate in-situ polymerisation sufficiently that monomer solutions could be used directly to make composite articles. The project successfully achieved the objective of establishing benefits of using microwave heating for (a) glass fibre pre-preparation and (b) the resultant quality of matrix polymers produced when in contact with glass fibre. It also met the objective of defining benefits that are related to the preparation of composites from a monomer pre-solution rather than a polymer resin precursor system. The project partially achieved the objective of producing small scale flat panel via microwave polymerisation (Instrumented domestic microwave) The project was successful in delivering a mould designed and built to account for requirements/restrictions of both Monomer Transfer Moulding (MTM) and Microwave Heating/Processing, taking into consideration any manufacturing limitations due to materials choice. In addition, it successfully delivered manufacturing parameters determined for successful small-scale component.The project was considered to have achieved a Limited success overall. This also led to the submission of a joint EPSRC proposal (November 2019) by Nottingham, Sheffield, Aston and Bradford Universities. (£3.4 million) currently in review.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Nottingham for the six-month funded project 'Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves'. Contributions: 1. Electromagnetic (EM) heating confirmed as being able to act as the sole heat source in an in-situ polymerisation reaction for a composite part 2. Dielectric measurements indicate a 6 cm penetration depth in this material (meaning a ~12 cm thick part could be cured) 3. Extremely rapid heating is achieved (< 3 mins to reach 180 °C) and this temperature maintained throughout 4. Microwave assisted pre-drying of glass fibres is extremely effective, resulting in an improved part (higher final molecular weight) 5. Process options limited by the behaviour of the monomer - e.g. poor fill under vacuum related to surface tension/viscosity. Positive pressure filling preferred 6. Heat loss profile different from conventional heating and more affected by the presence of the fibre.Control of the EM field was limited and requires optimisation
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. 3 days use of Vötsch oven at AMRC Additional personnel time on microwave polymerisation testing of matrix materials Additional personnel time on developing higher viscosity infusion mixture University of Edinburgh included in technical meetings and are providing materials to the project The development of relationships with AMRC and with the University of Edinburgh has been beneficial and has linked both into the development of the Hub thermoplastics working group and has directly into the feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming".
Impact The project investigated the feasibility of using microwave heating to accelerate in-situ polymerisation sufficiently that monomer solutions could be used directly to make composite articles. The project successfully achieved the objective of establishing benefits of using microwave heating for (a) glass fibre pre-preparation and (b) the resultant quality of matrix polymers produced when in contact with glass fibre. It also met the objective of defining benefits that are related to the preparation of composites from a monomer pre-solution rather than a polymer resin precursor system. The project partially achieved the objective of producing small scale flat panel via microwave polymerisation (Instrumented domestic microwave) The project was successful in delivering a mould designed and built to account for requirements/restrictions of both Monomer Transfer Moulding (MTM) and Microwave Heating/Processing, taking into consideration any manufacturing limitations due to materials choice. In addition, it successfully delivered manufacturing parameters determined for successful small-scale component.The project was considered to have achieved a Limited success overall. This also led to the submission of a joint EPSRC proposal (November 2019) by Nottingham, Sheffield, Aston and Bradford Universities. (£3.4 million) currently in review.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Department Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Nottingham for the six-month funded project 'Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves'. Contributions: 1. Electromagnetic (EM) heating confirmed as being able to act as the sole heat source in an in-situ polymerisation reaction for a composite part 2. Dielectric measurements indicate a 6 cm penetration depth in this material (meaning a ~12 cm thick part could be cured) 3. Extremely rapid heating is achieved (< 3 mins to reach 180 °C) and this temperature maintained throughout 4. Microwave assisted pre-drying of glass fibres is extremely effective, resulting in an improved part (higher final molecular weight) 5. Process options limited by the behaviour of the monomer - e.g. poor fill under vacuum related to surface tension/viscosity. Positive pressure filling preferred 6. Heat loss profile different from conventional heating and more affected by the presence of the fibre.Control of the EM field was limited and requires optimisation
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. 3 days use of Vötsch oven at AMRC Additional personnel time on microwave polymerisation testing of matrix materials Additional personnel time on developing higher viscosity infusion mixture University of Edinburgh included in technical meetings and are providing materials to the project The development of relationships with AMRC and with the University of Edinburgh has been beneficial and has linked both into the development of the Hub thermoplastics working group and has directly into the feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming".
Impact The project investigated the feasibility of using microwave heating to accelerate in-situ polymerisation sufficiently that monomer solutions could be used directly to make composite articles. The project successfully achieved the objective of establishing benefits of using microwave heating for (a) glass fibre pre-preparation and (b) the resultant quality of matrix polymers produced when in contact with glass fibre. It also met the objective of defining benefits that are related to the preparation of composites from a monomer pre-solution rather than a polymer resin precursor system. The project partially achieved the objective of producing small scale flat panel via microwave polymerisation (Instrumented domestic microwave) The project was successful in delivering a mould designed and built to account for requirements/restrictions of both Monomer Transfer Moulding (MTM) and Microwave Heating/Processing, taking into consideration any manufacturing limitations due to materials choice. In addition, it successfully delivered manufacturing parameters determined for successful small-scale component.The project was considered to have achieved a Limited success overall. This also led to the submission of a joint EPSRC proposal (November 2019) by Nottingham, Sheffield, Aston and Bradford Universities. (£3.4 million) currently in review.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms 
Organisation ESI Group
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub was awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Nottingham for the six-month funded project Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms'. This project has now developed into a Core project. Contributions: 1. We developed novel Bayesian Inversion algorithms for detecting defects during the RTM process using in-process data. 2. The algorithms have been tested virtually and in laboratory and we demonstrated that we can estimate location of defects of arbitrary shape including race tracking
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'.
Impact The project achieved two main goals. First, the feasibility study demonstrated, in virtual and lab experiments, that a novel Bayesian Inversion algorithm (BIA) can successfully estimate local permeability and porosity of a preform using in-process information. In particular, the algorithm was able to determine locations and shapes of defects in fibre preforms. This outcome is important for making non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of composites faster and more robust, which in turn can deliver more reliable and cheaper manufacturing of composites. The project also demonstrated feasibility of an Active Control System (ACS) based on the BIA to ensure that the RTM process satisfies one of the key requirements of the composite industry: to have repeatable production cycles. Conference Paper: 1.M.Y. Matveev, A. Endruweit, A.C. Long, M.A. Iglesias, M.V. Tretyakov "Fast algorithms for active control of mould filling in RTM process with uncertainties", Proceedings of FPCM-14, Sweden, May 2018. 2. A talk by Mikhail Matveev at the 14th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials (30/05 - 01/06, Lulea, Sweden, audience approx. 150 people) 3. A talk by Marco Iglesias (as an Invited speaker) at Workshop on Frontiers of Uncertainty Quantification 2018 (FrontUQ18, Italy) (audience approx. 40) 4. (oral and poster) presentation (Mikhail Matveev) at the Hub Open Day in July 2018 which led to a number of industry and academic interactions.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms 
Organisation LMAT Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub was awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Nottingham for the six-month funded project Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms'. This project has now developed into a Core project. Contributions: 1. We developed novel Bayesian Inversion algorithms for detecting defects during the RTM process using in-process data. 2. The algorithms have been tested virtually and in laboratory and we demonstrated that we can estimate location of defects of arbitrary shape including race tracking
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'.
Impact The project achieved two main goals. First, the feasibility study demonstrated, in virtual and lab experiments, that a novel Bayesian Inversion algorithm (BIA) can successfully estimate local permeability and porosity of a preform using in-process information. In particular, the algorithm was able to determine locations and shapes of defects in fibre preforms. This outcome is important for making non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of composites faster and more robust, which in turn can deliver more reliable and cheaper manufacturing of composites. The project also demonstrated feasibility of an Active Control System (ACS) based on the BIA to ensure that the RTM process satisfies one of the key requirements of the composite industry: to have repeatable production cycles. Conference Paper: 1.M.Y. Matveev, A. Endruweit, A.C. Long, M.A. Iglesias, M.V. Tretyakov "Fast algorithms for active control of mould filling in RTM process with uncertainties", Proceedings of FPCM-14, Sweden, May 2018. 2. A talk by Mikhail Matveev at the 14th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials (30/05 - 01/06, Lulea, Sweden, audience approx. 150 people) 3. A talk by Marco Iglesias (as an Invited speaker) at Workshop on Frontiers of Uncertainty Quantification 2018 (FrontUQ18, Italy) (audience approx. 40) 4. (oral and poster) presentation (Mikhail Matveev) at the Hub Open Day in July 2018 which led to a number of industry and academic interactions.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms 
Organisation National Composites Centre (NCC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub was awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Nottingham for the six-month funded project Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms'. This project has now developed into a Core project. Contributions: 1. We developed novel Bayesian Inversion algorithms for detecting defects during the RTM process using in-process data. 2. The algorithms have been tested virtually and in laboratory and we demonstrated that we can estimate location of defects of arbitrary shape including race tracking
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'.
Impact The project achieved two main goals. First, the feasibility study demonstrated, in virtual and lab experiments, that a novel Bayesian Inversion algorithm (BIA) can successfully estimate local permeability and porosity of a preform using in-process information. In particular, the algorithm was able to determine locations and shapes of defects in fibre preforms. This outcome is important for making non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of composites faster and more robust, which in turn can deliver more reliable and cheaper manufacturing of composites. The project also demonstrated feasibility of an Active Control System (ACS) based on the BIA to ensure that the RTM process satisfies one of the key requirements of the composite industry: to have repeatable production cycles. Conference Paper: 1.M.Y. Matveev, A. Endruweit, A.C. Long, M.A. Iglesias, M.V. Tretyakov "Fast algorithms for active control of mould filling in RTM process with uncertainties", Proceedings of FPCM-14, Sweden, May 2018. 2. A talk by Mikhail Matveev at the 14th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials (30/05 - 01/06, Lulea, Sweden, audience approx. 150 people) 3. A talk by Marco Iglesias (as an Invited speaker) at Workshop on Frontiers of Uncertainty Quantification 2018 (FrontUQ18, Italy) (audience approx. 40) 4. (oral and poster) presentation (Mikhail Matveev) at the Hub Open Day in July 2018 which led to a number of industry and academic interactions.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub was awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Nottingham for the six-month funded project Active control of the RTM process under uncertainty using fast algorithms'. This project has now developed into a Core project. Contributions: 1. We developed novel Bayesian Inversion algorithms for detecting defects during the RTM process using in-process data. 2. The algorithms have been tested virtually and in laboratory and we demonstrated that we can estimate location of defects of arbitrary shape including race tracking
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'.
Impact The project achieved two main goals. First, the feasibility study demonstrated, in virtual and lab experiments, that a novel Bayesian Inversion algorithm (BIA) can successfully estimate local permeability and porosity of a preform using in-process information. In particular, the algorithm was able to determine locations and shapes of defects in fibre preforms. This outcome is important for making non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of composites faster and more robust, which in turn can deliver more reliable and cheaper manufacturing of composites. The project also demonstrated feasibility of an Active Control System (ACS) based on the BIA to ensure that the RTM process satisfies one of the key requirements of the composite industry: to have repeatable production cycles. Conference Paper: 1.M.Y. Matveev, A. Endruweit, A.C. Long, M.A. Iglesias, M.V. Tretyakov "Fast algorithms for active control of mould filling in RTM process with uncertainties", Proceedings of FPCM-14, Sweden, May 2018. 2. A talk by Mikhail Matveev at the 14th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials (30/05 - 01/06, Lulea, Sweden, audience approx. 150 people) 3. A talk by Marco Iglesias (as an Invited speaker) at Workshop on Frontiers of Uncertainty Quantification 2018 (FrontUQ18, Italy) (audience approx. 40) 4. (oral and poster) presentation (Mikhail Matveev) at the Hub Open Day in July 2018 which led to a number of industry and academic interactions.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR) 
Organisation Airbus Group
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR)'.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR) 
Organisation GKN
Department GKN Aerospace
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR)'.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR) 
Organisation LMAT Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR)'.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR) 
Organisation National Composites Centre (NCC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR)'.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR) 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR)'.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR) 
Organisation Surface Generation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR)'.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR) 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'Additively Manufactured Cure Tooling (ADDCUR)'.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description An innovative approach to manufacturing closed-section composite profiles 
Organisation Gordon Murray Design Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project ' An innovative approach to manufacturing closed-section composite profiles '. Contributions: 1. A novel and feasible manufacturing technique to produce complex tubular composites by post-forming braided sleeves, which is promising to offer a step change in manufacturing rate 2. A numerical model to simulate braiding process based on FE method, enabling to design the braiding process and predict the production quality 3. An explicit FE model to simulate forming braids, suitable for process design 4. An excellent extension to the capability of braiding process by post-forming in producing concave features and axial curvatures 5. A feasible solution to manufacture an automotive cant rail
Collaborator Contribution During the project, technical meetings were arranged with Andy Smith from Gordon Murray Design to discuss the up-to-date progress and the working plan in the next step. This really helps to understand the need directly for one of the UK automotive OEMs, which ensures a practical manufacturing solution for industry uptake.
Impact Journal Papers: 1. Chen S, McGregor O P L, Endruweit A, Harper L T, Warrior N A. Simulation of the forming process for curved composite sandwich panels [J]. International Journal of Material Forming, 2019: 1-14. 2. F. Yu, S. Chen, J.V. Viisainen, M.P.F. Sutcliffe, L.T. Harper, N.A. Warrior, A macroscale finite element approach for simulating the bending behaviour of biaxial fabrics, Composites Science and Technology, Volume 191, 2020. Conference Papers: 1. Chen S, McGregor O PL, Endruweit A, Harper L T, Warrior N A. Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels [C], in 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, 2019. 2. Yu F, Chen S, Harper L T, Warrior N A. Finite element modelling of bi-axial fabric with considering bending stiffness for composites preforming [C], in 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, 2019.
Start Year 2019
 
Description An innovative approach to manufacturing closed-section composite profiles 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project ' An innovative approach to manufacturing closed-section composite profiles '. Contributions: 1. A novel and feasible manufacturing technique to produce complex tubular composites by post-forming braided sleeves, which is promising to offer a step change in manufacturing rate 2. A numerical model to simulate braiding process based on FE method, enabling to design the braiding process and predict the production quality 3. An explicit FE model to simulate forming braids, suitable for process design 4. An excellent extension to the capability of braiding process by post-forming in producing concave features and axial curvatures 5. A feasible solution to manufacture an automotive cant rail
Collaborator Contribution During the project, technical meetings were arranged with Andy Smith from Gordon Murray Design to discuss the up-to-date progress and the working plan in the next step. This really helps to understand the need directly for one of the UK automotive OEMs, which ensures a practical manufacturing solution for industry uptake.
Impact Journal Papers: 1. Chen S, McGregor O P L, Endruweit A, Harper L T, Warrior N A. Simulation of the forming process for curved composite sandwich panels [J]. International Journal of Material Forming, 2019: 1-14. 2. F. Yu, S. Chen, J.V. Viisainen, M.P.F. Sutcliffe, L.T. Harper, N.A. Warrior, A macroscale finite element approach for simulating the bending behaviour of biaxial fabrics, Composites Science and Technology, Volume 191, 2020. Conference Papers: 1. Chen S, McGregor O PL, Endruweit A, Harper L T, Warrior N A. Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels [C], in 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, 2019. 2. Yu F, Chen S, Harper L T, Warrior N A. Finite element modelling of bi-axial fabric with considering bending stiffness for composites preforming [C], in 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, 2019.
Start Year 2019
 
Description COMPrinting: Novel 3D Printing of Curved Continuous Carbon Fibre Reinforced Powder-based Epoxy Composites 
Organisation FreiLacke
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Edinburgh for the six-month project ' COMPrinting: Novel 3D Printing of Curved Continuous Carbon Fibre Reinforced Powder-based Epoxy Composites'. The project team made the following contributions: 1. A specially designed printer nozzle has been machined using CNC. 2. Recruitment for a 6 month RA for this project has been started. 3. Colin Robert and Dongmin has started to modify the existing tapeline for fabricating printing filament. The project team met the following aims and objectives: a) Modification of an existing towpregging tapeline for producing low-cost carbon fibre reinforced powder-based epoxy filament (1 to 3k tows, fibre Vf up to 65%) with a low viscosity and high deposition rate for use on FFF 3D printers. This project will increase the versatility of this manufacturing method, to bring forward a faster, more controlled and optimised way to manufacture composites. b) Design and manufacturing a novel printer nozzle with a rectangular cross-section at the outlet (To enable better compression of fibres and modifying a FFF printer head to enable up to 180° rotation to minimise fibre twisting and misalignment when turning). c) 3D printing powder-based epoxy composites with identified performance-driven curved continuous fibre paths (that are demonstrated in our previous numerical study, followed by vacuum bagging and curing in oven). d) Testing and characterisation of the printed composites (using digital image correlation (DIC), SEM as well as X-Ray µCT to evaluate the printing quality and elucidate the failure mechanisms of the printed composites with identified curved continuous carbon fibres).
Collaborator Contribution The Industrial partner Freilacke delivered the Epoxy powders.
Impact The project was multi-disciplinary as it was linked with an Edinburgh-Ulster synergy grant to inject short fibre thermoplastic into the 3D printed composite preforms so as to stabilise the curved fibres and keep them in the identified loading paths. There has also been a new collaboration between the PI and the HiPerDif team in Bristol composites group. PI has agreed to trial the rotational printing system to print Bristol's discontinuous long fibres and improve the fibre alignment. The next step is to develop a more robust dual-polymer (or multiple-polymer) printing system where two (or more) printer nozzles can be used for different regions of a composite part in a single step printing process. A robotic arm has been purchased using PI's other funding and it would be nice to scale up this technology using collaborative robotic arms. This would complement the current AFP/ATP technology and enable the manufacturing of composites with ultra-lightweight, more highly complex shapes and smart multi-functions by using smaller fibre tows and multiple material deposition. There has been output in the form of a journal publication - doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2022.109269
Start Year 2020
 
Description COMPrinting: Novel 3D Printing of Curved Continuous Carbon Fibre Reinforced Powder-based Epoxy Composites 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Edinburgh for the six-month project ' COMPrinting: Novel 3D Printing of Curved Continuous Carbon Fibre Reinforced Powder-based Epoxy Composites'. The project team made the following contributions: 1. A specially designed printer nozzle has been machined using CNC. 2. Recruitment for a 6 month RA for this project has been started. 3. Colin Robert and Dongmin has started to modify the existing tapeline for fabricating printing filament. The project team met the following aims and objectives: a) Modification of an existing towpregging tapeline for producing low-cost carbon fibre reinforced powder-based epoxy filament (1 to 3k tows, fibre Vf up to 65%) with a low viscosity and high deposition rate for use on FFF 3D printers. This project will increase the versatility of this manufacturing method, to bring forward a faster, more controlled and optimised way to manufacture composites. b) Design and manufacturing a novel printer nozzle with a rectangular cross-section at the outlet (To enable better compression of fibres and modifying a FFF printer head to enable up to 180° rotation to minimise fibre twisting and misalignment when turning). c) 3D printing powder-based epoxy composites with identified performance-driven curved continuous fibre paths (that are demonstrated in our previous numerical study, followed by vacuum bagging and curing in oven). d) Testing and characterisation of the printed composites (using digital image correlation (DIC), SEM as well as X-Ray µCT to evaluate the printing quality and elucidate the failure mechanisms of the printed composites with identified curved continuous carbon fibres).
Collaborator Contribution The Industrial partner Freilacke delivered the Epoxy powders.
Impact The project was multi-disciplinary as it was linked with an Edinburgh-Ulster synergy grant to inject short fibre thermoplastic into the 3D printed composite preforms so as to stabilise the curved fibres and keep them in the identified loading paths. There has also been a new collaboration between the PI and the HiPerDif team in Bristol composites group. PI has agreed to trial the rotational printing system to print Bristol's discontinuous long fibres and improve the fibre alignment. The next step is to develop a more robust dual-polymer (or multiple-polymer) printing system where two (or more) printer nozzles can be used for different regions of a composite part in a single step printing process. A robotic arm has been purchased using PI's other funding and it would be nice to scale up this technology using collaborative robotic arms. This would complement the current AFP/ATP technology and enable the manufacturing of composites with ultra-lightweight, more highly complex shapes and smart multi-functions by using smaller fibre tows and multiple material deposition. There has been output in the form of a journal publication - doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2022.109269
Start Year 2020
 
Description Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed? 
Organisation Dassault Systemes UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Cambridge for the six-month funded project 'Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed?'. This has now developed into a Core Project named 'Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming' commencing in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. The aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a forming limit diagram for textile composites, capturing the limits imposed by defects such as macro-wrinkling, tow level buckling and yarn sliding. March 2018 - Hexcel supplied £2000 worth of material February 2019 - Hexcel supplied £3000 worth of material 2018-2019 - Hexcel and Dassault Systèmes provided £3000 worth of advice each
Impact A successful output has been that we have been able to develop a technique to measure wrinkle formation effectively while forming, which will form the basis of a tool to understand how to avoid these defects. The feasibility study has demonstrated that an experimental set-up using digital image correlation is able to provide data correlating fabric deformation with wrinkling. The strain measurements can be manipulated to find strains in critical directions, for example along the tows or in the direction of maximum compressive strain. For the NCF fabric considered, there does not appear to be a simple correlation between the observed strains and the onset of wrinkling. While the experimental work provides the tools to explore wrinkle development, meso-scale architecture-based FE modelling will be needed to guide a wrinkling criterion which can be used in conjunction with these measurements. .In summary the proposed hybrid approach, of using experimental characterisation in conjunction with a simple FE model, shows considerable promise as a way of defining the forming limits for composite fabrics. Further work is needed, particularly on extending the range of deformation processes and understanding better the link between changes in tow architecture and wrinkling. The key objectives of the project were to: 1. Use existing measurements of wrinkle formation in woven and NCF fabrics to develop a preliminary forming limit diagram; The project has successfully developed measurement techniques in order to allow development of a preliminary forming limit diagram. Difficulties in identifying appropriate failure criteria highlight the need for a better micromechanical model of wrinkling to inform the forming limit diagram development. A process-specific forming limit diagram has been produced, which can form the basis for a proposed hybrid experimental and modelling approach to FLD development. 2. Extend the range of test configurations to explore the generality of the derived forming limit diagrams; Only preliminary work has been done in this area, due to the challenges of developing the forming limit diagram. However the FE model has successfully been applied to other test configurations, albeit without validation. 3. Examine the feasibility of using a range of canonical finite element calculations to interpolate and extrapolate the forming limit diagram from a limited set of tests; This objective has not been met, with the focus of research remaining on the first objective 4. Use the results to inform a full-scale proposal which will develop the concept of forming limit diagrams to include a wider range of materials and forming situations. The feasibility study has successfully identified an experimental route to forming limit diagram measurements, highlighting deficiencies in our understanding of wrinkling which need to be tackled to develop the concept further. Hence this key objective, of informing a full-scale proposal, has been met. Dr Zhou and Mr Viisainen have benefited from training in research methods associated with experimental and modelling of composites.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed? 
Organisation Hexcel Composites Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Cambridge for the six-month funded project 'Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed?'. This has now developed into a Core Project named 'Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming' commencing in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. The aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a forming limit diagram for textile composites, capturing the limits imposed by defects such as macro-wrinkling, tow level buckling and yarn sliding. March 2018 - Hexcel supplied £2000 worth of material February 2019 - Hexcel supplied £3000 worth of material 2018-2019 - Hexcel and Dassault Systèmes provided £3000 worth of advice each
Impact A successful output has been that we have been able to develop a technique to measure wrinkle formation effectively while forming, which will form the basis of a tool to understand how to avoid these defects. The feasibility study has demonstrated that an experimental set-up using digital image correlation is able to provide data correlating fabric deformation with wrinkling. The strain measurements can be manipulated to find strains in critical directions, for example along the tows or in the direction of maximum compressive strain. For the NCF fabric considered, there does not appear to be a simple correlation between the observed strains and the onset of wrinkling. While the experimental work provides the tools to explore wrinkle development, meso-scale architecture-based FE modelling will be needed to guide a wrinkling criterion which can be used in conjunction with these measurements. .In summary the proposed hybrid approach, of using experimental characterisation in conjunction with a simple FE model, shows considerable promise as a way of defining the forming limits for composite fabrics. Further work is needed, particularly on extending the range of deformation processes and understanding better the link between changes in tow architecture and wrinkling. The key objectives of the project were to: 1. Use existing measurements of wrinkle formation in woven and NCF fabrics to develop a preliminary forming limit diagram; The project has successfully developed measurement techniques in order to allow development of a preliminary forming limit diagram. Difficulties in identifying appropriate failure criteria highlight the need for a better micromechanical model of wrinkling to inform the forming limit diagram development. A process-specific forming limit diagram has been produced, which can form the basis for a proposed hybrid experimental and modelling approach to FLD development. 2. Extend the range of test configurations to explore the generality of the derived forming limit diagrams; Only preliminary work has been done in this area, due to the challenges of developing the forming limit diagram. However the FE model has successfully been applied to other test configurations, albeit without validation. 3. Examine the feasibility of using a range of canonical finite element calculations to interpolate and extrapolate the forming limit diagram from a limited set of tests; This objective has not been met, with the focus of research remaining on the first objective 4. Use the results to inform a full-scale proposal which will develop the concept of forming limit diagrams to include a wider range of materials and forming situations. The feasibility study has successfully identified an experimental route to forming limit diagram measurements, highlighting deficiencies in our understanding of wrinkling which need to be tackled to develop the concept further. Hence this key objective, of informing a full-scale proposal, has been met. Dr Zhou and Mr Viisainen have benefited from training in research methods associated with experimental and modelling of composites.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed? 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Cambridge for the six-month funded project 'Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed?'. This has now developed into a Core Project named 'Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming' commencing in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. The aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a forming limit diagram for textile composites, capturing the limits imposed by defects such as macro-wrinkling, tow level buckling and yarn sliding. March 2018 - Hexcel supplied £2000 worth of material February 2019 - Hexcel supplied £3000 worth of material 2018-2019 - Hexcel and Dassault Systèmes provided £3000 worth of advice each
Impact A successful output has been that we have been able to develop a technique to measure wrinkle formation effectively while forming, which will form the basis of a tool to understand how to avoid these defects. The feasibility study has demonstrated that an experimental set-up using digital image correlation is able to provide data correlating fabric deformation with wrinkling. The strain measurements can be manipulated to find strains in critical directions, for example along the tows or in the direction of maximum compressive strain. For the NCF fabric considered, there does not appear to be a simple correlation between the observed strains and the onset of wrinkling. While the experimental work provides the tools to explore wrinkle development, meso-scale architecture-based FE modelling will be needed to guide a wrinkling criterion which can be used in conjunction with these measurements. .In summary the proposed hybrid approach, of using experimental characterisation in conjunction with a simple FE model, shows considerable promise as a way of defining the forming limits for composite fabrics. Further work is needed, particularly on extending the range of deformation processes and understanding better the link between changes in tow architecture and wrinkling. The key objectives of the project were to: 1. Use existing measurements of wrinkle formation in woven and NCF fabrics to develop a preliminary forming limit diagram; The project has successfully developed measurement techniques in order to allow development of a preliminary forming limit diagram. Difficulties in identifying appropriate failure criteria highlight the need for a better micromechanical model of wrinkling to inform the forming limit diagram development. A process-specific forming limit diagram has been produced, which can form the basis for a proposed hybrid experimental and modelling approach to FLD development. 2. Extend the range of test configurations to explore the generality of the derived forming limit diagrams; Only preliminary work has been done in this area, due to the challenges of developing the forming limit diagram. However the FE model has successfully been applied to other test configurations, albeit without validation. 3. Examine the feasibility of using a range of canonical finite element calculations to interpolate and extrapolate the forming limit diagram from a limited set of tests; This objective has not been met, with the focus of research remaining on the first objective 4. Use the results to inform a full-scale proposal which will develop the concept of forming limit diagrams to include a wider range of materials and forming situations. The feasibility study has successfully identified an experimental route to forming limit diagram measurements, highlighting deficiencies in our understanding of wrinkling which need to be tackled to develop the concept further. Hence this key objective, of informing a full-scale proposal, has been met. Dr Zhou and Mr Viisainen have benefited from training in research methods associated with experimental and modelling of composites.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed? 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Cambridge for the six-month funded project 'Can a composite forming limit diagram be constructed?'. This has now developed into a Core Project named 'Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming' commencing in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. The aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a forming limit diagram for textile composites, capturing the limits imposed by defects such as macro-wrinkling, tow level buckling and yarn sliding. March 2018 - Hexcel supplied £2000 worth of material February 2019 - Hexcel supplied £3000 worth of material 2018-2019 - Hexcel and Dassault Systèmes provided £3000 worth of advice each
Impact A successful output has been that we have been able to develop a technique to measure wrinkle formation effectively while forming, which will form the basis of a tool to understand how to avoid these defects. The feasibility study has demonstrated that an experimental set-up using digital image correlation is able to provide data correlating fabric deformation with wrinkling. The strain measurements can be manipulated to find strains in critical directions, for example along the tows or in the direction of maximum compressive strain. For the NCF fabric considered, there does not appear to be a simple correlation between the observed strains and the onset of wrinkling. While the experimental work provides the tools to explore wrinkle development, meso-scale architecture-based FE modelling will be needed to guide a wrinkling criterion which can be used in conjunction with these measurements. .In summary the proposed hybrid approach, of using experimental characterisation in conjunction with a simple FE model, shows considerable promise as a way of defining the forming limits for composite fabrics. Further work is needed, particularly on extending the range of deformation processes and understanding better the link between changes in tow architecture and wrinkling. The key objectives of the project were to: 1. Use existing measurements of wrinkle formation in woven and NCF fabrics to develop a preliminary forming limit diagram; The project has successfully developed measurement techniques in order to allow development of a preliminary forming limit diagram. Difficulties in identifying appropriate failure criteria highlight the need for a better micromechanical model of wrinkling to inform the forming limit diagram development. A process-specific forming limit diagram has been produced, which can form the basis for a proposed hybrid experimental and modelling approach to FLD development. 2. Extend the range of test configurations to explore the generality of the derived forming limit diagrams; Only preliminary work has been done in this area, due to the challenges of developing the forming limit diagram. However the FE model has successfully been applied to other test configurations, albeit without validation. 3. Examine the feasibility of using a range of canonical finite element calculations to interpolate and extrapolate the forming limit diagram from a limited set of tests; This objective has not been met, with the focus of research remaining on the first objective 4. Use the results to inform a full-scale proposal which will develop the concept of forming limit diagrams to include a wider range of materials and forming situations. The feasibility study has successfully identified an experimental route to forming limit diagram measurements, highlighting deficiencies in our understanding of wrinkling which need to be tackled to develop the concept further. Hence this key objective, of informing a full-scale proposal, has been met. Dr Zhou and Mr Viisainen have benefited from training in research methods associated with experimental and modelling of composites.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Compression moulding simulation for SMC and prepreg 
Organisation Toray
Department Automotive Center Europe
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a 2 year Innovation Fellowship with the University of Warwick in 'Compression moulding simulation for SMC and prepreg'. The following contributions have been made to date by the research team: 1) Prepreg material characterisation and model development Deliverable 1 - A prepreg compaction model is currently under development with the support from Bristol's former DefGen project. Correct force-displacement response has been achieved using the original hyperelastic model and experimental data generated through the DefGen project. However, Bristol's original model was developed in ABAQUS/standard using a UMAT subroutine, which is being converted to a VUMAT for ABAQUS/explicit in this project, enabling ALE adaptive mesh (for SMCs undergo large deformation) to be applied in hybrid moulding simulations. Furthermore, the original model has only been validated for low pressure range (up to 20 bar). The presence of SMC in a hybrid moulding process can lead to very high pressure (up to ~500bar). Therefore, further experimental testing will be performed to characterise the material behaviour at much higher pressures, and the new model will be validated using the corresponding experimental data. 2) SMC material characterisation and model development Deliverable 2 - A comprehensive assessment of existing SMC compression moulding simulation models has been conducted at the beginning of WP2.Commercial software including Moldex3D, 3D TIMON and Moldflow have been compared where the accuracy of each software is benchmarked against experimental moulding trials in terms of the compression forces and filling pattern predictions. All commercial models assessed in this study have adopted shear viscosity based constitutive material models which have failed to correctly predict the compression forces or the filling patterns in both in-plane and out-of-plane scenarios. It is difficult to fully understand the limitations of each the software due to the confidential nature of commercial products. Nevertheless the observations from this study suggest that developing dedicated constitutive models for SMC compression moulding is necessary. A dedicated material model has therefore been developed for SMC flow simulation. The model describes the flow behaviour of SMC using a compressive stress-strain relationship and the squeeze flow test has been employed to determine the material input data. The squeeze flow testing results have suggested that the material behaviour is both rate dependent and temperature dependent. The new material model has been implemented in ABAQUS using an in-built plasticity model and validated through simulation of the squeeze flow test. Due to the approximation used in the ABAQUS in-built plasticity model, the predicted compressive forces diverted from the experimental values towards the end of the test. Nevertheless, the proposed model has demonstrated significant improvement compared to commercial software. The proposed new constitutive model has also been assessed using full component process simulation of a flat plaque geometry. Despite the process simulation aborted prior to the end of fill due to numerical challenges, the proposed new model has demonstrated significant improvements over commercial software in terms of predicted compression forces and filling patterns. The numerical challenges, such as excessive element distortions due to fibre buckling at the mould edge and the complicated contact problems along with the large deformation of SMC will be investigated within this project. A new squeeze flow rig has been manufactured of which the design is based on an existing rig at WMG. The new squeeze flow rig will be used for both SMC flow characterisation and prepreg compaction testing. The new rig features greater testing area, enabling representative sample sizes to be tested for long fibre based SMC, and various instrumentation such as LVDTs and pressure transducers can also be accommodated. The new squeeze flow rig also features guide columns to ensure parallelism between the plates during the tests. 3) SMC mechanical properties model development Deliverable 3 - This has been added to the project due to the ongoing Covid pandemic, which has been causing significantly delay to the experimental aspect of the project. The first part of this work package aims to assess the predictive validity of existing fibre orientation models. The selected fibre prediction models include the Folgar-Tucker (FT) model and the Direct Fibre Simulation (DFS) model, where the former is implemented in Commercial software Moldex3D and the latter is implemented in commercial software 3D TIMON. The experimental data are obtained using CT scanning technique, developed through the feasibility study "Experimental investigation of fibre content and orientation distributions in compression moulded sheet moulding compound" Funded by the EPSRC Future Metrology Hub. In general, both models have demonstrated adequate accuracy when predicting the fibre orientation. The DFS model offers added benefit of taking into account the random nature of the material, although it cannot accurately capture the physical behaviour of individual fibres in the areas where high level of fibre/mould and fibre/fibre interactions present. A meso-scale RVE modelling approach has then been developed based on the DFS model, where the fibre orientation resultant from the manufacturing process can be accounted for mechanical properties prediction (Figure 9). The new modelling approach has been demonstrated through a case study where the tensile properties of samples in the longitudinal and transverse to the flow direction are investigated. The results predicted using the new model show good agreement with the experimental data. 4) Process simulation model development for SMC/prepreg hybrid Deliverable 4 - This will be conducted on completion of the above.
Collaborator Contribution Toray AMCEU have supplied the trial CF-SMC used in this project. And Toray TEK have provided training and a 6-month license for the 3D Timon software and the material card for the trial material. Toray has provided invaluable support on setting up the squeeze flow test. And access to their 3D Timon software allows the PI to gain in-depth understanding of an existing process simulation model, which helps to set the direction for her own model development. Collaboration with Toray enables Warwick to access Toray's expertise in terms of material characterisation and material modelling for SMC flow. On the other hand, this project will help to identify the limitations and the problems with Toray's existing technologies and advise them on potential improvements to their product. The University of Bristol has contributed through support of their former DefGen project to the prepreg compaction model which is currently under development.
Impact The SMC element of this project has already attracted some industrial interests. WMG has recently teamed up with Creative Composites and Engenuity developing a proposal aiming to enable the use of discontinuous fibre composites for structural applications in the aerospace industry, where the experimental flow characterisation method and the numerical simulation tools developed in this project will be adopted in the new project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Compression moulding simulation for SMC and prepreg 
Organisation Toray
Country Japan 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a 2 year Innovation Fellowship with the University of Warwick in 'Compression moulding simulation for SMC and prepreg'. The following contributions have been made to date by the research team: 1) Prepreg material characterisation and model development Deliverable 1 - A prepreg compaction model is currently under development with the support from Bristol's former DefGen project. Correct force-displacement response has been achieved using the original hyperelastic model and experimental data generated through the DefGen project. However, Bristol's original model was developed in ABAQUS/standard using a UMAT subroutine, which is being converted to a VUMAT for ABAQUS/explicit in this project, enabling ALE adaptive mesh (for SMCs undergo large deformation) to be applied in hybrid moulding simulations. Furthermore, the original model has only been validated for low pressure range (up to 20 bar). The presence of SMC in a hybrid moulding process can lead to very high pressure (up to ~500bar). Therefore, further experimental testing will be performed to characterise the material behaviour at much higher pressures, and the new model will be validated using the corresponding experimental data. 2) SMC material characterisation and model development Deliverable 2 - A comprehensive assessment of existing SMC compression moulding simulation models has been conducted at the beginning of WP2.Commercial software including Moldex3D, 3D TIMON and Moldflow have been compared where the accuracy of each software is benchmarked against experimental moulding trials in terms of the compression forces and filling pattern predictions. All commercial models assessed in this study have adopted shear viscosity based constitutive material models which have failed to correctly predict the compression forces or the filling patterns in both in-plane and out-of-plane scenarios. It is difficult to fully understand the limitations of each the software due to the confidential nature of commercial products. Nevertheless the observations from this study suggest that developing dedicated constitutive models for SMC compression moulding is necessary. A dedicated material model has therefore been developed for SMC flow simulation. The model describes the flow behaviour of SMC using a compressive stress-strain relationship and the squeeze flow test has been employed to determine the material input data. The squeeze flow testing results have suggested that the material behaviour is both rate dependent and temperature dependent. The new material model has been implemented in ABAQUS using an in-built plasticity model and validated through simulation of the squeeze flow test. Due to the approximation used in the ABAQUS in-built plasticity model, the predicted compressive forces diverted from the experimental values towards the end of the test. Nevertheless, the proposed model has demonstrated significant improvement compared to commercial software. The proposed new constitutive model has also been assessed using full component process simulation of a flat plaque geometry. Despite the process simulation aborted prior to the end of fill due to numerical challenges, the proposed new model has demonstrated significant improvements over commercial software in terms of predicted compression forces and filling patterns. The numerical challenges, such as excessive element distortions due to fibre buckling at the mould edge and the complicated contact problems along with the large deformation of SMC will be investigated within this project. A new squeeze flow rig has been manufactured of which the design is based on an existing rig at WMG. The new squeeze flow rig will be used for both SMC flow characterisation and prepreg compaction testing. The new rig features greater testing area, enabling representative sample sizes to be tested for long fibre based SMC, and various instrumentation such as LVDTs and pressure transducers can also be accommodated. The new squeeze flow rig also features guide columns to ensure parallelism between the plates during the tests. 3) SMC mechanical properties model development Deliverable 3 - This has been added to the project due to the ongoing Covid pandemic, which has been causing significantly delay to the experimental aspect of the project. The first part of this work package aims to assess the predictive validity of existing fibre orientation models. The selected fibre prediction models include the Folgar-Tucker (FT) model and the Direct Fibre Simulation (DFS) model, where the former is implemented in Commercial software Moldex3D and the latter is implemented in commercial software 3D TIMON. The experimental data are obtained using CT scanning technique, developed through the feasibility study "Experimental investigation of fibre content and orientation distributions in compression moulded sheet moulding compound" Funded by the EPSRC Future Metrology Hub. In general, both models have demonstrated adequate accuracy when predicting the fibre orientation. The DFS model offers added benefit of taking into account the random nature of the material, although it cannot accurately capture the physical behaviour of individual fibres in the areas where high level of fibre/mould and fibre/fibre interactions present. A meso-scale RVE modelling approach has then been developed based on the DFS model, where the fibre orientation resultant from the manufacturing process can be accounted for mechanical properties prediction (Figure 9). The new modelling approach has been demonstrated through a case study where the tensile properties of samples in the longitudinal and transverse to the flow direction are investigated. The results predicted using the new model show good agreement with the experimental data. 4) Process simulation model development for SMC/prepreg hybrid Deliverable 4 - This will be conducted on completion of the above.
Collaborator Contribution Toray AMCEU have supplied the trial CF-SMC used in this project. And Toray TEK have provided training and a 6-month license for the 3D Timon software and the material card for the trial material. Toray has provided invaluable support on setting up the squeeze flow test. And access to their 3D Timon software allows the PI to gain in-depth understanding of an existing process simulation model, which helps to set the direction for her own model development. Collaboration with Toray enables Warwick to access Toray's expertise in terms of material characterisation and material modelling for SMC flow. On the other hand, this project will help to identify the limitations and the problems with Toray's existing technologies and advise them on potential improvements to their product. The University of Bristol has contributed through support of their former DefGen project to the prepreg compaction model which is currently under development.
Impact The SMC element of this project has already attracted some industrial interests. WMG has recently teamed up with Creative Composites and Engenuity developing a proposal aiming to enable the use of discontinuous fibre composites for structural applications in the aerospace industry, where the experimental flow characterisation method and the numerical simulation tools developed in this project will be adopted in the new project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Compression moulding simulation for SMC and prepreg 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a 2 year Innovation Fellowship with the University of Warwick in 'Compression moulding simulation for SMC and prepreg'. The following contributions have been made to date by the research team: 1) Prepreg material characterisation and model development Deliverable 1 - A prepreg compaction model is currently under development with the support from Bristol's former DefGen project. Correct force-displacement response has been achieved using the original hyperelastic model and experimental data generated through the DefGen project. However, Bristol's original model was developed in ABAQUS/standard using a UMAT subroutine, which is being converted to a VUMAT for ABAQUS/explicit in this project, enabling ALE adaptive mesh (for SMCs undergo large deformation) to be applied in hybrid moulding simulations. Furthermore, the original model has only been validated for low pressure range (up to 20 bar). The presence of SMC in a hybrid moulding process can lead to very high pressure (up to ~500bar). Therefore, further experimental testing will be performed to characterise the material behaviour at much higher pressures, and the new model will be validated using the corresponding experimental data. 2) SMC material characterisation and model development Deliverable 2 - A comprehensive assessment of existing SMC compression moulding simulation models has been conducted at the beginning of WP2.Commercial software including Moldex3D, 3D TIMON and Moldflow have been compared where the accuracy of each software is benchmarked against experimental moulding trials in terms of the compression forces and filling pattern predictions. All commercial models assessed in this study have adopted shear viscosity based constitutive material models which have failed to correctly predict the compression forces or the filling patterns in both in-plane and out-of-plane scenarios. It is difficult to fully understand the limitations of each the software due to the confidential nature of commercial products. Nevertheless the observations from this study suggest that developing dedicated constitutive models for SMC compression moulding is necessary. A dedicated material model has therefore been developed for SMC flow simulation. The model describes the flow behaviour of SMC using a compressive stress-strain relationship and the squeeze flow test has been employed to determine the material input data. The squeeze flow testing results have suggested that the material behaviour is both rate dependent and temperature dependent. The new material model has been implemented in ABAQUS using an in-built plasticity model and validated through simulation of the squeeze flow test. Due to the approximation used in the ABAQUS in-built plasticity model, the predicted compressive forces diverted from the experimental values towards the end of the test. Nevertheless, the proposed model has demonstrated significant improvement compared to commercial software. The proposed new constitutive model has also been assessed using full component process simulation of a flat plaque geometry. Despite the process simulation aborted prior to the end of fill due to numerical challenges, the proposed new model has demonstrated significant improvements over commercial software in terms of predicted compression forces and filling patterns. The numerical challenges, such as excessive element distortions due to fibre buckling at the mould edge and the complicated contact problems along with the large deformation of SMC will be investigated within this project. A new squeeze flow rig has been manufactured of which the design is based on an existing rig at WMG. The new squeeze flow rig will be used for both SMC flow characterisation and prepreg compaction testing. The new rig features greater testing area, enabling representative sample sizes to be tested for long fibre based SMC, and various instrumentation such as LVDTs and pressure transducers can also be accommodated. The new squeeze flow rig also features guide columns to ensure parallelism between the plates during the tests. 3) SMC mechanical properties model development Deliverable 3 - This has been added to the project due to the ongoing Covid pandemic, which has been causing significantly delay to the experimental aspect of the project. The first part of this work package aims to assess the predictive validity of existing fibre orientation models. The selected fibre prediction models include the Folgar-Tucker (FT) model and the Direct Fibre Simulation (DFS) model, where the former is implemented in Commercial software Moldex3D and the latter is implemented in commercial software 3D TIMON. The experimental data are obtained using CT scanning technique, developed through the feasibility study "Experimental investigation of fibre content and orientation distributions in compression moulded sheet moulding compound" Funded by the EPSRC Future Metrology Hub. In general, both models have demonstrated adequate accuracy when predicting the fibre orientation. The DFS model offers added benefit of taking into account the random nature of the material, although it cannot accurately capture the physical behaviour of individual fibres in the areas where high level of fibre/mould and fibre/fibre interactions present. A meso-scale RVE modelling approach has then been developed based on the DFS model, where the fibre orientation resultant from the manufacturing process can be accounted for mechanical properties prediction (Figure 9). The new modelling approach has been demonstrated through a case study where the tensile properties of samples in the longitudinal and transverse to the flow direction are investigated. The results predicted using the new model show good agreement with the experimental data. 4) Process simulation model development for SMC/prepreg hybrid Deliverable 4 - This will be conducted on completion of the above.
Collaborator Contribution Toray AMCEU have supplied the trial CF-SMC used in this project. And Toray TEK have provided training and a 6-month license for the 3D Timon software and the material card for the trial material. Toray has provided invaluable support on setting up the squeeze flow test. And access to their 3D Timon software allows the PI to gain in-depth understanding of an existing process simulation model, which helps to set the direction for her own model development. Collaboration with Toray enables Warwick to access Toray's expertise in terms of material characterisation and material modelling for SMC flow. On the other hand, this project will help to identify the limitations and the problems with Toray's existing technologies and advise them on potential improvements to their product. The University of Bristol has contributed through support of their former DefGen project to the prepreg compaction model which is currently under development.
Impact The SMC element of this project has already attracted some industrial interests. WMG has recently teamed up with Creative Composites and Engenuity developing a proposal aiming to enable the use of discontinuous fibre composites for structural applications in the aerospace industry, where the experimental flow characterisation method and the numerical simulation tools developed in this project will be adopted in the new project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Controlled Micro Integration of Through Thickness Polymeric Yarns 
Organisation Ulster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Ulster University for the six-month project' Controlled Micro Integration of Through Thickness Polymeric Yarns'. Contributions: 1. Ability to produce through-thickness reinforced composites with no knock-down on in-plane properties. 2. Test results that validate the tensile properties. 3. Quality micrograph and CT images that can be used by modellers to build representative unit cell. 4. Ability to make a stabilised curved preform using the technique. 5. Ability to make a low bulk-factor preform with +- 45 deg fibres and through thickness reinforcement.
Collaborator Contribution We have had very successful interaction with the hub members and have discussed potential for robotic assistance with Michael Elkington at Bristol. Assistance has been provided by Prof. Véronique Michaud; some interesting results were provided for comparison.
Impact -Presented at Advanced Engineering 2019 -Abstract accepted for ICCS23 and Mechcomp6. Journal paper to follow.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming 
Organisation Dassault Systemes UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Two process improvements have successfully improved the formability of biaxial NCFs: the modification of inter-ply friction by local lubrication and the removal of intra-ply stitches to minimise the local shear angle across the surface of the ply. 2) Numerical tools have been developed to enable the design and forming of large industrial structures with greater confidence. A multi-scale finite element model was designed to efficiently identify critical small defects developed in large structures during forming. The experimentally-validated numerical results were used to validate novel analytical and optimisation methods that facilitate rapid design changes. - Developing design simulation tools and process improvements will provide a step-change in the manufacturing of NCF preforms which fits with the Hub research theme: Design for manufacturing via validated simulation. 3) The fundamental science of fabric deformation during forming processes was advanced for uniaxial and biaxial NCF materials applied to automotive and aerospace components.- Two wrinkling mechanisms were discovered: via shear lockup and via compression. The macroscale shear wrinkling was triggered by the in-plane compressive forces generated from the pressure between adjacent parallel tows. The macroscale non-shear wrinkling, observed in the area of positive shear strains, was instead generated by lateral compression as shearing was restricted to a minimum by the stitching. 4) Three numerical forming tools were developed to efficiently predict the manufacturing defects generated during the DDF of dry fabrics. - For the optimisation of the component geometry, a less computationally demanding tool was created. A machine learning-based model was developed to provide rapid predictions of the location and severity of wrinkling defects during the DDF of large NCF preforms. In addition, an analytical tool based on the eigenvectors of lamina stiffness matrices was developed to rapidly calculate the ply compatibility in complex NCF multi-layer layups. 5) To improve the quality of NCF preforms and to reduce the forming forces during the DDF process, a range of process developments were proposed to industrial partners.- A local intra-ply stitch removal method showed improvement in the formability of pillar-stitched biaxial NCFs. A genetic algorithm coupled with a finite element model was implemented to identify the optimised stitch pattern that can reduce the local shear angle while minimising the total stitch removal area. In addition to eliminating macro-scale wrinkling, the optimum local stitch removal pattern produced a more balanced global material draw-in. Therefore, the stitch removal was not limited to the over-sheared regions, suggesting the optimum pattern to be non-intuitive. 6) The friction modification methodology was also successfully applied to an automotive seatback geometry. Although all the out-of-plane wrinkles could be eliminated, in-plane waviness could not be mitigated.
Collaborator Contribution Regular meetings with the industrial collaborators have been key to shaping the feasibility studies and main bid. The industry requirements for user-friendly tools for design of manufacturing are a priority for this project. But at the same time we feel that the objective of Universities is to develop the underpinning science. So our bid has combined these two elements. The details of the choices of manufacturing routes and materials have also been strongly influenced by the experience and wisdom of our collaborative colleagues. All partner companies (listed above) have attended six 3-monthly project meetings (estimated contribution £1,000 x 6 x 4 = £24k). Additionally Hexcel have provided in-kind contributions in the form of materials (estimated contribution £10k).
Impact Output is in the form of Journal Publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108078 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106308 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.106248 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106457 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109464 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106611 Output in the form of Conference Publications: 1. Chen, S., McGregor, O., Endruweit, A., Harper, L., Warrior, N., Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels, ICCM22, Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 2. V. Viisainen, J. Zhou, M.P.F. Sutcliffe. Development of a composite forming limit diaphragm: A feasibility study. 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM22), Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 3. J V Viisainen, F Yu, A Codolini, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'A Deep Learning Surrogate Model For Rapid Prediction Of Geometry-induced Wrinkles In Fabric Preforming', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) 4. A Codolini, J V Viisainen, F Yu, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'Numerical Assessment of Variability in Double Diaphragm Forming of Non-Crimp Fabric Preforms', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) Associated Research Grant Outcomes: 1. 2019-2020, JV Viisainen and MPF Sutcliffe, Cimcomp EPSRC Hub (£5k). Development of a loading rig to characterise the wrinkling of fabrics under combined tension and shear. 2. Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre (£4.049m), EP/V061798/1, 1st September 2021 - 28th February 2025 A Technology Pull-Through project has been applied for at the NCC, to help accelerate the research to higher levels of technology readiness (TRL).
Start Year 2020
 
Description Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming 
Organisation GKN
Department GKN Aerospace
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Two process improvements have successfully improved the formability of biaxial NCFs: the modification of inter-ply friction by local lubrication and the removal of intra-ply stitches to minimise the local shear angle across the surface of the ply. 2) Numerical tools have been developed to enable the design and forming of large industrial structures with greater confidence. A multi-scale finite element model was designed to efficiently identify critical small defects developed in large structures during forming. The experimentally-validated numerical results were used to validate novel analytical and optimisation methods that facilitate rapid design changes. - Developing design simulation tools and process improvements will provide a step-change in the manufacturing of NCF preforms which fits with the Hub research theme: Design for manufacturing via validated simulation. 3) The fundamental science of fabric deformation during forming processes was advanced for uniaxial and biaxial NCF materials applied to automotive and aerospace components.- Two wrinkling mechanisms were discovered: via shear lockup and via compression. The macroscale shear wrinkling was triggered by the in-plane compressive forces generated from the pressure between adjacent parallel tows. The macroscale non-shear wrinkling, observed in the area of positive shear strains, was instead generated by lateral compression as shearing was restricted to a minimum by the stitching. 4) Three numerical forming tools were developed to efficiently predict the manufacturing defects generated during the DDF of dry fabrics. - For the optimisation of the component geometry, a less computationally demanding tool was created. A machine learning-based model was developed to provide rapid predictions of the location and severity of wrinkling defects during the DDF of large NCF preforms. In addition, an analytical tool based on the eigenvectors of lamina stiffness matrices was developed to rapidly calculate the ply compatibility in complex NCF multi-layer layups. 5) To improve the quality of NCF preforms and to reduce the forming forces during the DDF process, a range of process developments were proposed to industrial partners.- A local intra-ply stitch removal method showed improvement in the formability of pillar-stitched biaxial NCFs. A genetic algorithm coupled with a finite element model was implemented to identify the optimised stitch pattern that can reduce the local shear angle while minimising the total stitch removal area. In addition to eliminating macro-scale wrinkling, the optimum local stitch removal pattern produced a more balanced global material draw-in. Therefore, the stitch removal was not limited to the over-sheared regions, suggesting the optimum pattern to be non-intuitive. 6) The friction modification methodology was also successfully applied to an automotive seatback geometry. Although all the out-of-plane wrinkles could be eliminated, in-plane waviness could not be mitigated.
Collaborator Contribution Regular meetings with the industrial collaborators have been key to shaping the feasibility studies and main bid. The industry requirements for user-friendly tools for design of manufacturing are a priority for this project. But at the same time we feel that the objective of Universities is to develop the underpinning science. So our bid has combined these two elements. The details of the choices of manufacturing routes and materials have also been strongly influenced by the experience and wisdom of our collaborative colleagues. All partner companies (listed above) have attended six 3-monthly project meetings (estimated contribution £1,000 x 6 x 4 = £24k). Additionally Hexcel have provided in-kind contributions in the form of materials (estimated contribution £10k).
Impact Output is in the form of Journal Publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108078 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106308 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.106248 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106457 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109464 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106611 Output in the form of Conference Publications: 1. Chen, S., McGregor, O., Endruweit, A., Harper, L., Warrior, N., Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels, ICCM22, Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 2. V. Viisainen, J. Zhou, M.P.F. Sutcliffe. Development of a composite forming limit diaphragm: A feasibility study. 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM22), Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 3. J V Viisainen, F Yu, A Codolini, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'A Deep Learning Surrogate Model For Rapid Prediction Of Geometry-induced Wrinkles In Fabric Preforming', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) 4. A Codolini, J V Viisainen, F Yu, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'Numerical Assessment of Variability in Double Diaphragm Forming of Non-Crimp Fabric Preforms', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) Associated Research Grant Outcomes: 1. 2019-2020, JV Viisainen and MPF Sutcliffe, Cimcomp EPSRC Hub (£5k). Development of a loading rig to characterise the wrinkling of fabrics under combined tension and shear. 2. Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre (£4.049m), EP/V061798/1, 1st September 2021 - 28th February 2025 A Technology Pull-Through project has been applied for at the NCC, to help accelerate the research to higher levels of technology readiness (TRL).
Start Year 2020
 
Description Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming 
Organisation Gordon Murray Design Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Two process improvements have successfully improved the formability of biaxial NCFs: the modification of inter-ply friction by local lubrication and the removal of intra-ply stitches to minimise the local shear angle across the surface of the ply. 2) Numerical tools have been developed to enable the design and forming of large industrial structures with greater confidence. A multi-scale finite element model was designed to efficiently identify critical small defects developed in large structures during forming. The experimentally-validated numerical results were used to validate novel analytical and optimisation methods that facilitate rapid design changes. - Developing design simulation tools and process improvements will provide a step-change in the manufacturing of NCF preforms which fits with the Hub research theme: Design for manufacturing via validated simulation. 3) The fundamental science of fabric deformation during forming processes was advanced for uniaxial and biaxial NCF materials applied to automotive and aerospace components.- Two wrinkling mechanisms were discovered: via shear lockup and via compression. The macroscale shear wrinkling was triggered by the in-plane compressive forces generated from the pressure between adjacent parallel tows. The macroscale non-shear wrinkling, observed in the area of positive shear strains, was instead generated by lateral compression as shearing was restricted to a minimum by the stitching. 4) Three numerical forming tools were developed to efficiently predict the manufacturing defects generated during the DDF of dry fabrics. - For the optimisation of the component geometry, a less computationally demanding tool was created. A machine learning-based model was developed to provide rapid predictions of the location and severity of wrinkling defects during the DDF of large NCF preforms. In addition, an analytical tool based on the eigenvectors of lamina stiffness matrices was developed to rapidly calculate the ply compatibility in complex NCF multi-layer layups. 5) To improve the quality of NCF preforms and to reduce the forming forces during the DDF process, a range of process developments were proposed to industrial partners.- A local intra-ply stitch removal method showed improvement in the formability of pillar-stitched biaxial NCFs. A genetic algorithm coupled with a finite element model was implemented to identify the optimised stitch pattern that can reduce the local shear angle while minimising the total stitch removal area. In addition to eliminating macro-scale wrinkling, the optimum local stitch removal pattern produced a more balanced global material draw-in. Therefore, the stitch removal was not limited to the over-sheared regions, suggesting the optimum pattern to be non-intuitive. 6) The friction modification methodology was also successfully applied to an automotive seatback geometry. Although all the out-of-plane wrinkles could be eliminated, in-plane waviness could not be mitigated.
Collaborator Contribution Regular meetings with the industrial collaborators have been key to shaping the feasibility studies and main bid. The industry requirements for user-friendly tools for design of manufacturing are a priority for this project. But at the same time we feel that the objective of Universities is to develop the underpinning science. So our bid has combined these two elements. The details of the choices of manufacturing routes and materials have also been strongly influenced by the experience and wisdom of our collaborative colleagues. All partner companies (listed above) have attended six 3-monthly project meetings (estimated contribution £1,000 x 6 x 4 = £24k). Additionally Hexcel have provided in-kind contributions in the form of materials (estimated contribution £10k).
Impact Output is in the form of Journal Publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108078 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106308 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.106248 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106457 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109464 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106611 Output in the form of Conference Publications: 1. Chen, S., McGregor, O., Endruweit, A., Harper, L., Warrior, N., Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels, ICCM22, Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 2. V. Viisainen, J. Zhou, M.P.F. Sutcliffe. Development of a composite forming limit diaphragm: A feasibility study. 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM22), Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 3. J V Viisainen, F Yu, A Codolini, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'A Deep Learning Surrogate Model For Rapid Prediction Of Geometry-induced Wrinkles In Fabric Preforming', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) 4. A Codolini, J V Viisainen, F Yu, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'Numerical Assessment of Variability in Double Diaphragm Forming of Non-Crimp Fabric Preforms', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) Associated Research Grant Outcomes: 1. 2019-2020, JV Viisainen and MPF Sutcliffe, Cimcomp EPSRC Hub (£5k). Development of a loading rig to characterise the wrinkling of fabrics under combined tension and shear. 2. Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre (£4.049m), EP/V061798/1, 1st September 2021 - 28th February 2025 A Technology Pull-Through project has been applied for at the NCC, to help accelerate the research to higher levels of technology readiness (TRL).
Start Year 2020
 
Description Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming 
Organisation Hexcel Composites Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Two process improvements have successfully improved the formability of biaxial NCFs: the modification of inter-ply friction by local lubrication and the removal of intra-ply stitches to minimise the local shear angle across the surface of the ply. 2) Numerical tools have been developed to enable the design and forming of large industrial structures with greater confidence. A multi-scale finite element model was designed to efficiently identify critical small defects developed in large structures during forming. The experimentally-validated numerical results were used to validate novel analytical and optimisation methods that facilitate rapid design changes. - Developing design simulation tools and process improvements will provide a step-change in the manufacturing of NCF preforms which fits with the Hub research theme: Design for manufacturing via validated simulation. 3) The fundamental science of fabric deformation during forming processes was advanced for uniaxial and biaxial NCF materials applied to automotive and aerospace components.- Two wrinkling mechanisms were discovered: via shear lockup and via compression. The macroscale shear wrinkling was triggered by the in-plane compressive forces generated from the pressure between adjacent parallel tows. The macroscale non-shear wrinkling, observed in the area of positive shear strains, was instead generated by lateral compression as shearing was restricted to a minimum by the stitching. 4) Three numerical forming tools were developed to efficiently predict the manufacturing defects generated during the DDF of dry fabrics. - For the optimisation of the component geometry, a less computationally demanding tool was created. A machine learning-based model was developed to provide rapid predictions of the location and severity of wrinkling defects during the DDF of large NCF preforms. In addition, an analytical tool based on the eigenvectors of lamina stiffness matrices was developed to rapidly calculate the ply compatibility in complex NCF multi-layer layups. 5) To improve the quality of NCF preforms and to reduce the forming forces during the DDF process, a range of process developments were proposed to industrial partners.- A local intra-ply stitch removal method showed improvement in the formability of pillar-stitched biaxial NCFs. A genetic algorithm coupled with a finite element model was implemented to identify the optimised stitch pattern that can reduce the local shear angle while minimising the total stitch removal area. In addition to eliminating macro-scale wrinkling, the optimum local stitch removal pattern produced a more balanced global material draw-in. Therefore, the stitch removal was not limited to the over-sheared regions, suggesting the optimum pattern to be non-intuitive. 6) The friction modification methodology was also successfully applied to an automotive seatback geometry. Although all the out-of-plane wrinkles could be eliminated, in-plane waviness could not be mitigated.
Collaborator Contribution Regular meetings with the industrial collaborators have been key to shaping the feasibility studies and main bid. The industry requirements for user-friendly tools for design of manufacturing are a priority for this project. But at the same time we feel that the objective of Universities is to develop the underpinning science. So our bid has combined these two elements. The details of the choices of manufacturing routes and materials have also been strongly influenced by the experience and wisdom of our collaborative colleagues. All partner companies (listed above) have attended six 3-monthly project meetings (estimated contribution £1,000 x 6 x 4 = £24k). Additionally Hexcel have provided in-kind contributions in the form of materials (estimated contribution £10k).
Impact Output is in the form of Journal Publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108078 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106308 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.106248 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106457 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109464 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106611 Output in the form of Conference Publications: 1. Chen, S., McGregor, O., Endruweit, A., Harper, L., Warrior, N., Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels, ICCM22, Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 2. V. Viisainen, J. Zhou, M.P.F. Sutcliffe. Development of a composite forming limit diaphragm: A feasibility study. 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM22), Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 3. J V Viisainen, F Yu, A Codolini, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'A Deep Learning Surrogate Model For Rapid Prediction Of Geometry-induced Wrinkles In Fabric Preforming', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) 4. A Codolini, J V Viisainen, F Yu, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'Numerical Assessment of Variability in Double Diaphragm Forming of Non-Crimp Fabric Preforms', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) Associated Research Grant Outcomes: 1. 2019-2020, JV Viisainen and MPF Sutcliffe, Cimcomp EPSRC Hub (£5k). Development of a loading rig to characterise the wrinkling of fabrics under combined tension and shear. 2. Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre (£4.049m), EP/V061798/1, 1st September 2021 - 28th February 2025 A Technology Pull-Through project has been applied for at the NCC, to help accelerate the research to higher levels of technology readiness (TRL).
Start Year 2020
 
Description Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming 
Organisation University of Bath
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Two process improvements have successfully improved the formability of biaxial NCFs: the modification of inter-ply friction by local lubrication and the removal of intra-ply stitches to minimise the local shear angle across the surface of the ply. 2) Numerical tools have been developed to enable the design and forming of large industrial structures with greater confidence. A multi-scale finite element model was designed to efficiently identify critical small defects developed in large structures during forming. The experimentally-validated numerical results were used to validate novel analytical and optimisation methods that facilitate rapid design changes. - Developing design simulation tools and process improvements will provide a step-change in the manufacturing of NCF preforms which fits with the Hub research theme: Design for manufacturing via validated simulation. 3) The fundamental science of fabric deformation during forming processes was advanced for uniaxial and biaxial NCF materials applied to automotive and aerospace components.- Two wrinkling mechanisms were discovered: via shear lockup and via compression. The macroscale shear wrinkling was triggered by the in-plane compressive forces generated from the pressure between adjacent parallel tows. The macroscale non-shear wrinkling, observed in the area of positive shear strains, was instead generated by lateral compression as shearing was restricted to a minimum by the stitching. 4) Three numerical forming tools were developed to efficiently predict the manufacturing defects generated during the DDF of dry fabrics. - For the optimisation of the component geometry, a less computationally demanding tool was created. A machine learning-based model was developed to provide rapid predictions of the location and severity of wrinkling defects during the DDF of large NCF preforms. In addition, an analytical tool based on the eigenvectors of lamina stiffness matrices was developed to rapidly calculate the ply compatibility in complex NCF multi-layer layups. 5) To improve the quality of NCF preforms and to reduce the forming forces during the DDF process, a range of process developments were proposed to industrial partners.- A local intra-ply stitch removal method showed improvement in the formability of pillar-stitched biaxial NCFs. A genetic algorithm coupled with a finite element model was implemented to identify the optimised stitch pattern that can reduce the local shear angle while minimising the total stitch removal area. In addition to eliminating macro-scale wrinkling, the optimum local stitch removal pattern produced a more balanced global material draw-in. Therefore, the stitch removal was not limited to the over-sheared regions, suggesting the optimum pattern to be non-intuitive. 6) The friction modification methodology was also successfully applied to an automotive seatback geometry. Although all the out-of-plane wrinkles could be eliminated, in-plane waviness could not be mitigated.
Collaborator Contribution Regular meetings with the industrial collaborators have been key to shaping the feasibility studies and main bid. The industry requirements for user-friendly tools for design of manufacturing are a priority for this project. But at the same time we feel that the objective of Universities is to develop the underpinning science. So our bid has combined these two elements. The details of the choices of manufacturing routes and materials have also been strongly influenced by the experience and wisdom of our collaborative colleagues. All partner companies (listed above) have attended six 3-monthly project meetings (estimated contribution £1,000 x 6 x 4 = £24k). Additionally Hexcel have provided in-kind contributions in the form of materials (estimated contribution £10k).
Impact Output is in the form of Journal Publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108078 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106308 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.106248 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106457 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109464 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106611 Output in the form of Conference Publications: 1. Chen, S., McGregor, O., Endruweit, A., Harper, L., Warrior, N., Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels, ICCM22, Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 2. V. Viisainen, J. Zhou, M.P.F. Sutcliffe. Development of a composite forming limit diaphragm: A feasibility study. 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM22), Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 3. J V Viisainen, F Yu, A Codolini, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'A Deep Learning Surrogate Model For Rapid Prediction Of Geometry-induced Wrinkles In Fabric Preforming', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) 4. A Codolini, J V Viisainen, F Yu, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'Numerical Assessment of Variability in Double Diaphragm Forming of Non-Crimp Fabric Preforms', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) Associated Research Grant Outcomes: 1. 2019-2020, JV Viisainen and MPF Sutcliffe, Cimcomp EPSRC Hub (£5k). Development of a loading rig to characterise the wrinkling of fabrics under combined tension and shear. 2. Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre (£4.049m), EP/V061798/1, 1st September 2021 - 28th February 2025 A Technology Pull-Through project has been applied for at the NCC, to help accelerate the research to higher levels of technology readiness (TRL).
Start Year 2020
 
Description Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Two process improvements have successfully improved the formability of biaxial NCFs: the modification of inter-ply friction by local lubrication and the removal of intra-ply stitches to minimise the local shear angle across the surface of the ply. 2) Numerical tools have been developed to enable the design and forming of large industrial structures with greater confidence. A multi-scale finite element model was designed to efficiently identify critical small defects developed in large structures during forming. The experimentally-validated numerical results were used to validate novel analytical and optimisation methods that facilitate rapid design changes. - Developing design simulation tools and process improvements will provide a step-change in the manufacturing of NCF preforms which fits with the Hub research theme: Design for manufacturing via validated simulation. 3) The fundamental science of fabric deformation during forming processes was advanced for uniaxial and biaxial NCF materials applied to automotive and aerospace components.- Two wrinkling mechanisms were discovered: via shear lockup and via compression. The macroscale shear wrinkling was triggered by the in-plane compressive forces generated from the pressure between adjacent parallel tows. The macroscale non-shear wrinkling, observed in the area of positive shear strains, was instead generated by lateral compression as shearing was restricted to a minimum by the stitching. 4) Three numerical forming tools were developed to efficiently predict the manufacturing defects generated during the DDF of dry fabrics. - For the optimisation of the component geometry, a less computationally demanding tool was created. A machine learning-based model was developed to provide rapid predictions of the location and severity of wrinkling defects during the DDF of large NCF preforms. In addition, an analytical tool based on the eigenvectors of lamina stiffness matrices was developed to rapidly calculate the ply compatibility in complex NCF multi-layer layups. 5) To improve the quality of NCF preforms and to reduce the forming forces during the DDF process, a range of process developments were proposed to industrial partners.- A local intra-ply stitch removal method showed improvement in the formability of pillar-stitched biaxial NCFs. A genetic algorithm coupled with a finite element model was implemented to identify the optimised stitch pattern that can reduce the local shear angle while minimising the total stitch removal area. In addition to eliminating macro-scale wrinkling, the optimum local stitch removal pattern produced a more balanced global material draw-in. Therefore, the stitch removal was not limited to the over-sheared regions, suggesting the optimum pattern to be non-intuitive. 6) The friction modification methodology was also successfully applied to an automotive seatback geometry. Although all the out-of-plane wrinkles could be eliminated, in-plane waviness could not be mitigated.
Collaborator Contribution Regular meetings with the industrial collaborators have been key to shaping the feasibility studies and main bid. The industry requirements for user-friendly tools for design of manufacturing are a priority for this project. But at the same time we feel that the objective of Universities is to develop the underpinning science. So our bid has combined these two elements. The details of the choices of manufacturing routes and materials have also been strongly influenced by the experience and wisdom of our collaborative colleagues. All partner companies (listed above) have attended six 3-monthly project meetings (estimated contribution £1,000 x 6 x 4 = £24k). Additionally Hexcel have provided in-kind contributions in the form of materials (estimated contribution £10k).
Impact Output is in the form of Journal Publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108078 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106308 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.106248 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106457 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109464 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106611 Output in the form of Conference Publications: 1. Chen, S., McGregor, O., Endruweit, A., Harper, L., Warrior, N., Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels, ICCM22, Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 2. V. Viisainen, J. Zhou, M.P.F. Sutcliffe. Development of a composite forming limit diaphragm: A feasibility study. 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM22), Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 3. J V Viisainen, F Yu, A Codolini, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'A Deep Learning Surrogate Model For Rapid Prediction Of Geometry-induced Wrinkles In Fabric Preforming', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) 4. A Codolini, J V Viisainen, F Yu, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'Numerical Assessment of Variability in Double Diaphragm Forming of Non-Crimp Fabric Preforms', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) Associated Research Grant Outcomes: 1. 2019-2020, JV Viisainen and MPF Sutcliffe, Cimcomp EPSRC Hub (£5k). Development of a loading rig to characterise the wrinkling of fabrics under combined tension and shear. 2. Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre (£4.049m), EP/V061798/1, 1st September 2021 - 28th February 2025 A Technology Pull-Through project has been applied for at the NCC, to help accelerate the research to higher levels of technology readiness (TRL).
Start Year 2020
 
Description Design simulation tools and process improvements for NCF preforming 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Two process improvements have successfully improved the formability of biaxial NCFs: the modification of inter-ply friction by local lubrication and the removal of intra-ply stitches to minimise the local shear angle across the surface of the ply. 2) Numerical tools have been developed to enable the design and forming of large industrial structures with greater confidence. A multi-scale finite element model was designed to efficiently identify critical small defects developed in large structures during forming. The experimentally-validated numerical results were used to validate novel analytical and optimisation methods that facilitate rapid design changes. - Developing design simulation tools and process improvements will provide a step-change in the manufacturing of NCF preforms which fits with the Hub research theme: Design for manufacturing via validated simulation. 3) The fundamental science of fabric deformation during forming processes was advanced for uniaxial and biaxial NCF materials applied to automotive and aerospace components.- Two wrinkling mechanisms were discovered: via shear lockup and via compression. The macroscale shear wrinkling was triggered by the in-plane compressive forces generated from the pressure between adjacent parallel tows. The macroscale non-shear wrinkling, observed in the area of positive shear strains, was instead generated by lateral compression as shearing was restricted to a minimum by the stitching. 4) Three numerical forming tools were developed to efficiently predict the manufacturing defects generated during the DDF of dry fabrics. - For the optimisation of the component geometry, a less computationally demanding tool was created. A machine learning-based model was developed to provide rapid predictions of the location and severity of wrinkling defects during the DDF of large NCF preforms. In addition, an analytical tool based on the eigenvectors of lamina stiffness matrices was developed to rapidly calculate the ply compatibility in complex NCF multi-layer layups. 5) To improve the quality of NCF preforms and to reduce the forming forces during the DDF process, a range of process developments were proposed to industrial partners.- A local intra-ply stitch removal method showed improvement in the formability of pillar-stitched biaxial NCFs. A genetic algorithm coupled with a finite element model was implemented to identify the optimised stitch pattern that can reduce the local shear angle while minimising the total stitch removal area. In addition to eliminating macro-scale wrinkling, the optimum local stitch removal pattern produced a more balanced global material draw-in. Therefore, the stitch removal was not limited to the over-sheared regions, suggesting the optimum pattern to be non-intuitive. 6) The friction modification methodology was also successfully applied to an automotive seatback geometry. Although all the out-of-plane wrinkles could be eliminated, in-plane waviness could not be mitigated.
Collaborator Contribution Regular meetings with the industrial collaborators have been key to shaping the feasibility studies and main bid. The industry requirements for user-friendly tools for design of manufacturing are a priority for this project. But at the same time we feel that the objective of Universities is to develop the underpinning science. So our bid has combined these two elements. The details of the choices of manufacturing routes and materials have also been strongly influenced by the experience and wisdom of our collaborative colleagues. All partner companies (listed above) have attended six 3-monthly project meetings (estimated contribution £1,000 x 6 x 4 = £24k). Additionally Hexcel have provided in-kind contributions in the form of materials (estimated contribution £10k).
Impact Output is in the form of Journal Publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108078 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106308 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.106248 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106457 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2021.109464 DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106611 Output in the form of Conference Publications: 1. Chen, S., McGregor, O., Endruweit, A., Harper, L., Warrior, N., Finite element forming simulation of complex composite sandwich panels, ICCM22, Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 2. V. Viisainen, J. Zhou, M.P.F. Sutcliffe. Development of a composite forming limit diaphragm: A feasibility study. 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM22), Melbourne, Australia, August 2019 3. J V Viisainen, F Yu, A Codolini, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'A Deep Learning Surrogate Model For Rapid Prediction Of Geometry-induced Wrinkles In Fabric Preforming', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) 4. A Codolini, J V Viisainen, F Yu, S Chen, L T Harper, M P F Sutcliffe, 'Numerical Assessment of Variability in Double Diaphragm Forming of Non-Crimp Fabric Preforms', in ICMAC21, Online (2021) Associated Research Grant Outcomes: 1. 2019-2020, JV Viisainen and MPF Sutcliffe, Cimcomp EPSRC Hub (£5k). Development of a loading rig to characterise the wrinkling of fabrics under combined tension and shear. 2. Made Smarter Innovation - Materials Made Smarter Research Centre (£4.049m), EP/V061798/1, 1st September 2021 - 28th February 2025 A Technology Pull-Through project has been applied for at the NCC, to help accelerate the research to higher levels of technology readiness (TRL).
Start Year 2020
 
Description Developing automated manufacturing technologies for composite laminate structures 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Bristol, in 'Developing automated manufacturing technologies for composite laminate structures'. Contributions: 1. Separated the process layup into activities better suited to Robots or humans based on their respective capabilities and task requirements. 2. Demonstrated how a human and robot can share a composite layup workspace 3. Reduced the physical effort exerted during manual layup 4. Created a human/robot layup process which users regarded as 'safe' and 'useful' 5. Developed a package to facilitate simultaneous working in a shared workspace which is safe and use friendly.
Collaborator Contribution The project was invited to present this work to Lockheed Martin, who provided crucial insights into the potentials and concerns around this technology. The project has presented a demonstration to Airborne Composites, and were aiming to complete a small scale demonstration although this did not happen due a management level policy change.
Impact 1. Conference Presentation M. Elkington, N. Gandhi, M. Libby, A. Kirby, C. Ward, Collaborative human-robotic layup, ICMAC 2018, Nottingham University, 11-12 July 2018
Start Year 2017
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation Engel
Country Austria 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation Evonik Industries
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation L. Bruggemann KG
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation Surface Generation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation University of Michigan
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Department Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Development of rapid processing routes for carbon fibre / nylon6 composites'. Contributions: 1. Nylon melt viscosity is very low, allowing for simple film stacking compression moulding and capture of fine features
Collaborator Contribution Bruggemann have provided advice on the in situ polymerisation of their nylon materials and are continuing to be involved and provide materials for the Ph.D./feasibility study. Engel provided significant advice in the area of in situ polymerisation of nylon through RTM and are open to collaborative work. There is a potential to work with them in the diaphragm feasibility study. AMRC were originally involved in the feasibility study "Acceleration of Monomer Transfer Moulding using microwaves" and have an ongoing interest with thermoplastics processing. The University of Edinburgh were also involved in this feasibility project and have since joined with the new feasibility project "Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming". Attendence at the TPRC 10th anniversary conference provided a good overview of cutting edge research in thermoplastic composites Interaction with Hub members at the synergy event has identified the value and opportunity of creating a thermoplastics working group
Impact 1. The Advanced Engineering show provided an opportunity to engage with a range of suppliers of thermoplastic specific materials e.g. sized carbon fibre, compatible vacuum consumables. 2. Innovate/IACME project "Enhanced Characterisation and Simulation Methods for Thermoplastic Overmoulding" - ENACT. Awaiting final offer letter, anticipated to start in March. 3. Feasibility study - Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 4. Feasibility study - Incremental sheet forming of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites
Start Year 2019
 
Description Evaluating the potential for in-process eddy-current testing of composite structures 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Bristol for the six-month project 'Evaluating the potential for in-process eddy-current testing of composite structures '. Contributions: 1. Demonstrated the relationship between applied pressure and carbon fibre inductive response, showing material relaxation over time is measurable via inductive signature. 2. Confirmation of absence of multi-layer response in un-cured composite layup. Proves that in-line ECT of CFRP would be require only simple analysis. 3. Developed a bespoke AFP environment simulation rig for ECT testing 4. Characterised ECT sensitivity to fibre angle as a function of material standoff 5. Identified most sensitive operating frequencies for un-cured CFRP.
Collaborator Contribution There are no clear defined industrial partners for this project at this stage.
Impact This feasibility study has led to strong collaborative links with composite researchers and industrial partners. A PhD project has begun with support from Rolls-Royce plc. to further explore and characterise the inspection of uncured composite materials for in-line monitoring. A funding proposal is also in development for an EPSRC New Investigator Award (NIA) supported by Rolls-Royce and Airbus.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing 
Organisation CMT United Kingdom
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham and the University of Edinburgh for the six-month project 'Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing '.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing 
Organisation Teijin Aramid B.V.
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham and the University of Edinburgh for the six-month project 'Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing '.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham and the University of Edinburgh for the six-month project 'Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing '.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham and the University of Edinburgh for the six-month project 'Furthering the uptake of Carbon Fibre Recyclates by converting into Robust Intermediary Materials suitable for Automated Manufacturing '.
Collaborator Contribution None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 
Organisation Engel
Country Austria 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project 'Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming'. Most aspects of the collaboration were demonstrated and the process was shown to be feasible at a small scale, but full success cannot be claimed since the infusion mixing system has not been fully combined with the forming frame. The research team made the following contributions: 1) Manufacture benchtop diaphragm former, suitable for TP liquid infusion 2) Produce 2D composite panels by vacuum infusion in rigid tooling (baseline) 3) Produce 2D composite panels between flexible diaphragms 4) Produce 3D composite components between diaphragms to at least rigid solid Deliverable 1 - This was to produce a small scale forming system. It was made at a small scale to minimise risks to users and to avoid damage to the existing larger system in early trials. The frame was made taking into account several of the risk factors to try and produce an effective solution and to make it suitable for all processing environments, from fume hood to oven. A three part frame with a vacuum channel provided the double diaphragm section and then a vacuum baseplate with removable hemisphere shape comprised the forming section. Deliverable 2 - This was to produce a flat panel in rigid tooling using vacuum forming. Some basic laboratory studies were performed to de-risk the process, determining pot life estimation, checking the process would run to completion and most importantly checking the combability of vacuum consumables with the reaction mixture. Most vacuum bagging materials are made of nylon, which is not compatible with the monomer, and so less common materials were considered in consultation with Tygavac and Vac innovation. Results identified two fluoropolymer films, normally used as release films but with reasonable strain characteristics (Tygavac A4000, Tygavac Wrightlon), and silicone were all suitable. Tubing was limited to PTFE in high temperature environments and silicone at room temperature. A silicone-based tacky tape was identified, however no suitable breather cloth was available. For the initial trials a slow catalyst was used, to ensure plenty of time to fill and form before polymerisation (30-60 mins). A much faster catalyst is available that would enable faster production (e.g. 2-3 mins). After considerable efforts in developing a suitable infusion protocol using simple resin mixing, flat panels were produced using both glass and carbon reinforcements. The glass and carbon both had specially adapted sizing treatments to suit the APA6 monomer. Infusion was performed between two flexible diaphragms, but was supported by a rigid tool Deliverable 3 - This was to produce flat panels in flexible tooling, using the forming frame, with only the vacuum providing rigidity to the system (unsupported diaphragms). Severe racetracking occurred and the original mitigation methods were either impractical or ineffective. Blocking off the vacuum gallery with tape or other material did not prevent the very low viscosity resin bleeding through. Modifications to the frame were considered, but were beyond budget in this early study. Instead, perimeter tacky tape was used as a temporary measure to isolate the reinforcement. Through-bag connections were avoided during the infusion stage, to prevent the likelihood of the diaphragm failing during forming due to any stress concentrations. While this proved to be entirely suitable for initial trials with an epoxy resin, there were limitations with the in situ polymerisation approach. The infusion was observed to progress rapidly and completely, where excellent wet out was achieved and the resin successfully polymerised to produce approximately 60% fibre volume fraction composites. However, interlaminar consolidation was poor, essentially resulting in a stack of well wet out thermoplastic tapes. This was ascribed to potential loss of vacuum consolidation as a result of a blockage in the vacuum line and/or the action of gravity on the unsupported diaphragms. A number of solutions were investigated, including heated vacuum lines and angled fill, but with mixed success. Ultimately this proved to be a less significant issue when forming. Deliverable 4 - was to produce formed components using the in situ polymerisation process and ideally to demonstrate the benefits of filling prior to forming. The benefits to forming were first demonstrated with epoxy, where hemispheres produced by first filling a flat reinforcement and then forming (fill-form) achieved better forming results (fewer wrinkles/less bridging) than hemispheres made by forming a reinforcement before infusion (form-fill). A successful form-fill experiment was conducted with carbon fibre and the in-situ polymerisation process. Effectiveness is limited by the consumables and there is an apparent imbalance in pressure acting on the hemisphere. However, the result was well consolidated in the sections that did not experiencing fabric bridging. The Ph.D. student at Nottingham is continuing with this work and additional examples are expected soon. Further refinement of the infusion equipment would improve the result.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners; Bruggemann and Tvgavac provided the materials for the collaboration and remain engaged. Discussions on the polymerisation process with an expert at Engel took place and discussions with a representative at Johns Manville with regards to the project review took place.
Impact The results of the project are in review with industry partners with a view to scoping out follow on studies. There are continuing activities at both sites at present, but funding is limited. Ideally with the removal of travel restrictions (the impact of covid) it would be possible to combine the equipment from both sites to demonstrate the process, as was originally intended. As well as process improvements, fundamental questions have been identified in relation to very low viscosity infusion and these would form the basis of an EPSRC supported study (either through a Hub Core Project or a Responsive Mode application). Opportunities are being explored in conjunction with the NCC, AMRC or industry. Talks are also taking place with Arkema to discuss the potential of using Elium in this system as well.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 
Organisation Johns Manville
Country Slovakia 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project 'Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming'. Most aspects of the collaboration were demonstrated and the process was shown to be feasible at a small scale, but full success cannot be claimed since the infusion mixing system has not been fully combined with the forming frame. The research team made the following contributions: 1) Manufacture benchtop diaphragm former, suitable for TP liquid infusion 2) Produce 2D composite panels by vacuum infusion in rigid tooling (baseline) 3) Produce 2D composite panels between flexible diaphragms 4) Produce 3D composite components between diaphragms to at least rigid solid Deliverable 1 - This was to produce a small scale forming system. It was made at a small scale to minimise risks to users and to avoid damage to the existing larger system in early trials. The frame was made taking into account several of the risk factors to try and produce an effective solution and to make it suitable for all processing environments, from fume hood to oven. A three part frame with a vacuum channel provided the double diaphragm section and then a vacuum baseplate with removable hemisphere shape comprised the forming section. Deliverable 2 - This was to produce a flat panel in rigid tooling using vacuum forming. Some basic laboratory studies were performed to de-risk the process, determining pot life estimation, checking the process would run to completion and most importantly checking the combability of vacuum consumables with the reaction mixture. Most vacuum bagging materials are made of nylon, which is not compatible with the monomer, and so less common materials were considered in consultation with Tygavac and Vac innovation. Results identified two fluoropolymer films, normally used as release films but with reasonable strain characteristics (Tygavac A4000, Tygavac Wrightlon), and silicone were all suitable. Tubing was limited to PTFE in high temperature environments and silicone at room temperature. A silicone-based tacky tape was identified, however no suitable breather cloth was available. For the initial trials a slow catalyst was used, to ensure plenty of time to fill and form before polymerisation (30-60 mins). A much faster catalyst is available that would enable faster production (e.g. 2-3 mins). After considerable efforts in developing a suitable infusion protocol using simple resin mixing, flat panels were produced using both glass and carbon reinforcements. The glass and carbon both had specially adapted sizing treatments to suit the APA6 monomer. Infusion was performed between two flexible diaphragms, but was supported by a rigid tool Deliverable 3 - This was to produce flat panels in flexible tooling, using the forming frame, with only the vacuum providing rigidity to the system (unsupported diaphragms). Severe racetracking occurred and the original mitigation methods were either impractical or ineffective. Blocking off the vacuum gallery with tape or other material did not prevent the very low viscosity resin bleeding through. Modifications to the frame were considered, but were beyond budget in this early study. Instead, perimeter tacky tape was used as a temporary measure to isolate the reinforcement. Through-bag connections were avoided during the infusion stage, to prevent the likelihood of the diaphragm failing during forming due to any stress concentrations. While this proved to be entirely suitable for initial trials with an epoxy resin, there were limitations with the in situ polymerisation approach. The infusion was observed to progress rapidly and completely, where excellent wet out was achieved and the resin successfully polymerised to produce approximately 60% fibre volume fraction composites. However, interlaminar consolidation was poor, essentially resulting in a stack of well wet out thermoplastic tapes. This was ascribed to potential loss of vacuum consolidation as a result of a blockage in the vacuum line and/or the action of gravity on the unsupported diaphragms. A number of solutions were investigated, including heated vacuum lines and angled fill, but with mixed success. Ultimately this proved to be a less significant issue when forming. Deliverable 4 - was to produce formed components using the in situ polymerisation process and ideally to demonstrate the benefits of filling prior to forming. The benefits to forming were first demonstrated with epoxy, where hemispheres produced by first filling a flat reinforcement and then forming (fill-form) achieved better forming results (fewer wrinkles/less bridging) than hemispheres made by forming a reinforcement before infusion (form-fill). A successful form-fill experiment was conducted with carbon fibre and the in-situ polymerisation process. Effectiveness is limited by the consumables and there is an apparent imbalance in pressure acting on the hemisphere. However, the result was well consolidated in the sections that did not experiencing fabric bridging. The Ph.D. student at Nottingham is continuing with this work and additional examples are expected soon. Further refinement of the infusion equipment would improve the result.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners; Bruggemann and Tvgavac provided the materials for the collaboration and remain engaged. Discussions on the polymerisation process with an expert at Engel took place and discussions with a representative at Johns Manville with regards to the project review took place.
Impact The results of the project are in review with industry partners with a view to scoping out follow on studies. There are continuing activities at both sites at present, but funding is limited. Ideally with the removal of travel restrictions (the impact of covid) it would be possible to combine the equipment from both sites to demonstrate the process, as was originally intended. As well as process improvements, fundamental questions have been identified in relation to very low viscosity infusion and these would form the basis of an EPSRC supported study (either through a Hub Core Project or a Responsive Mode application). Opportunities are being explored in conjunction with the NCC, AMRC or industry. Talks are also taking place with Arkema to discuss the potential of using Elium in this system as well.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 
Organisation L. Bruggemann KG
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project 'Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming'. Most aspects of the collaboration were demonstrated and the process was shown to be feasible at a small scale, but full success cannot be claimed since the infusion mixing system has not been fully combined with the forming frame. The research team made the following contributions: 1) Manufacture benchtop diaphragm former, suitable for TP liquid infusion 2) Produce 2D composite panels by vacuum infusion in rigid tooling (baseline) 3) Produce 2D composite panels between flexible diaphragms 4) Produce 3D composite components between diaphragms to at least rigid solid Deliverable 1 - This was to produce a small scale forming system. It was made at a small scale to minimise risks to users and to avoid damage to the existing larger system in early trials. The frame was made taking into account several of the risk factors to try and produce an effective solution and to make it suitable for all processing environments, from fume hood to oven. A three part frame with a vacuum channel provided the double diaphragm section and then a vacuum baseplate with removable hemisphere shape comprised the forming section. Deliverable 2 - This was to produce a flat panel in rigid tooling using vacuum forming. Some basic laboratory studies were performed to de-risk the process, determining pot life estimation, checking the process would run to completion and most importantly checking the combability of vacuum consumables with the reaction mixture. Most vacuum bagging materials are made of nylon, which is not compatible with the monomer, and so less common materials were considered in consultation with Tygavac and Vac innovation. Results identified two fluoropolymer films, normally used as release films but with reasonable strain characteristics (Tygavac A4000, Tygavac Wrightlon), and silicone were all suitable. Tubing was limited to PTFE in high temperature environments and silicone at room temperature. A silicone-based tacky tape was identified, however no suitable breather cloth was available. For the initial trials a slow catalyst was used, to ensure plenty of time to fill and form before polymerisation (30-60 mins). A much faster catalyst is available that would enable faster production (e.g. 2-3 mins). After considerable efforts in developing a suitable infusion protocol using simple resin mixing, flat panels were produced using both glass and carbon reinforcements. The glass and carbon both had specially adapted sizing treatments to suit the APA6 monomer. Infusion was performed between two flexible diaphragms, but was supported by a rigid tool Deliverable 3 - This was to produce flat panels in flexible tooling, using the forming frame, with only the vacuum providing rigidity to the system (unsupported diaphragms). Severe racetracking occurred and the original mitigation methods were either impractical or ineffective. Blocking off the vacuum gallery with tape or other material did not prevent the very low viscosity resin bleeding through. Modifications to the frame were considered, but were beyond budget in this early study. Instead, perimeter tacky tape was used as a temporary measure to isolate the reinforcement. Through-bag connections were avoided during the infusion stage, to prevent the likelihood of the diaphragm failing during forming due to any stress concentrations. While this proved to be entirely suitable for initial trials with an epoxy resin, there were limitations with the in situ polymerisation approach. The infusion was observed to progress rapidly and completely, where excellent wet out was achieved and the resin successfully polymerised to produce approximately 60% fibre volume fraction composites. However, interlaminar consolidation was poor, essentially resulting in a stack of well wet out thermoplastic tapes. This was ascribed to potential loss of vacuum consolidation as a result of a blockage in the vacuum line and/or the action of gravity on the unsupported diaphragms. A number of solutions were investigated, including heated vacuum lines and angled fill, but with mixed success. Ultimately this proved to be a less significant issue when forming. Deliverable 4 - was to produce formed components using the in situ polymerisation process and ideally to demonstrate the benefits of filling prior to forming. The benefits to forming were first demonstrated with epoxy, where hemispheres produced by first filling a flat reinforcement and then forming (fill-form) achieved better forming results (fewer wrinkles/less bridging) than hemispheres made by forming a reinforcement before infusion (form-fill). A successful form-fill experiment was conducted with carbon fibre and the in-situ polymerisation process. Effectiveness is limited by the consumables and there is an apparent imbalance in pressure acting on the hemisphere. However, the result was well consolidated in the sections that did not experiencing fabric bridging. The Ph.D. student at Nottingham is continuing with this work and additional examples are expected soon. Further refinement of the infusion equipment would improve the result.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners; Bruggemann and Tvgavac provided the materials for the collaboration and remain engaged. Discussions on the polymerisation process with an expert at Engel took place and discussions with a representative at Johns Manville with regards to the project review took place.
Impact The results of the project are in review with industry partners with a view to scoping out follow on studies. There are continuing activities at both sites at present, but funding is limited. Ideally with the removal of travel restrictions (the impact of covid) it would be possible to combine the equipment from both sites to demonstrate the process, as was originally intended. As well as process improvements, fundamental questions have been identified in relation to very low viscosity infusion and these would form the basis of an EPSRC supported study (either through a Hub Core Project or a Responsive Mode application). Opportunities are being explored in conjunction with the NCC, AMRC or industry. Talks are also taking place with Arkema to discuss the potential of using Elium in this system as well.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department Edinburgh Genomics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project 'Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming'. Most aspects of the collaboration were demonstrated and the process was shown to be feasible at a small scale, but full success cannot be claimed since the infusion mixing system has not been fully combined with the forming frame. The research team made the following contributions: 1) Manufacture benchtop diaphragm former, suitable for TP liquid infusion 2) Produce 2D composite panels by vacuum infusion in rigid tooling (baseline) 3) Produce 2D composite panels between flexible diaphragms 4) Produce 3D composite components between diaphragms to at least rigid solid Deliverable 1 - This was to produce a small scale forming system. It was made at a small scale to minimise risks to users and to avoid damage to the existing larger system in early trials. The frame was made taking into account several of the risk factors to try and produce an effective solution and to make it suitable for all processing environments, from fume hood to oven. A three part frame with a vacuum channel provided the double diaphragm section and then a vacuum baseplate with removable hemisphere shape comprised the forming section. Deliverable 2 - This was to produce a flat panel in rigid tooling using vacuum forming. Some basic laboratory studies were performed to de-risk the process, determining pot life estimation, checking the process would run to completion and most importantly checking the combability of vacuum consumables with the reaction mixture. Most vacuum bagging materials are made of nylon, which is not compatible with the monomer, and so less common materials were considered in consultation with Tygavac and Vac innovation. Results identified two fluoropolymer films, normally used as release films but with reasonable strain characteristics (Tygavac A4000, Tygavac Wrightlon), and silicone were all suitable. Tubing was limited to PTFE in high temperature environments and silicone at room temperature. A silicone-based tacky tape was identified, however no suitable breather cloth was available. For the initial trials a slow catalyst was used, to ensure plenty of time to fill and form before polymerisation (30-60 mins). A much faster catalyst is available that would enable faster production (e.g. 2-3 mins). After considerable efforts in developing a suitable infusion protocol using simple resin mixing, flat panels were produced using both glass and carbon reinforcements. The glass and carbon both had specially adapted sizing treatments to suit the APA6 monomer. Infusion was performed between two flexible diaphragms, but was supported by a rigid tool Deliverable 3 - This was to produce flat panels in flexible tooling, using the forming frame, with only the vacuum providing rigidity to the system (unsupported diaphragms). Severe racetracking occurred and the original mitigation methods were either impractical or ineffective. Blocking off the vacuum gallery with tape or other material did not prevent the very low viscosity resin bleeding through. Modifications to the frame were considered, but were beyond budget in this early study. Instead, perimeter tacky tape was used as a temporary measure to isolate the reinforcement. Through-bag connections were avoided during the infusion stage, to prevent the likelihood of the diaphragm failing during forming due to any stress concentrations. While this proved to be entirely suitable for initial trials with an epoxy resin, there were limitations with the in situ polymerisation approach. The infusion was observed to progress rapidly and completely, where excellent wet out was achieved and the resin successfully polymerised to produce approximately 60% fibre volume fraction composites. However, interlaminar consolidation was poor, essentially resulting in a stack of well wet out thermoplastic tapes. This was ascribed to potential loss of vacuum consolidation as a result of a blockage in the vacuum line and/or the action of gravity on the unsupported diaphragms. A number of solutions were investigated, including heated vacuum lines and angled fill, but with mixed success. Ultimately this proved to be a less significant issue when forming. Deliverable 4 - was to produce formed components using the in situ polymerisation process and ideally to demonstrate the benefits of filling prior to forming. The benefits to forming were first demonstrated with epoxy, where hemispheres produced by first filling a flat reinforcement and then forming (fill-form) achieved better forming results (fewer wrinkles/less bridging) than hemispheres made by forming a reinforcement before infusion (form-fill). A successful form-fill experiment was conducted with carbon fibre and the in-situ polymerisation process. Effectiveness is limited by the consumables and there is an apparent imbalance in pressure acting on the hemisphere. However, the result was well consolidated in the sections that did not experiencing fabric bridging. The Ph.D. student at Nottingham is continuing with this work and additional examples are expected soon. Further refinement of the infusion equipment would improve the result.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners; Bruggemann and Tvgavac provided the materials for the collaboration and remain engaged. Discussions on the polymerisation process with an expert at Engel took place and discussions with a representative at Johns Manville with regards to the project review took place.
Impact The results of the project are in review with industry partners with a view to scoping out follow on studies. There are continuing activities at both sites at present, but funding is limited. Ideally with the removal of travel restrictions (the impact of covid) it would be possible to combine the equipment from both sites to demonstrate the process, as was originally intended. As well as process improvements, fundamental questions have been identified in relation to very low viscosity infusion and these would form the basis of an EPSRC supported study (either through a Hub Core Project or a Responsive Mode application). Opportunities are being explored in conjunction with the NCC, AMRC or industry. Talks are also taking place with Arkema to discuss the potential of using Elium in this system as well.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project 'Incorporation of thermoplastic in situ polymerisation in double diaphragm forming'. Most aspects of the collaboration were demonstrated and the process was shown to be feasible at a small scale, but full success cannot be claimed since the infusion mixing system has not been fully combined with the forming frame. The research team made the following contributions: 1) Manufacture benchtop diaphragm former, suitable for TP liquid infusion 2) Produce 2D composite panels by vacuum infusion in rigid tooling (baseline) 3) Produce 2D composite panels between flexible diaphragms 4) Produce 3D composite components between diaphragms to at least rigid solid Deliverable 1 - This was to produce a small scale forming system. It was made at a small scale to minimise risks to users and to avoid damage to the existing larger system in early trials. The frame was made taking into account several of the risk factors to try and produce an effective solution and to make it suitable for all processing environments, from fume hood to oven. A three part frame with a vacuum channel provided the double diaphragm section and then a vacuum baseplate with removable hemisphere shape comprised the forming section. Deliverable 2 - This was to produce a flat panel in rigid tooling using vacuum forming. Some basic laboratory studies were performed to de-risk the process, determining pot life estimation, checking the process would run to completion and most importantly checking the combability of vacuum consumables with the reaction mixture. Most vacuum bagging materials are made of nylon, which is not compatible with the monomer, and so less common materials were considered in consultation with Tygavac and Vac innovation. Results identified two fluoropolymer films, normally used as release films but with reasonable strain characteristics (Tygavac A4000, Tygavac Wrightlon), and silicone were all suitable. Tubing was limited to PTFE in high temperature environments and silicone at room temperature. A silicone-based tacky tape was identified, however no suitable breather cloth was available. For the initial trials a slow catalyst was used, to ensure plenty of time to fill and form before polymerisation (30-60 mins). A much faster catalyst is available that would enable faster production (e.g. 2-3 mins). After considerable efforts in developing a suitable infusion protocol using simple resin mixing, flat panels were produced using both glass and carbon reinforcements. The glass and carbon both had specially adapted sizing treatments to suit the APA6 monomer. Infusion was performed between two flexible diaphragms, but was supported by a rigid tool Deliverable 3 - This was to produce flat panels in flexible tooling, using the forming frame, with only the vacuum providing rigidity to the system (unsupported diaphragms). Severe racetracking occurred and the original mitigation methods were either impractical or ineffective. Blocking off the vacuum gallery with tape or other material did not prevent the very low viscosity resin bleeding through. Modifications to the frame were considered, but were beyond budget in this early study. Instead, perimeter tacky tape was used as a temporary measure to isolate the reinforcement. Through-bag connections were avoided during the infusion stage, to prevent the likelihood of the diaphragm failing during forming due to any stress concentrations. While this proved to be entirely suitable for initial trials with an epoxy resin, there were limitations with the in situ polymerisation approach. The infusion was observed to progress rapidly and completely, where excellent wet out was achieved and the resin successfully polymerised to produce approximately 60% fibre volume fraction composites. However, interlaminar consolidation was poor, essentially resulting in a stack of well wet out thermoplastic tapes. This was ascribed to potential loss of vacuum consolidation as a result of a blockage in the vacuum line and/or the action of gravity on the unsupported diaphragms. A number of solutions were investigated, including heated vacuum lines and angled fill, but with mixed success. Ultimately this proved to be a less significant issue when forming. Deliverable 4 - was to produce formed components using the in situ polymerisation process and ideally to demonstrate the benefits of filling prior to forming. The benefits to forming were first demonstrated with epoxy, where hemispheres produced by first filling a flat reinforcement and then forming (fill-form) achieved better forming results (fewer wrinkles/less bridging) than hemispheres made by forming a reinforcement before infusion (form-fill). A successful form-fill experiment was conducted with carbon fibre and the in-situ polymerisation process. Effectiveness is limited by the consumables and there is an apparent imbalance in pressure acting on the hemisphere. However, the result was well consolidated in the sections that did not experiencing fabric bridging. The Ph.D. student at Nottingham is continuing with this work and additional examples are expected soon. Further refinement of the infusion equipment would improve the result.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners; Bruggemann and Tvgavac provided the materials for the collaboration and remain engaged. Discussions on the polymerisation process with an expert at Engel took place and discussions with a representative at Johns Manville with regards to the project review took place.
Impact The results of the project are in review with industry partners with a view to scoping out follow on studies. There are continuing activities at both sites at present, but funding is limited. Ideally with the removal of travel restrictions (the impact of covid) it would be possible to combine the equipment from both sites to demonstrate the process, as was originally intended. As well as process improvements, fundamental questions have been identified in relation to very low viscosity infusion and these would form the basis of an EPSRC supported study (either through a Hub Core Project or a Responsive Mode application). Opportunities are being explored in conjunction with the NCC, AMRC or industry. Talks are also taking place with Arkema to discuss the potential of using Elium in this system as well.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Incremental sheet forming of fire reinforced thermoplastic composites 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project ' Incremental sheet forming of fire reinforced thermoplastic composites '. The project team made the following contributions: a) Parametric study report on SPIF of composite sheets (in the format of unreinforced thermoplastic (TP), discontinuous and continuous FRTP composites) to characterise the forming limits and failure mechanisms. This was completed via cone study but not successful. b) An optimal processing window for ISF of continuous FRTP composites of varying textile architectures. This was completed via thermal study. c) A technical report on the optimised methods for ISF of continuous FRTP composite sheets. - This was completed via a journal paper. d) A working setup of a 6-axis robot capable of ISF to manufacture continuous FRTP composite demonstrator parts of complex (double curvature) geometry. - This was completed.
Collaborator Contribution The University of Bristol is a founding partner within the Hub and prior work by Mr Elkington on robotic assisted forming of prepreg material provides an excellent foundation to the forming of the reinforced TP sheet material. The Advanced Manufacturing Research Group at the University of Nottingham has an established track record in incremental sheet forming of metals. A new collaboration with Dr Ou within that Group allows leveraging and extension of the existing knowledge base founded on metallics into the field of polymers. The technology being developed in the feasibility study -HyVR-has been submitted as a NCC Technology Pull Through project (November 2021). It has progressed past the first round and is in the middle of being costed up/planned by the NCC. The PhD student is developing a thermo mechanical forming model to simulate the HyVR process.
Impact The intended impact of a follow-on project is the embedding of the HyVR process within a manufacturing facility for the production of commercial FRTP components. With a focus on lightweighting, the transport sector is targeted. Prior work with Bombardier Transportation (BT) has identified large rail vehicle structures as being suitable for HyVR manufacture. Equally, interest by Lotus, AML and JLR have identified products for manufacture within the automotive sector. These organisations would be engaged in an Innovate UK funding competition.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Incremental sheet forming of fire reinforced thermoplastic composites 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Nottingham for the six-month project ' Incremental sheet forming of fire reinforced thermoplastic composites '. The project team made the following contributions: a) Parametric study report on SPIF of composite sheets (in the format of unreinforced thermoplastic (TP), discontinuous and continuous FRTP composites) to characterise the forming limits and failure mechanisms. This was completed via cone study but not successful. b) An optimal processing window for ISF of continuous FRTP composites of varying textile architectures. This was completed via thermal study. c) A technical report on the optimised methods for ISF of continuous FRTP composite sheets. - This was completed via a journal paper. d) A working setup of a 6-axis robot capable of ISF to manufacture continuous FRTP composite demonstrator parts of complex (double curvature) geometry. - This was completed.
Collaborator Contribution The University of Bristol is a founding partner within the Hub and prior work by Mr Elkington on robotic assisted forming of prepreg material provides an excellent foundation to the forming of the reinforced TP sheet material. The Advanced Manufacturing Research Group at the University of Nottingham has an established track record in incremental sheet forming of metals. A new collaboration with Dr Ou within that Group allows leveraging and extension of the existing knowledge base founded on metallics into the field of polymers. The technology being developed in the feasibility study -HyVR-has been submitted as a NCC Technology Pull Through project (November 2021). It has progressed past the first round and is in the middle of being costed up/planned by the NCC. The PhD student is developing a thermo mechanical forming model to simulate the HyVR process.
Impact The intended impact of a follow-on project is the embedding of the HyVR process within a manufacturing facility for the production of commercial FRTP components. With a focus on lightweighting, the transport sector is targeted. Prior work with Bombardier Transportation (BT) has identified large rail vehicle structures as being suitable for HyVR manufacture. Equally, interest by Lotus, AML and JLR have identified products for manufacture within the automotive sector. These organisations would be engaged in an Innovate UK funding competition.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Industrial Partnership 
Organisation PAC Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Meetings with 2 P.I's for follow-on activities from two Hub Feasibility studies have taken place. The aim is to involve PAC in funded programmes which will benefit them commercially.
Collaborator Contribution PAC will contribute their design and integration time as a general use of their expertise.
Impact No impact as yet
Start Year 2020
 
Description Industrial Partnership - Bitrez 
Organisation Bitrez Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Meeting with Hub investigators with regard to customisation of polymer resins for research projects. Samples of resins have also been supplied for manufacturing trials.
Collaborator Contribution Bitrez have committed participation in networking events to promote research and collaboration activities within the Hub. They have also committed staff time, materials and facilities use to Hub research projects in need of novel polymer resin solutions.
Impact No impact at present
Start Year 2019
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation Airbus Group
Department Airbus Operations
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation Coriolis Composites
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation Exel Composites
Country Finland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation Heraeus
Department Heraeus Noblelight Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation National Composites Centre (NCC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by Layer Curing 
Organisation University of Nantes
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team have made the following contributions: 1) Development of Simulation Technology - incorporates a coupled thermo-chemo-mechanical solution and a strategy for addition of elements as the process evolves .In comparison to autoclave processing, the LbL simulation results in a 40% cure time reduction together with a 70% temperature overshoot reduction. 2)Development of constitutive modelling - constitutive models and associated characterisation currently for the 913 and 8552 systems have been extended to the fast cure M78.1 epoxy prepreg. Results show that the epoxy of the prepreg undergoes an autocatalytic reaction, with the cure becoming very fast (below 3 min) over 140°C. 3) Coupling of thermal cure model to residual stress development. 4) Cure kinetics characterisation. 5) Process envelope establishing 3D printing based on LbL. 6) Validation of law for development of interfacial properties as a function of pre-cure for a wide range of matrices. 7) Inverse problem solution of heating lamp response for accurate nip point temperature monitoring. 8) Cranfield university: Filament Winding setup and commissioning - dedicated lab prepared, transfer of equipment completed in August 2021.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have made the following contributions to the project: Airbus: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Michael O'Leary) and supplied £10k worth of materials Rolls-Royce: co-funding a CDT-PhD studentship (Axel Wowogno) Heraeus: co-funding an EngD studentship (Anastasios Danezis) and making Humm3 flashlamp technology available to researchers NCC: Support on dissemination/exploitation with organisation of workshops and access to AFP facility to researchers Exel Composites: Access to pultrusion line to researchers Université de Nantes: studentship and co-supervision of PhD student (Adam Fisher)
Impact Outputs in the form of Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC IAA KTS with Airbus support PDRA Arjun Radhakrishnan 100% from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. Received 3 months additional support Arjun Radhakrishnan 50% Apr-Jun 2022. Airbus supporting panel manufacture at NCC. Total value £200k. 2) EPSRC Core equipment (£72k) and Research England Equipment Allocation (£180k) for new thermal analysis and thermal conductivity suite. British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled ADdItive MAnufacture for next generation Composite applications (ADIMAC) (A Skordos, £9.6k) 3) British Academy pump priming application for Horizon Europe project proposal titled Recyclable Carbon fibre prepreg Tape for high performance multifunctional composites (RECAT) (G Voto, £9.6k) Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1177/0021998318818245. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2021.102458 Outputs in the form of Conference Publications: 1) A Fisher, A Levy, J Kratz. The significance of spatial temperature variations in large volume oven curing. ICMAC 2021, 20-22 October 2021 2) Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham . 3) J Kratz. LbL curing. Composites UK Webinar, November 2020 4) Composites UK webinar 4 November 2020 5) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Asish Kumar Patra: Poster titled 'Co-bonding in LbL processing of thermosetting composites' 6) Cranfield Individual Research Project Exhibition 1/9/2021, Adrien Gilbert: Poster titled 'Influence of pre-curing upon printability and interlaminar properties in thick composites manufactured by additive manufacturing
Start Year 2020
 
Description Layer by layer curing 
Organisation Airbus Group
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Cranfield / Bristol University for the six-month project 'Layer by Layer Curing'. This had now developed into a Core Project in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. The project aim was to establish the capability of producing composites by processing in a single layer by layer (LbL) step. Contributions: 1. ~50% saving in cure times of thick components 2. Linear scaling of process time with thickness making manufacutirng of ultra thick components feasible 3. Merging of consolidation with curing through LbL processing of planar geometries results in equivalent quality to conventional processing 4. Interfacial properties preserved in partially cured interfaces for pre-cure below gelation
Impact This work has demonstrated that it is possible to manufacturing composite laminates by placing and partially curing sublaminates sequentially. This allows the manufacturing of thick structures to be carried out significantly faster compared to current processes, this project has now progressed into a Core project. Conference Paper: Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham CIMComp Grant Journal Paper: Mesogitis, T., Kratz, J. and Skordos, A. A. (2019) 'Heat transfer simulation of the cure of thermoplastic particle interleaf carbon fibre epoxy prepregs', Journal of Composite Materials, 53(15), pp. 2053-2064. doi: 10.1177/0021998318818245
Start Year 2017
 
Description Layer by layer curing 
Organisation Coriolis Composites
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Cranfield / Bristol University for the six-month project 'Layer by Layer Curing'. This had now developed into a Core Project in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. The project aim was to establish the capability of producing composites by processing in a single layer by layer (LbL) step. Contributions: 1. ~50% saving in cure times of thick components 2. Linear scaling of process time with thickness making manufacutirng of ultra thick components feasible 3. Merging of consolidation with curing through LbL processing of planar geometries results in equivalent quality to conventional processing 4. Interfacial properties preserved in partially cured interfaces for pre-cure below gelation
Impact This work has demonstrated that it is possible to manufacturing composite laminates by placing and partially curing sublaminates sequentially. This allows the manufacturing of thick structures to be carried out significantly faster compared to current processes, this project has now progressed into a Core project. Conference Paper: Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham CIMComp Grant Journal Paper: Mesogitis, T., Kratz, J. and Skordos, A. A. (2019) 'Heat transfer simulation of the cure of thermoplastic particle interleaf carbon fibre epoxy prepregs', Journal of Composite Materials, 53(15), pp. 2053-2064. doi: 10.1177/0021998318818245
Start Year 2017
 
Description Layer by layer curing 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Cranfield / Bristol University for the six-month project 'Layer by Layer Curing'. This had now developed into a Core Project in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. The project aim was to establish the capability of producing composites by processing in a single layer by layer (LbL) step. Contributions: 1. ~50% saving in cure times of thick components 2. Linear scaling of process time with thickness making manufacutirng of ultra thick components feasible 3. Merging of consolidation with curing through LbL processing of planar geometries results in equivalent quality to conventional processing 4. Interfacial properties preserved in partially cured interfaces for pre-cure below gelation
Impact This work has demonstrated that it is possible to manufacturing composite laminates by placing and partially curing sublaminates sequentially. This allows the manufacturing of thick structures to be carried out significantly faster compared to current processes, this project has now progressed into a Core project. Conference Paper: Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham CIMComp Grant Journal Paper: Mesogitis, T., Kratz, J. and Skordos, A. A. (2019) 'Heat transfer simulation of the cure of thermoplastic particle interleaf carbon fibre epoxy prepregs', Journal of Composite Materials, 53(15), pp. 2053-2064. doi: 10.1177/0021998318818245
Start Year 2017
 
Description Layer by layer curing 
Organisation Heraeus
Department Heraeus Noblelight Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Cranfield / Bristol University for the six-month project 'Layer by Layer Curing'. This had now developed into a Core Project in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. The project aim was to establish the capability of producing composites by processing in a single layer by layer (LbL) step. Contributions: 1. ~50% saving in cure times of thick components 2. Linear scaling of process time with thickness making manufacutirng of ultra thick components feasible 3. Merging of consolidation with curing through LbL processing of planar geometries results in equivalent quality to conventional processing 4. Interfacial properties preserved in partially cured interfaces for pre-cure below gelation
Impact This work has demonstrated that it is possible to manufacturing composite laminates by placing and partially curing sublaminates sequentially. This allows the manufacturing of thick structures to be carried out significantly faster compared to current processes, this project has now progressed into a Core project. Conference Paper: Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham CIMComp Grant Journal Paper: Mesogitis, T., Kratz, J. and Skordos, A. A. (2019) 'Heat transfer simulation of the cure of thermoplastic particle interleaf carbon fibre epoxy prepregs', Journal of Composite Materials, 53(15), pp. 2053-2064. doi: 10.1177/0021998318818245
Start Year 2017
 
Description Layer by layer curing 
Organisation National Composites Centre (NCC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Cranfield / Bristol University for the six-month project 'Layer by Layer Curing'. This had now developed into a Core Project in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. The project aim was to establish the capability of producing composites by processing in a single layer by layer (LbL) step. Contributions: 1. ~50% saving in cure times of thick components 2. Linear scaling of process time with thickness making manufacutirng of ultra thick components feasible 3. Merging of consolidation with curing through LbL processing of planar geometries results in equivalent quality to conventional processing 4. Interfacial properties preserved in partially cured interfaces for pre-cure below gelation
Impact This work has demonstrated that it is possible to manufacturing composite laminates by placing and partially curing sublaminates sequentially. This allows the manufacturing of thick structures to be carried out significantly faster compared to current processes, this project has now progressed into a Core project. Conference Paper: Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham CIMComp Grant Journal Paper: Mesogitis, T., Kratz, J. and Skordos, A. A. (2019) 'Heat transfer simulation of the cure of thermoplastic particle interleaf carbon fibre epoxy prepregs', Journal of Composite Materials, 53(15), pp. 2053-2064. doi: 10.1177/0021998318818245
Start Year 2017
 
Description Layer by layer curing 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Cranfield / Bristol University for the six-month project 'Layer by Layer Curing'. This had now developed into a Core Project in 2020.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. The project aim was to establish the capability of producing composites by processing in a single layer by layer (LbL) step. Contributions: 1. ~50% saving in cure times of thick components 2. Linear scaling of process time with thickness making manufacutirng of ultra thick components feasible 3. Merging of consolidation with curing through LbL processing of planar geometries results in equivalent quality to conventional processing 4. Interfacial properties preserved in partially cured interfaces for pre-cure below gelation
Impact This work has demonstrated that it is possible to manufacturing composite laminates by placing and partially curing sublaminates sequentially. This allows the manufacturing of thick structures to be carried out significantly faster compared to current processes, this project has now progressed into a Core project. Conference Paper: Belnoue J, Sun R, Cook L, Tifkitsis K, Kratz J, Skordos A. A layer-by-layer (LbL) manufacturing process for composite structures. ICMAC 2018, Nottingham CIMComp Grant Journal Paper: Mesogitis, T., Kratz, J. and Skordos, A. A. (2019) 'Heat transfer simulation of the cure of thermoplastic particle interleaf carbon fibre epoxy prepregs', Journal of Composite Materials, 53(15), pp. 2053-2064. doi: 10.1177/0021998318818245
Start Year 2017
 
Description Local Resin Printing for preform stabilisation 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Local Resin Printing for preform stabilisation'. Contributions: 1.Demonstration of localised resin deposition onto dry fibre textiles by use of printing methods. 2. Understanding the feasibility of various resin printing technologies. 3. Demonstration of textile deformation characteristics being modified by use of localised resin printing. 4. Tailored modification of textile deformation characteristics by use of localised resin printing. 5. Instigation of new multidisciplinary cooperation between Composites and Additive Manufacturing research groups.
Collaborator Contribution This study has been a platform activity originating solely within the UoN Composites Research Group. From this start, collaboration began with another UoN research group external to the Hub: the UoN Centre for Additive Manufacturing (CfAM). This collaboration initially began as a means simply to access equipment but soon developed into a partnership to support two Nottingham Summer Engineering Research Programme (NSERP) students, with the output of these students' work directly contributing to the Local Resin Printing for Preform Stabilisation project. Furthermore, the work performed by one of the NSERP students was acknowledged by being awarded the 'Prize for Impact' out of the cohort of 27 NSERP students. The collaboration between the Composites Research Group and the CfAM is continuing with plans to submit journal publications, which will be jointly authored, for high impact due to the work's multidisciplinary theme. More recently, engagement has developed with a potential industrial collaborator, which has recently joined the Hub network (Bitrez Ltd.), who have an interest to understand resin property requirements for use in liquid printing techniques. Synergy has been identified between the Project and work being conducted at the University of Bristol, initial information sharing meetings have taken place and it has been agreed to regularly hold update meetings to identify mutually beneficial opportunities.
Impact Nottingham Summer Engineering Research Programme (NSERP) student's contribution towards the project was awarded the cohort's 'Prize for Impact.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Local Resin Printing for preform stabilisation 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub funded a Platform Fellow at The University of Nottingham, in 'Local Resin Printing for preform stabilisation'. Contributions: 1.Demonstration of localised resin deposition onto dry fibre textiles by use of printing methods. 2. Understanding the feasibility of various resin printing technologies. 3. Demonstration of textile deformation characteristics being modified by use of localised resin printing. 4. Tailored modification of textile deformation characteristics by use of localised resin printing. 5. Instigation of new multidisciplinary cooperation between Composites and Additive Manufacturing research groups.
Collaborator Contribution This study has been a platform activity originating solely within the UoN Composites Research Group. From this start, collaboration began with another UoN research group external to the Hub: the UoN Centre for Additive Manufacturing (CfAM). This collaboration initially began as a means simply to access equipment but soon developed into a partnership to support two Nottingham Summer Engineering Research Programme (NSERP) students, with the output of these students' work directly contributing to the Local Resin Printing for Preform Stabilisation project. Furthermore, the work performed by one of the NSERP students was acknowledged by being awarded the 'Prize for Impact' out of the cohort of 27 NSERP students. The collaboration between the Composites Research Group and the CfAM is continuing with plans to submit journal publications, which will be jointly authored, for high impact due to the work's multidisciplinary theme. More recently, engagement has developed with a potential industrial collaborator, which has recently joined the Hub network (Bitrez Ltd.), who have an interest to understand resin property requirements for use in liquid printing techniques. Synergy has been identified between the Project and work being conducted at the University of Bristol, initial information sharing meetings have taken place and it has been agreed to regularly hold update meetings to identify mutually beneficial opportunities.
Impact Nottingham Summer Engineering Research Programme (NSERP) student's contribution towards the project was awarded the cohort's 'Prize for Impact.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Manufacturing Value-Added Composites for the Construction Sector Using Mixed Waste Plastics and Waste Glass Fibres 
Organisation Fibre Extrusion Technology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Edinburgh for the six-month project 'Manufacturing Value-Added Composites for the Construction Sector Using Mixed Waste Plastics and Waste Glass Fibres '.
Collaborator Contribution The Feasibility study has only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Manufacturing Value-Added Composites for the Construction Sector Using Mixed Waste Plastics and Waste Glass Fibres 
Organisation Johns Manville
Country Slovakia 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Edinburgh for the six-month project 'Manufacturing Value-Added Composites for the Construction Sector Using Mixed Waste Plastics and Waste Glass Fibres '.
Collaborator Contribution The Feasibility study has only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Manufacturing Value-Added Composites for the Construction Sector Using Mixed Waste Plastics and Waste Glass Fibres 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to The University of Edinburgh for the six-month project 'Manufacturing Value-Added Composites for the Construction Sector Using Mixed Waste Plastics and Waste Glass Fibres '.
Collaborator Contribution The Feasibility study has only recently commenced.
Impact None to date due to the project only recently commenced.
Start Year 2022
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation Airbus Group
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation BAE Systems
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation Chomarat Group
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation GKN
Department GKN Aerospace
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation Hexcel Composites Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation National Composites Centre (NCC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation Qinetiq
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Department Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £884,532 core project grant to the University of Bristol and Imperial College London for the three-year funded project 'Manufacturing for structural applications of multifunctional composites'. The following contributions have been made by the research team: 1) 1. Demonstrated a method to mask/barrier multifunctional/monofunctional domains in the CAGed lamina facilitating complex part production. 2) Validated simulation tools have been created that allow functional and stabilising elements to be placed to control forming deformation and mitigate against defects. The process for manufacturing carbon aerogel-reinforced structural power devices has also been scaled up to about 1 m² per batch. 3) The use of electrochemical deposition to decorate the carbon aerogel with active elements to enhance the electrochemical performance, along with use of new separator materials, has allowed small-scale multifunctional devices to be made and tested, demonstrating energy and power performance (1.4 Wh/kg and 1.1 kW/ kg) that exceeded the original aspirations. Separator and current collection solutions have been identified and validated, but the issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. 4) A multicell structural beam has been manufactured, containing eight cells, stacking in two stacks of four. The total mass of the beam is 2.6 kg, whilst the total cell mass is 268g (i.e. 10% of component mass). 5) Consideration of the design of structural supercapacitors to predict the consolidation of dry CAGed lamina when assembled into a device were delivered. - These models were then utilised to predict the mechanical performance (elastic behaviour) of the devices under tensile and in-plane shear loadings. To a limited extent, these models were able to capture the influence of manufacturing defects on the mechanical performance, although further work is required in this area . 6) Current collection models were developed to formulate strategies to minimise the resistive losses associated with device scale-up. These models quantified the relative contributions from the in-plane, through-thickness and contact resistances, and hence indicated how best to minimise resistive losses for minimal mass: it should be noted that in conventional energy storage devices, the current collectors can account for as much as 25% of the device mass. For multifunctional design we have developed a means to compare between a multifunctional component and a current off-the-shelf assembly of power source and structure. This methodology will permit end-users to quantify the gains in adoption of structural power materials (such as weight or volume saving) over conventional systems. We have undertaken studies for different platforms as to the potential benefits of using structural power materials: in particular, structural power floor panels in the aircraft cabin to power the seat-back entertainment units and power sockets. This work demonstrated that using structural power materials at the performance levels expected to be reached in the next three years, will provide a mass saving of 260kg per aircraft for a 100 seat Airbus 220. This corresponds to an annual reduction of 28 tonnes of CO2 per aircraft. We have also undertaken studies into a fully electric airliner (220 seat aircraft) using a combination of conventional battery and structural power, demonstrating that structural power would be a critical enabler for fully electric aircraft by depressing the performance targets needed for conventional batteries. Finally, we have applied this methodology to other air vehicles, such as drones and air-taxis (four-seat vehicles). Our studies have demonstrated that using structural power in such vehicles has the potential to double the aircraft range. We anticipate publishing this work in the next couple of months. 7) Functional sub-reinforcement has been successfully incorporated using microbraiding and subsequent tufting of yarns containing metal filaments. Demonstration of sensing and accelerated heating using micro-braids and developed an approach to integrating functionalised resins into fabric without vacuum, has been achieved with high local functional properties. 8) A new methodology for testing heterogenous samples with dissimilar regions has been developed in this project. It allows assessing viscous and non-linear elastic properties of functional domains hosted in the dry preform. Deposition of functional resin is associated with difficulties related to high viscosity additive-rich resin suspension and filtration issues. Local resin deposition, such as liquid resin print, resolved this problem and allows an increase the additives content. However, these manufacturing methods are an out-of vacuum bag process which creates problems with voidage control. The new approach has been developed to create void free patches based on thermal conditioning of the resin, close monitoring of resin state using model-based rheo sensors, and elimination of voidage in the consolidation process. 9) Hybrid tufted braid consists of a complex architecture and there were no readily available tools for detailed assessment of their properties prior to manufacturing: such a tool has been created. It deployed an established tool for modelling flat textiles (WiseTex) and then used geometrical operations to roll an initial material form into a braided thread. The results structure is then created in standard FEA software (Abaqus), where its electrical conductivity is assessed. 10) Manufacturing trials on segmentation of formable/functional areas have been successfully conducted using two manufacturing approaches: a) Masking of the formable area with PLA film, infusion with functional precursor into remaining domain, with subsequent pyrolysis, removing the films, and creating the CAG in one go. b) Create separate domains by integrating barriers into the preform that would divide the preform during the infusion of the precursors. Various parameters of barrier integration - shape, sizes, and materials have been trialled. The infusions strategies were successfully managed the concept was proven feasible. One of the identified challenges was the deterioration of formable domain caused in the process of pyrolysis. The optimisation of the pyrolysis parameters has helped to address the issue.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Manufacturing for multifunctional composites and integrated structures'. The overarching aim of the project is to investigate and address the design and manufacturing issues associated with multifunctional composites, addressing specifically the transport phenomena of heat and electrical conduction. Contributions to date: 1. BAE Systems have provided considerable advice and guidance over the life of the project, and particularly over the last six months with the potential for Tempest to provide a platform for utilising these materials. 2. Support from Airbus on demonstrator: Airbus have provided electrical and mechanical requirements and will provide tooling for the frame. 3. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 4. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 5. Supply of Textreme spread tow fabric to Imperial College London 6. Supply of Chomarat fabric to Imperial College London. 7. Supply of Isola Group spread glass fabric to Imperial College London 8. Support from NCC on tufting of microbraids to create test samples for Caroline O'Keeffe; gift of materials. 9. Assistance from Stanelco on induction heating. 10.Regarding the microbraiding, University of Manchester are preparing to integrate microbraids into woven preforms for explore the feasibility for current collection.
Impact The issue of encapsulation is still outstanding and a suitable candidate that can provide a light-weight, impervious (and insulating) barrier whilst still transmitting mechanical load across the multifunctional/monofunctional interface, is yet to be identified. This is the subject of a joint ICL/UoB/DU proposal submitted to EPSRC last year. Progression with Industry outcome -Discussions are taking place with AVIC Cabin Systems, but the project has run into export control issues. Discussions are underway with various UK and European companies on future collaborations. Output has been in the form of the following journal publications: DOI:10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107720 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105643 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105851 DOI:10.1088/2399-7532/ab8e95 DOI: 10.2514/1.C036205 DOI: 10.1088/2399-7532/ac1ea6 DOI: 10.3390/en14196006 DOI: 10.1186/s42252-021-00018-0 Journals accepted for publication: 1. M Valkova et al Predicting the mechanical behaviour of structural supercapacitor composites, Accepted Composites Part A, (2022). 2. Pernice et al, Mechanical, electrochemical and multifunctional performance of a CFRP/carbon aerogel structural supercapacitor and its corresponding monofunctional equivalents, Accepted to Multifunctional Materials, (2022). 1. M Valkova, Predicting the performance of structural power composites, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 2. Chanhui Lee, Design, Characterisation and Application of Structural and Multifunctional Composites to Large Ship Structures, PhD Thesis, Imperial College London, (2021). 3. Radhakrishnan A. Towards creating multi-matrix continuous fibre polymer composites using an out-of-vacuum bag process, PhD Thesis, Bristol, (2021). Output in the form of outreach: 1. Greenhalgh, E.S., Asp, L.E., Zenkert, D., Vilatela, J, Linde, P., En route to "massless" energy storage with structural power composites, JEC Magazine, pp. 37-39, November, (2019). 2. D. Oberhaus, The Batteries of the Future Are Weightless and Invisible, Wired, November 2020, https://www.wired.com/story/the-batteries-of-the-future-are-weightless-and-invisible/ 3. Clean Sky 2 announces program updates, G. Nehls (ed), Composites World, November 2020, https://www.compositesworld.com/news/clean-sky-2-announces-program-updates. Output in the form of conference papers: 1. Gordon Research Conference on Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ventura, CA, January 2020. 2. Clean Sky 2 Research Programme: Developments and Progress, AIAA SciTech 2021, Virtual Event, January 2021. 3.ICCM22 Conference, 11-16 August 2019, Melbourne, Australia. 4.Tri-Agency Symposium on Multifunctionality, System Endurance & Intelligent Structures, 36th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites, Texas A&M, 20th September 2021. 5. Multifunctional structural composites and the pursuit of 'massless' energy, E S Greenhalgh, Technical Briefing for the Royal Academy of Engineering, 11 May 2021. https://www.raeng.org.uk/events/events-programme/2021/may/technical-briefing 6. Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone, 14 Sep 2021. 7. Design and Manufacturing Issues for Multifunctional Structural Composites, E S Greenhalgh et. al., CIMCOMP Webinar, 23 September 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZogGbYNdUI 8. Structural Power in Future Transportation: Research Opportunities and Challenges, S N Nguyen, The Institution of Engineering Decarbonisation in Transport Webinar Series, 30 Sep 2021. https://events.theiet.org/events/how-do-you-decarbonise-the-transport-sector-part-1/ 9. O'Keeffe C., Allegri G., Partridge I.K. Hybrid multi-matrials microbraids for through-thickness multu-functionality, 1st European Conference on Crashworthiness of Composite Structures - ECCCS-1.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route 
Organisation Arkema
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Edinburgh for the six-month funded project 'Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route'. Contributions: 1.Originating the concept of TP-FMLs using liquid thermoplastic resins 2.Investigating various metal surface treatments 3.Identifying the optimum metal surface treatment conditions 4.Manufacturing TP-FMLs by liquid resin infusion 5.Applying novel bonding technique at the fibre-metal interface 6.Extensive characterisation of the interfacial bonding 7.Mechanical characterisation of the TP-FMLs 8.Identifying future possibilities such as reshaping, repairing and recycling.
Collaborator Contribution Arkema is the manufacturer and supplier of the liquid thermoplastic resin used in this project. Arkema provided us with valuable technical information about the resin, catalyst type and infusion charactreistics including the release agent. As this resin is new in market, all the technical information supplied by Arkema were very useful in carrying out the project work. Far UK was enthusiastic about this project. They identified and pointed out some essential properties of TP-FMLs which are worth investigating for their successful commercial in industries such as automotive. Eirecomposites supported with the guidance for TP-FML testing and characterisation.
Impact Society: Once successfully validated and commercialised, the thermopalstic FML technology can bring significant positive impact on the society, bringing in more recyclable, repairable products. This work has only been initiated in this Feasibility study, not fully explored. Economy: This Feasibility study clearly showed that such FMLs have potential to be explored in industrial application. The thermoplastic FML technology was close TRL 3-4. A follow-up project was required to investigate the mechanical properties of the FMLs and identify the key advantages, such as drop weight impact resistance and thermoformability, to take it to higher TRL, which could not be done. This could lead to various low-cost, real life FML products beyond aerospace. In future, a bigger proposal will be submitted to EPSRC seeking funding to take this technology forward. People: Dr Dimitrios Mamalis, PDRA of this Feasibility Study project, has been trained on FML manufacturing and he is actively participating in new project proposals where he can take this novel FML technology forward. One M.Eng student is now working on this FML technology and will be investigating some key properties. Knowledge: After our first paper was published in 'Materials and Design' journal, there has been several invitations from conferences and workshops from UK as well as from other parts of Europe for presenting our work on FML. This work has clearly generated interest in the scientific community. A follow-on project after the Feasibility project could establish the key properties and advantages/disadvantages of FMLs in comparison to general FRPs. A set of mechanical property data generated through testing could be of interest to the industrial partners. Unfortunately, that could not be done within that short tenure. The six months Feasibility Project was more focussed on achieving a strong interfacial bonding between the two dissimilar materials which was done successfully. There was no time to investigate mechanical properties and bring that to the attention of the industrial partners. Journal Paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane R Blackford, Conchúr M. ÓBrádaigh, Dipa Ray, Novel thermoplastic fibre-metal laminates manufactured by vacuum resin infusion: The effect of surface treatments on interfacial bonding, Materials and Design, 15 January, 2019, Pages 331-344. Conference paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh, Dipa Roy Novel infusible thermoplastic matrix in fibre metal laminates - a feasibility study, ICMAC, July 2018. (EP/P006701/1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route 
Organisation BeemCar Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Edinburgh for the six-month funded project 'Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route'. Contributions: 1.Originating the concept of TP-FMLs using liquid thermoplastic resins 2.Investigating various metal surface treatments 3.Identifying the optimum metal surface treatment conditions 4.Manufacturing TP-FMLs by liquid resin infusion 5.Applying novel bonding technique at the fibre-metal interface 6.Extensive characterisation of the interfacial bonding 7.Mechanical characterisation of the TP-FMLs 8.Identifying future possibilities such as reshaping, repairing and recycling.
Collaborator Contribution Arkema is the manufacturer and supplier of the liquid thermoplastic resin used in this project. Arkema provided us with valuable technical information about the resin, catalyst type and infusion charactreistics including the release agent. As this resin is new in market, all the technical information supplied by Arkema were very useful in carrying out the project work. Far UK was enthusiastic about this project. They identified and pointed out some essential properties of TP-FMLs which are worth investigating for their successful commercial in industries such as automotive. Eirecomposites supported with the guidance for TP-FML testing and characterisation.
Impact Society: Once successfully validated and commercialised, the thermopalstic FML technology can bring significant positive impact on the society, bringing in more recyclable, repairable products. This work has only been initiated in this Feasibility study, not fully explored. Economy: This Feasibility study clearly showed that such FMLs have potential to be explored in industrial application. The thermoplastic FML technology was close TRL 3-4. A follow-up project was required to investigate the mechanical properties of the FMLs and identify the key advantages, such as drop weight impact resistance and thermoformability, to take it to higher TRL, which could not be done. This could lead to various low-cost, real life FML products beyond aerospace. In future, a bigger proposal will be submitted to EPSRC seeking funding to take this technology forward. People: Dr Dimitrios Mamalis, PDRA of this Feasibility Study project, has been trained on FML manufacturing and he is actively participating in new project proposals where he can take this novel FML technology forward. One M.Eng student is now working on this FML technology and will be investigating some key properties. Knowledge: After our first paper was published in 'Materials and Design' journal, there has been several invitations from conferences and workshops from UK as well as from other parts of Europe for presenting our work on FML. This work has clearly generated interest in the scientific community. A follow-on project after the Feasibility project could establish the key properties and advantages/disadvantages of FMLs in comparison to general FRPs. A set of mechanical property data generated through testing could be of interest to the industrial partners. Unfortunately, that could not be done within that short tenure. The six months Feasibility Project was more focussed on achieving a strong interfacial bonding between the two dissimilar materials which was done successfully. There was no time to investigate mechanical properties and bring that to the attention of the industrial partners. Journal Paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane R Blackford, Conchúr M. ÓBrádaigh, Dipa Ray, Novel thermoplastic fibre-metal laminates manufactured by vacuum resin infusion: The effect of surface treatments on interfacial bonding, Materials and Design, 15 January, 2019, Pages 331-344. Conference paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh, Dipa Roy Novel infusible thermoplastic matrix in fibre metal laminates - a feasibility study, ICMAC, July 2018. (EP/P006701/1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route 
Organisation Composite Solutions UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Edinburgh for the six-month funded project 'Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route'. Contributions: 1.Originating the concept of TP-FMLs using liquid thermoplastic resins 2.Investigating various metal surface treatments 3.Identifying the optimum metal surface treatment conditions 4.Manufacturing TP-FMLs by liquid resin infusion 5.Applying novel bonding technique at the fibre-metal interface 6.Extensive characterisation of the interfacial bonding 7.Mechanical characterisation of the TP-FMLs 8.Identifying future possibilities such as reshaping, repairing and recycling.
Collaborator Contribution Arkema is the manufacturer and supplier of the liquid thermoplastic resin used in this project. Arkema provided us with valuable technical information about the resin, catalyst type and infusion charactreistics including the release agent. As this resin is new in market, all the technical information supplied by Arkema were very useful in carrying out the project work. Far UK was enthusiastic about this project. They identified and pointed out some essential properties of TP-FMLs which are worth investigating for their successful commercial in industries such as automotive. Eirecomposites supported with the guidance for TP-FML testing and characterisation.
Impact Society: Once successfully validated and commercialised, the thermopalstic FML technology can bring significant positive impact on the society, bringing in more recyclable, repairable products. This work has only been initiated in this Feasibility study, not fully explored. Economy: This Feasibility study clearly showed that such FMLs have potential to be explored in industrial application. The thermoplastic FML technology was close TRL 3-4. A follow-up project was required to investigate the mechanical properties of the FMLs and identify the key advantages, such as drop weight impact resistance and thermoformability, to take it to higher TRL, which could not be done. This could lead to various low-cost, real life FML products beyond aerospace. In future, a bigger proposal will be submitted to EPSRC seeking funding to take this technology forward. People: Dr Dimitrios Mamalis, PDRA of this Feasibility Study project, has been trained on FML manufacturing and he is actively participating in new project proposals where he can take this novel FML technology forward. One M.Eng student is now working on this FML technology and will be investigating some key properties. Knowledge: After our first paper was published in 'Materials and Design' journal, there has been several invitations from conferences and workshops from UK as well as from other parts of Europe for presenting our work on FML. This work has clearly generated interest in the scientific community. A follow-on project after the Feasibility project could establish the key properties and advantages/disadvantages of FMLs in comparison to general FRPs. A set of mechanical property data generated through testing could be of interest to the industrial partners. Unfortunately, that could not be done within that short tenure. The six months Feasibility Project was more focussed on achieving a strong interfacial bonding between the two dissimilar materials which was done successfully. There was no time to investigate mechanical properties and bring that to the attention of the industrial partners. Journal Paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane R Blackford, Conchúr M. ÓBrádaigh, Dipa Ray, Novel thermoplastic fibre-metal laminates manufactured by vacuum resin infusion: The effect of surface treatments on interfacial bonding, Materials and Design, 15 January, 2019, Pages 331-344. Conference paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh, Dipa Roy Novel infusible thermoplastic matrix in fibre metal laminates - a feasibility study, ICMAC, July 2018. (EP/P006701/1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route 
Organisation EireComposites Teo
Country Ireland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Edinburgh for the six-month funded project 'Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route'. Contributions: 1.Originating the concept of TP-FMLs using liquid thermoplastic resins 2.Investigating various metal surface treatments 3.Identifying the optimum metal surface treatment conditions 4.Manufacturing TP-FMLs by liquid resin infusion 5.Applying novel bonding technique at the fibre-metal interface 6.Extensive characterisation of the interfacial bonding 7.Mechanical characterisation of the TP-FMLs 8.Identifying future possibilities such as reshaping, repairing and recycling.
Collaborator Contribution Arkema is the manufacturer and supplier of the liquid thermoplastic resin used in this project. Arkema provided us with valuable technical information about the resin, catalyst type and infusion charactreistics including the release agent. As this resin is new in market, all the technical information supplied by Arkema were very useful in carrying out the project work. Far UK was enthusiastic about this project. They identified and pointed out some essential properties of TP-FMLs which are worth investigating for their successful commercial in industries such as automotive. Eirecomposites supported with the guidance for TP-FML testing and characterisation.
Impact Society: Once successfully validated and commercialised, the thermopalstic FML technology can bring significant positive impact on the society, bringing in more recyclable, repairable products. This work has only been initiated in this Feasibility study, not fully explored. Economy: This Feasibility study clearly showed that such FMLs have potential to be explored in industrial application. The thermoplastic FML technology was close TRL 3-4. A follow-up project was required to investigate the mechanical properties of the FMLs and identify the key advantages, such as drop weight impact resistance and thermoformability, to take it to higher TRL, which could not be done. This could lead to various low-cost, real life FML products beyond aerospace. In future, a bigger proposal will be submitted to EPSRC seeking funding to take this technology forward. People: Dr Dimitrios Mamalis, PDRA of this Feasibility Study project, has been trained on FML manufacturing and he is actively participating in new project proposals where he can take this novel FML technology forward. One M.Eng student is now working on this FML technology and will be investigating some key properties. Knowledge: After our first paper was published in 'Materials and Design' journal, there has been several invitations from conferences and workshops from UK as well as from other parts of Europe for presenting our work on FML. This work has clearly generated interest in the scientific community. A follow-on project after the Feasibility project could establish the key properties and advantages/disadvantages of FMLs in comparison to general FRPs. A set of mechanical property data generated through testing could be of interest to the industrial partners. Unfortunately, that could not be done within that short tenure. The six months Feasibility Project was more focussed on achieving a strong interfacial bonding between the two dissimilar materials which was done successfully. There was no time to investigate mechanical properties and bring that to the attention of the industrial partners. Journal Paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane R Blackford, Conchúr M. ÓBrádaigh, Dipa Ray, Novel thermoplastic fibre-metal laminates manufactured by vacuum resin infusion: The effect of surface treatments on interfacial bonding, Materials and Design, 15 January, 2019, Pages 331-344. Conference paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh, Dipa Roy Novel infusible thermoplastic matrix in fibre metal laminates - a feasibility study, ICMAC, July 2018. (EP/P006701/1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route 
Organisation FAR-UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Edinburgh for the six-month funded project 'Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route'. Contributions: 1.Originating the concept of TP-FMLs using liquid thermoplastic resins 2.Investigating various metal surface treatments 3.Identifying the optimum metal surface treatment conditions 4.Manufacturing TP-FMLs by liquid resin infusion 5.Applying novel bonding technique at the fibre-metal interface 6.Extensive characterisation of the interfacial bonding 7.Mechanical characterisation of the TP-FMLs 8.Identifying future possibilities such as reshaping, repairing and recycling.
Collaborator Contribution Arkema is the manufacturer and supplier of the liquid thermoplastic resin used in this project. Arkema provided us with valuable technical information about the resin, catalyst type and infusion charactreistics including the release agent. As this resin is new in market, all the technical information supplied by Arkema were very useful in carrying out the project work. Far UK was enthusiastic about this project. They identified and pointed out some essential properties of TP-FMLs which are worth investigating for their successful commercial in industries such as automotive. Eirecomposites supported with the guidance for TP-FML testing and characterisation.
Impact Society: Once successfully validated and commercialised, the thermopalstic FML technology can bring significant positive impact on the society, bringing in more recyclable, repairable products. This work has only been initiated in this Feasibility study, not fully explored. Economy: This Feasibility study clearly showed that such FMLs have potential to be explored in industrial application. The thermoplastic FML technology was close TRL 3-4. A follow-up project was required to investigate the mechanical properties of the FMLs and identify the key advantages, such as drop weight impact resistance and thermoformability, to take it to higher TRL, which could not be done. This could lead to various low-cost, real life FML products beyond aerospace. In future, a bigger proposal will be submitted to EPSRC seeking funding to take this technology forward. People: Dr Dimitrios Mamalis, PDRA of this Feasibility Study project, has been trained on FML manufacturing and he is actively participating in new project proposals where he can take this novel FML technology forward. One M.Eng student is now working on this FML technology and will be investigating some key properties. Knowledge: After our first paper was published in 'Materials and Design' journal, there has been several invitations from conferences and workshops from UK as well as from other parts of Europe for presenting our work on FML. This work has clearly generated interest in the scientific community. A follow-on project after the Feasibility project could establish the key properties and advantages/disadvantages of FMLs in comparison to general FRPs. A set of mechanical property data generated through testing could be of interest to the industrial partners. Unfortunately, that could not be done within that short tenure. The six months Feasibility Project was more focussed on achieving a strong interfacial bonding between the two dissimilar materials which was done successfully. There was no time to investigate mechanical properties and bring that to the attention of the industrial partners. Journal Paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane R Blackford, Conchúr M. ÓBrádaigh, Dipa Ray, Novel thermoplastic fibre-metal laminates manufactured by vacuum resin infusion: The effect of surface treatments on interfacial bonding, Materials and Design, 15 January, 2019, Pages 331-344. Conference paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh, Dipa Roy Novel infusible thermoplastic matrix in fibre metal laminates - a feasibility study, ICMAC, July 2018. (EP/P006701/1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route 
Organisation National Physical Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Edinburgh for the six-month funded project 'Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route'. Contributions: 1.Originating the concept of TP-FMLs using liquid thermoplastic resins 2.Investigating various metal surface treatments 3.Identifying the optimum metal surface treatment conditions 4.Manufacturing TP-FMLs by liquid resin infusion 5.Applying novel bonding technique at the fibre-metal interface 6.Extensive characterisation of the interfacial bonding 7.Mechanical characterisation of the TP-FMLs 8.Identifying future possibilities such as reshaping, repairing and recycling.
Collaborator Contribution Arkema is the manufacturer and supplier of the liquid thermoplastic resin used in this project. Arkema provided us with valuable technical information about the resin, catalyst type and infusion charactreistics including the release agent. As this resin is new in market, all the technical information supplied by Arkema were very useful in carrying out the project work. Far UK was enthusiastic about this project. They identified and pointed out some essential properties of TP-FMLs which are worth investigating for their successful commercial in industries such as automotive. Eirecomposites supported with the guidance for TP-FML testing and characterisation.
Impact Society: Once successfully validated and commercialised, the thermopalstic FML technology can bring significant positive impact on the society, bringing in more recyclable, repairable products. This work has only been initiated in this Feasibility study, not fully explored. Economy: This Feasibility study clearly showed that such FMLs have potential to be explored in industrial application. The thermoplastic FML technology was close TRL 3-4. A follow-up project was required to investigate the mechanical properties of the FMLs and identify the key advantages, such as drop weight impact resistance and thermoformability, to take it to higher TRL, which could not be done. This could lead to various low-cost, real life FML products beyond aerospace. In future, a bigger proposal will be submitted to EPSRC seeking funding to take this technology forward. People: Dr Dimitrios Mamalis, PDRA of this Feasibility Study project, has been trained on FML manufacturing and he is actively participating in new project proposals where he can take this novel FML technology forward. One M.Eng student is now working on this FML technology and will be investigating some key properties. Knowledge: After our first paper was published in 'Materials and Design' journal, there has been several invitations from conferences and workshops from UK as well as from other parts of Europe for presenting our work on FML. This work has clearly generated interest in the scientific community. A follow-on project after the Feasibility project could establish the key properties and advantages/disadvantages of FMLs in comparison to general FRPs. A set of mechanical property data generated through testing could be of interest to the industrial partners. Unfortunately, that could not be done within that short tenure. The six months Feasibility Project was more focussed on achieving a strong interfacial bonding between the two dissimilar materials which was done successfully. There was no time to investigate mechanical properties and bring that to the attention of the industrial partners. Journal Paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane R Blackford, Conchúr M. ÓBrádaigh, Dipa Ray, Novel thermoplastic fibre-metal laminates manufactured by vacuum resin infusion: The effect of surface treatments on interfacial bonding, Materials and Design, 15 January, 2019, Pages 331-344. Conference paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh, Dipa Roy Novel infusible thermoplastic matrix in fibre metal laminates - a feasibility study, ICMAC, July 2018. (EP/P006701/1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route 
Organisation Ultrawise Innovation Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Edinburgh for the six-month funded project 'Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route'. Contributions: 1.Originating the concept of TP-FMLs using liquid thermoplastic resins 2.Investigating various metal surface treatments 3.Identifying the optimum metal surface treatment conditions 4.Manufacturing TP-FMLs by liquid resin infusion 5.Applying novel bonding technique at the fibre-metal interface 6.Extensive characterisation of the interfacial bonding 7.Mechanical characterisation of the TP-FMLs 8.Identifying future possibilities such as reshaping, repairing and recycling.
Collaborator Contribution Arkema is the manufacturer and supplier of the liquid thermoplastic resin used in this project. Arkema provided us with valuable technical information about the resin, catalyst type and infusion charactreistics including the release agent. As this resin is new in market, all the technical information supplied by Arkema were very useful in carrying out the project work. Far UK was enthusiastic about this project. They identified and pointed out some essential properties of TP-FMLs which are worth investigating for their successful commercial in industries such as automotive. Eirecomposites supported with the guidance for TP-FML testing and characterisation.
Impact Society: Once successfully validated and commercialised, the thermopalstic FML technology can bring significant positive impact on the society, bringing in more recyclable, repairable products. This work has only been initiated in this Feasibility study, not fully explored. Economy: This Feasibility study clearly showed that such FMLs have potential to be explored in industrial application. The thermoplastic FML technology was close TRL 3-4. A follow-up project was required to investigate the mechanical properties of the FMLs and identify the key advantages, such as drop weight impact resistance and thermoformability, to take it to higher TRL, which could not be done. This could lead to various low-cost, real life FML products beyond aerospace. In future, a bigger proposal will be submitted to EPSRC seeking funding to take this technology forward. People: Dr Dimitrios Mamalis, PDRA of this Feasibility Study project, has been trained on FML manufacturing and he is actively participating in new project proposals where he can take this novel FML technology forward. One M.Eng student is now working on this FML technology and will be investigating some key properties. Knowledge: After our first paper was published in 'Materials and Design' journal, there has been several invitations from conferences and workshops from UK as well as from other parts of Europe for presenting our work on FML. This work has clearly generated interest in the scientific community. A follow-on project after the Feasibility project could establish the key properties and advantages/disadvantages of FMLs in comparison to general FRPs. A set of mechanical property data generated through testing could be of interest to the industrial partners. Unfortunately, that could not be done within that short tenure. The six months Feasibility Project was more focussed on achieving a strong interfacial bonding between the two dissimilar materials which was done successfully. There was no time to investigate mechanical properties and bring that to the attention of the industrial partners. Journal Paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane R Blackford, Conchúr M. ÓBrádaigh, Dipa Ray, Novel thermoplastic fibre-metal laminates manufactured by vacuum resin infusion: The effect of surface treatments on interfacial bonding, Materials and Design, 15 January, 2019, Pages 331-344. Conference paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh, Dipa Roy Novel infusible thermoplastic matrix in fibre metal laminates - a feasibility study, ICMAC, July 2018. (EP/P006701/1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Edinburgh for the six-month funded project 'Manufacturing thermoplastic fibre metal laminates by the in situ polymerisation route'. Contributions: 1.Originating the concept of TP-FMLs using liquid thermoplastic resins 2.Investigating various metal surface treatments 3.Identifying the optimum metal surface treatment conditions 4.Manufacturing TP-FMLs by liquid resin infusion 5.Applying novel bonding technique at the fibre-metal interface 6.Extensive characterisation of the interfacial bonding 7.Mechanical characterisation of the TP-FMLs 8.Identifying future possibilities such as reshaping, repairing and recycling.
Collaborator Contribution Arkema is the manufacturer and supplier of the liquid thermoplastic resin used in this project. Arkema provided us with valuable technical information about the resin, catalyst type and infusion charactreistics including the release agent. As this resin is new in market, all the technical information supplied by Arkema were very useful in carrying out the project work. Far UK was enthusiastic about this project. They identified and pointed out some essential properties of TP-FMLs which are worth investigating for their successful commercial in industries such as automotive. Eirecomposites supported with the guidance for TP-FML testing and characterisation.
Impact Society: Once successfully validated and commercialised, the thermopalstic FML technology can bring significant positive impact on the society, bringing in more recyclable, repairable products. This work has only been initiated in this Feasibility study, not fully explored. Economy: This Feasibility study clearly showed that such FMLs have potential to be explored in industrial application. The thermoplastic FML technology was close TRL 3-4. A follow-up project was required to investigate the mechanical properties of the FMLs and identify the key advantages, such as drop weight impact resistance and thermoformability, to take it to higher TRL, which could not be done. This could lead to various low-cost, real life FML products beyond aerospace. In future, a bigger proposal will be submitted to EPSRC seeking funding to take this technology forward. People: Dr Dimitrios Mamalis, PDRA of this Feasibility Study project, has been trained on FML manufacturing and he is actively participating in new project proposals where he can take this novel FML technology forward. One M.Eng student is now working on this FML technology and will be investigating some key properties. Knowledge: After our first paper was published in 'Materials and Design' journal, there has been several invitations from conferences and workshops from UK as well as from other parts of Europe for presenting our work on FML. This work has clearly generated interest in the scientific community. A follow-on project after the Feasibility project could establish the key properties and advantages/disadvantages of FMLs in comparison to general FRPs. A set of mechanical property data generated through testing could be of interest to the industrial partners. Unfortunately, that could not be done within that short tenure. The six months Feasibility Project was more focussed on achieving a strong interfacial bonding between the two dissimilar materials which was done successfully. There was no time to investigate mechanical properties and bring that to the attention of the industrial partners. Journal Paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Jane R Blackford, Conchúr M. ÓBrádaigh, Dipa Ray, Novel thermoplastic fibre-metal laminates manufactured by vacuum resin infusion: The effect of surface treatments on interfacial bonding, Materials and Design, 15 January, 2019, Pages 331-344. Conference paper: Dimitrios Mamalis, Winifred Obande, Vasileios Koutsos, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh, Dipa Roy Novel infusible thermoplastic matrix in fibre metal laminates - a feasibility study, ICMAC, July 2018. (EP/P006701/1)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Microwave heating through embedded slotted coaxial cables for composites manufacturing (M-Cable) 
Organisation Brunel University London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Brunel University London for the six-month funded project 'Microwave heating through embedded slotted coaxial cables for composites manufacturing (M-Cable)'. Contributions: The potential for faster curing of composites has been shown compared to current manufacturing processes, without loss of quality. This means faster production rates and reduction of resources (energy and labour)
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. The overall aim of the project was to test the feasibility of uniform MW heating of composites during manufacturing by using a number of slotted coaxial cables embedded in tools. The project has created a new market opportunity for RTM and infusion tooling that can process composites at faster rates than existing tooling technology
Impact The feasibility of utilising MW heating for composites manufacturing without the need of a dedicated MW Oven is the topic of this report. The initial concept of wires with slots that will act as MW applicators (waveguides) did not produce an acceptable thermal profile: local temperature variations were too high. The simple configurations tried in this study improved the local variations, but more work is needed to conclusively evaluate the idea and its practicality. A different approach was then tried: MW applicators that can be realised as printed circuit boards (PCBs). These boards can be slotted inside tooling. Their design can follow the heating requirement of the composite shape and size. The feasibility study showed that the PCB applicators fulfil two of the three concept feasibility criteria. The concept was validated by producing a number of composite laminates that were of similar quality to laminates produced in a convection oven.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Microwave heating through embedded slotted coaxial cables for composites manufacturing (M-Cable) 
Organisation KW Special Projects
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Brunel University London for the six-month funded project 'Microwave heating through embedded slotted coaxial cables for composites manufacturing (M-Cable)'. Contributions: The potential for faster curing of composites has been shown compared to current manufacturing processes, without loss of quality. This means faster production rates and reduction of resources (energy and labour)
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'High rate deposition and rapid processing technologies'. The overall aim of the project was to test the feasibility of uniform MW heating of composites during manufacturing by using a number of slotted coaxial cables embedded in tools. The project has created a new market opportunity for RTM and infusion tooling that can process composites at faster rates than existing tooling technology
Impact The feasibility of utilising MW heating for composites manufacturing without the need of a dedicated MW Oven is the topic of this report. The initial concept of wires with slots that will act as MW applicators (waveguides) did not produce an acceptable thermal profile: local temperature variations were too high. The simple configurations tried in this study improved the local variations, but more work is needed to conclusively evaluate the idea and its practicality. A different approach was then tried: MW applicators that can be realised as printed circuit boards (PCBs). These boards can be slotted inside tooling. Their design can follow the heating requirement of the composite shape and size. The feasibility study showed that the PCB applicators fulfil two of the three concept feasibility criteria. The concept was validated by producing a number of composite laminates that were of similar quality to laminates produced in a convection oven.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition 
Organisation BAE Systems
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Wrexham Glyndwr University for the six-month project 'Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition'. The aim was to study potential microwave techniques for increasing the throughput for placement of thermosetting and thermoplastic tows to increase the rate of automated tow placement and filament winding. To achieve this, there was a need to produce processes capable of placing 100 kg/hour. The research question was successfully answered. There is mileage in this approach which shows that a practical microwave system of heating during automated layup is possible and desirable. Furthermore it may be possible to combine this with other forms of heating to produce very significant layup rates. Contributions: - Retirement of the Co-I at Bristol meant that access to the AFP equipment did not materialise. To mitigate against AFP availability, bespoke equipment was manufactured in house at WGU to simulate the process and evaluate heating and layup rates. It also meant that the tape was scaled down to 8mm which could be handled in the space available. -Covid19 meant that the labs were out of bounds for seven months leading to very long project delays and the loss of some of the materials to be trialled. Nevertheless, with some modifications of the programme to build a rig to simulate the process on a lab scale, the majority of the aims of the work were achieved and deliverables met.
Collaborator Contribution The following deliverables were met with the contribution from the project partners at UoS and UoB. a) A laboratory assessment of the heating rates/deposition rates achievable using up to 2 kW microwave power for different types of tow at 2.45 GHz (WGU) b) Cavity and mounting system to be used for trials on an existing 2 kW 2.45 GHz microwave system (WGU and UoS) Since the system was not available, this deliverable was modified to be a cavity and mounting system for a laboratory based rig. c) Evaluation of potential shielding/choke approaches for the AFP system at Bristol (UoS) d) Numerical model of the process (UoS) e) Demonstration of process using laboratory AFP at the UoB(WGU, UoB)
Impact BMI/carbon material has now been received from our industrial partner; BAE systems to enable the higher frequency work. There is overlap with other work at Bristol and Southampton now part of a Synergy project looking at residual stress and temperature development during microwave cure. There is potential for collaboration with University of Nottingham and Bristol University since both are working on AFP projects and Nottingham have a project on direct heating. Discussions have taken place with Brunel University to further explore the M Cables project using the expertise at Wrexham Glyndwr University in antenna design to improve the uniformity of the heating. Also there have been discussions with Nottingham University to use this approach in over moulding of organofilms.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition 
Organisation Glyndwr University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Wrexham Glyndwr University for the six-month project 'Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition'. The aim was to study potential microwave techniques for increasing the throughput for placement of thermosetting and thermoplastic tows to increase the rate of automated tow placement and filament winding. To achieve this, there was a need to produce processes capable of placing 100 kg/hour. The research question was successfully answered. There is mileage in this approach which shows that a practical microwave system of heating during automated layup is possible and desirable. Furthermore it may be possible to combine this with other forms of heating to produce very significant layup rates. Contributions: - Retirement of the Co-I at Bristol meant that access to the AFP equipment did not materialise. To mitigate against AFP availability, bespoke equipment was manufactured in house at WGU to simulate the process and evaluate heating and layup rates. It also meant that the tape was scaled down to 8mm which could be handled in the space available. -Covid19 meant that the labs were out of bounds for seven months leading to very long project delays and the loss of some of the materials to be trialled. Nevertheless, with some modifications of the programme to build a rig to simulate the process on a lab scale, the majority of the aims of the work were achieved and deliverables met.
Collaborator Contribution The following deliverables were met with the contribution from the project partners at UoS and UoB. a) A laboratory assessment of the heating rates/deposition rates achievable using up to 2 kW microwave power for different types of tow at 2.45 GHz (WGU) b) Cavity and mounting system to be used for trials on an existing 2 kW 2.45 GHz microwave system (WGU and UoS) Since the system was not available, this deliverable was modified to be a cavity and mounting system for a laboratory based rig. c) Evaluation of potential shielding/choke approaches for the AFP system at Bristol (UoS) d) Numerical model of the process (UoS) e) Demonstration of process using laboratory AFP at the UoB(WGU, UoB)
Impact BMI/carbon material has now been received from our industrial partner; BAE systems to enable the higher frequency work. There is overlap with other work at Bristol and Southampton now part of a Synergy project looking at residual stress and temperature development during microwave cure. There is potential for collaboration with University of Nottingham and Bristol University since both are working on AFP projects and Nottingham have a project on direct heating. Discussions have taken place with Brunel University to further explore the M Cables project using the expertise at Wrexham Glyndwr University in antenna design to improve the uniformity of the heating. Also there have been discussions with Nottingham University to use this approach in over moulding of organofilms.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Wrexham Glyndwr University for the six-month project 'Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition'. The aim was to study potential microwave techniques for increasing the throughput for placement of thermosetting and thermoplastic tows to increase the rate of automated tow placement and filament winding. To achieve this, there was a need to produce processes capable of placing 100 kg/hour. The research question was successfully answered. There is mileage in this approach which shows that a practical microwave system of heating during automated layup is possible and desirable. Furthermore it may be possible to combine this with other forms of heating to produce very significant layup rates. Contributions: - Retirement of the Co-I at Bristol meant that access to the AFP equipment did not materialise. To mitigate against AFP availability, bespoke equipment was manufactured in house at WGU to simulate the process and evaluate heating and layup rates. It also meant that the tape was scaled down to 8mm which could be handled in the space available. -Covid19 meant that the labs were out of bounds for seven months leading to very long project delays and the loss of some of the materials to be trialled. Nevertheless, with some modifications of the programme to build a rig to simulate the process on a lab scale, the majority of the aims of the work were achieved and deliverables met.
Collaborator Contribution The following deliverables were met with the contribution from the project partners at UoS and UoB. a) A laboratory assessment of the heating rates/deposition rates achievable using up to 2 kW microwave power for different types of tow at 2.45 GHz (WGU) b) Cavity and mounting system to be used for trials on an existing 2 kW 2.45 GHz microwave system (WGU and UoS) Since the system was not available, this deliverable was modified to be a cavity and mounting system for a laboratory based rig. c) Evaluation of potential shielding/choke approaches for the AFP system at Bristol (UoS) d) Numerical model of the process (UoS) e) Demonstration of process using laboratory AFP at the UoB(WGU, UoB)
Impact BMI/carbon material has now been received from our industrial partner; BAE systems to enable the higher frequency work. There is overlap with other work at Bristol and Southampton now part of a Synergy project looking at residual stress and temperature development during microwave cure. There is potential for collaboration with University of Nottingham and Bristol University since both are working on AFP projects and Nottingham have a project on direct heating. Discussions have taken place with Brunel University to further explore the M Cables project using the expertise at Wrexham Glyndwr University in antenna design to improve the uniformity of the heating. Also there have been discussions with Nottingham University to use this approach in over moulding of organofilms.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to Wrexham Glyndwr University for the six-month project 'Microwave in line heating to address the challenges of high rate deposition'. The aim was to study potential microwave techniques for increasing the throughput for placement of thermosetting and thermoplastic tows to increase the rate of automated tow placement and filament winding. To achieve this, there was a need to produce processes capable of placing 100 kg/hour. The research question was successfully answered. There is mileage in this approach which shows that a practical microwave system of heating during automated layup is possible and desirable. Furthermore it may be possible to combine this with other forms of heating to produce very significant layup rates. Contributions: - Retirement of the Co-I at Bristol meant that access to the AFP equipment did not materialise. To mitigate against AFP availability, bespoke equipment was manufactured in house at WGU to simulate the process and evaluate heating and layup rates. It also meant that the tape was scaled down to 8mm which could be handled in the space available. -Covid19 meant that the labs were out of bounds for seven months leading to very long project delays and the loss of some of the materials to be trialled. Nevertheless, with some modifications of the programme to build a rig to simulate the process on a lab scale, the majority of the aims of the work were achieved and deliverables met.
Collaborator Contribution The following deliverables were met with the contribution from the project partners at UoS and UoB. a) A laboratory assessment of the heating rates/deposition rates achievable using up to 2 kW microwave power for different types of tow at 2.45 GHz (WGU) b) Cavity and mounting system to be used for trials on an existing 2 kW 2.45 GHz microwave system (WGU and UoS) Since the system was not available, this deliverable was modified to be a cavity and mounting system for a laboratory based rig. c) Evaluation of potential shielding/choke approaches for the AFP system at Bristol (UoS) d) Numerical model of the process (UoS) e) Demonstration of process using laboratory AFP at the UoB(WGU, UoB)
Impact BMI/carbon material has now been received from our industrial partner; BAE systems to enable the higher frequency work. There is overlap with other work at Bristol and Southampton now part of a Synergy project looking at residual stress and temperature development during microwave cure. There is potential for collaboration with University of Nottingham and Bristol University since both are working on AFP projects and Nottingham have a project on direct heating. Discussions have taken place with Brunel University to further explore the M Cables project using the expertise at Wrexham Glyndwr University in antenna design to improve the uniformity of the heating. Also there have been discussions with Nottingham University to use this approach in over moulding of organofilms.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Multi-step thermoforming of multi-cavity multi-axial advanced thermoplastic composite parts 
Organisation Forrest Precision Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Glasgow for the six-month funded project 'Multi-step thermoforming of multi-cavity multi-axial advanced thermoplastic composite parts'. Contributions: 1. Demonstrated the principle of induction-melt forming of advanced composites using molten metal as the heating agent. 2. Demonstrated the principle of expelling the molten metal during the subsequent forming process 3. Designed and manufactures a multi-step forming tool allowing automatic incremental forming of advanced composites using a standard press. 4. Demonstrated a process of quantifying the residual tin inside the composite after the induction-melt process (subsequent to feasibility study - part of the PhD student's current project) 5. Currently in the process of assessing the influence of the residual tin on the interlaminar strength of the induction-formed composite
Collaborator Contribution The feasibility project was completed. The team managed to successfully demonstrate the intended fundamental principles behind the method, which proceeded as envisaged in the original proposal. An induction heater capable of melting tin was successfully sourced and rented for a few months. A novel multi-step tool was manufactured allowing automatic incremental forming of the molten sheet. Several parts were manufactured from carbon-nylon advanced composites. Initially flat sheets were made, before manufacturing a ripple-type geometry. 1. The university team conducted all the forming experiments. We also designed and implemented the experimental setup including the design of the multi-step tool. 2. INEGI supplied pre-consolidated carbon-nylon sheet in a 0/90/90/0 layup. Induction Coil Solutions provided rental of the induction heating unit and induction coils. Forrest Precision Engineering manufactured the multi-step tooling following designs provided by the UoG team.
Impact The benefits to INEGI were in contributing towards a novel manufacturing process that, if perfected could be used in their own research ande development projects. The benefit to Induction Coild solutions is a potential new application of their induction heaters. The benefit to Forrest Precision Engineering is potential new business in manufacturing alternative versions of the multi-step forming tool
Start Year 2018
 
Description Multi-step thermoforming of multi-cavity multi-axial advanced thermoplastic composite parts 
Organisation Induction Coil Solutions
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Glasgow for the six-month funded project 'Multi-step thermoforming of multi-cavity multi-axial advanced thermoplastic composite parts'. Contributions: 1. Demonstrated the principle of induction-melt forming of advanced composites using molten metal as the heating agent. 2. Demonstrated the principle of expelling the molten metal during the subsequent forming process 3. Designed and manufactures a multi-step forming tool allowing automatic incremental forming of advanced composites using a standard press. 4. Demonstrated a process of quantifying the residual tin inside the composite after the induction-melt process (subsequent to feasibility study - part of the PhD student's current project) 5. Currently in the process of assessing the influence of the residual tin on the interlaminar strength of the induction-formed composite
Collaborator Contribution The feasibility project was completed. The team managed to successfully demonstrate the intended fundamental principles behind the method, which proceeded as envisaged in the original proposal. An induction heater capable of melting tin was successfully sourced and rented for a few months. A novel multi-step tool was manufactured allowing automatic incremental forming of the molten sheet. Several parts were manufactured from carbon-nylon advanced composites. Initially flat sheets were made, before manufacturing a ripple-type geometry. 1. The university team conducted all the forming experiments. We also designed and implemented the experimental setup including the design of the multi-step tool. 2. INEGI supplied pre-consolidated carbon-nylon sheet in a 0/90/90/0 layup. Induction Coil Solutions provided rental of the induction heating unit and induction coils. Forrest Precision Engineering manufactured the multi-step tooling following designs provided by the UoG team.
Impact The benefits to INEGI were in contributing towards a novel manufacturing process that, if perfected could be used in their own research ande development projects. The benefit to Induction Coild solutions is a potential new application of their induction heaters. The benefit to Forrest Precision Engineering is potential new business in manufacturing alternative versions of the multi-step forming tool
Start Year 2018
 
Description Multi-step thermoforming of multi-cavity multi-axial advanced thermoplastic composite parts 
Organisation Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Country Portugal 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Glasgow for the six-month funded project 'Multi-step thermoforming of multi-cavity multi-axial advanced thermoplastic composite parts'. Contributions: 1. Demonstrated the principle of induction-melt forming of advanced composites using molten metal as the heating agent. 2. Demonstrated the principle of expelling the molten metal during the subsequent forming process 3. Designed and manufactures a multi-step forming tool allowing automatic incremental forming of advanced composites using a standard press. 4. Demonstrated a process of quantifying the residual tin inside the composite after the induction-melt process (subsequent to feasibility study - part of the PhD student's current project) 5. Currently in the process of assessing the influence of the residual tin on the interlaminar strength of the induction-formed composite
Collaborator Contribution The feasibility project was completed. The team managed to successfully demonstrate the intended fundamental principles behind the method, which proceeded as envisaged in the original proposal. An induction heater capable of melting tin was successfully sourced and rented for a few months. A novel multi-step tool was manufactured allowing automatic incremental forming of the molten sheet. Several parts were manufactured from carbon-nylon advanced composites. Initially flat sheets were made, before manufacturing a ripple-type geometry. 1. The university team conducted all the forming experiments. We also designed and implemented the experimental setup including the design of the multi-step tool. 2. INEGI supplied pre-consolidated carbon-nylon sheet in a 0/90/90/0 layup. Induction Coil Solutions provided rental of the induction heating unit and induction coils. Forrest Precision Engineering manufactured the multi-step tooling following designs provided by the UoG team.
Impact The benefits to INEGI were in contributing towards a novel manufacturing process that, if perfected could be used in their own research ande development projects. The benefit to Induction Coild solutions is a potential new application of their induction heaters. The benefit to Forrest Precision Engineering is potential new business in manufacturing alternative versions of the multi-step forming tool
Start Year 2018
 
Description Multi-step thermoforming of multi-cavity multi-axial advanced thermoplastic composite parts 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Glasgow for the six-month funded project 'Multi-step thermoforming of multi-cavity multi-axial advanced thermoplastic composite parts'. Contributions: 1. Demonstrated the principle of induction-melt forming of advanced composites using molten metal as the heating agent. 2. Demonstrated the principle of expelling the molten metal during the subsequent forming process 3. Designed and manufactures a multi-step forming tool allowing automatic incremental forming of advanced composites using a standard press. 4. Demonstrated a process of quantifying the residual tin inside the composite after the induction-melt process (subsequent to feasibility study - part of the PhD student's current project) 5. Currently in the process of assessing the influence of the residual tin on the interlaminar strength of the induction-formed composite
Collaborator Contribution The feasibility project was completed. The team managed to successfully demonstrate the intended fundamental principles behind the method, which proceeded as envisaged in the original proposal. An induction heater capable of melting tin was successfully sourced and rented for a few months. A novel multi-step tool was manufactured allowing automatic incremental forming of the molten sheet. Several parts were manufactured from carbon-nylon advanced composites. Initially flat sheets were made, before manufacturing a ripple-type geometry. 1. The university team conducted all the forming experiments. We also designed and implemented the experimental setup including the design of the multi-step tool. 2. INEGI supplied pre-consolidated carbon-nylon sheet in a 0/90/90/0 layup. Induction Coil Solutions provided rental of the induction heating unit and induction coils. Forrest Precision Engineering manufactured the multi-step tooling following designs provided by the UoG team.
Impact The benefits to INEGI were in contributing towards a novel manufacturing process that, if perfected could be used in their own research ande development projects. The benefit to Induction Coild solutions is a potential new application of their induction heaters. The benefit to Forrest Precision Engineering is potential new business in manufacturing alternative versions of the multi-step forming tool
Start Year 2018
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation Airbus Group
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation BAE Systems
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation ESI Group
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation GKN
Department GKN Aerospace
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation Hexcel Composites Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation Luxfer Gas Cylinders
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation M Wright & Sons Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation National Composites Centre (NCC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation Shape Machining
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation Sigmatex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Department Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £906,782 core project grant to the University of Nottingham and the University of Manchester for the three-year funded project 'New manufacturing techniques for optimised fibre architectures'. 1) Computational framework for multi-objective optimisation of fibre reinforcements has been developed. The framework employs multi-scale modelling to predict processing properties (such as permeability) of 3D fibre reinforcements as well as structural properties of composite components. 2) A novel meshing technique was developed to aid the optimisation of complex 3D reinforcements of arbitrary complexity, while still maintaining reasonable accuracy and computational costs. The new algorithm was implemented as one of the features within TexGen open-source code and is now released in the public domain. 3) The optimisation framework was applied to two demonstrators provided by industrial partners. An automotive component demonstrator, provided by the AMRC, was optimised to maximise its bending and torsional stiffness. It was shown that a novel multi-axial 3D fibre reinforcement can provide up to 10% improvement in properties when compared to the optimised non-crimp fabric component. The second demonstrator, a pressure vessel provided by Luxfer Gas Cylinders, was optimised for a novel fibre architecture. Similar performance was achieved; however, better delamination resistance is expected from the novel fibre architecture. 4) Novel multiaxial preforming concepts have been demonstrated; new textile machinery was developed based on these concepts 5) Novel cylindrical multi-axial preforms were developed for application of pressure vessel 6) Two demonstrators multiaxial floor panel and braid wound pressure vessel developed using optimised architecture
Collaborator Contribution The project contributes to the Hub priority research theme 'Design for manufacture via validated simulation'. This project aims to discover new 3D textile preform architectures. This will result in a step change in performance, leading to significant weight reductions and lower cycle times through routine use of automated manufacturing technologies. Partner contributions received to date: £17k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (attendance of project meetings, help with development of demonstrators) £50k of in-kind contribution from industrial partners (through provided tooling and CAD files for demonstrators) Subcontract funding of £110k from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 1. AMRC for vehicle floor panel demonstrator 2. Luxfer for gas cylinder demonstrator 3. NCC for technology pull through programme 4. BAE systems for multiaxial technology demonstrator
Impact Associated Research Grants: 1) EPSRC Impact Acceleration Grant (£210k) from University of Manchester in collaboration with Axon Automotive 2) Technology Pull Through (TPT) funding from NCC for a joint UoM-NCC research project to develop braid-winding concept for producing wrinkle-free composite tubes. 3) Impact Acceleration Award (£37k) from Nottingham Impact Accelerator with support from Rolls Royce and Sigmatex - PI: Dr Louise Brown 4) Potluri P. - Subcontract (£110k) from ATI Future Landing Gear Programme for complex 3D woven architectures 5) UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Textiles (£4.5 million) Circular Bioeconomy for Textile Materials (EP/V011766/1) Outputs in the form of Patents: 1) Potluri, P., Jetavat, D., Sharma S. (2017) Method and apparatus for weaving a three-dimensional fabric, US Patent 9,598,798 2) Potluri, P, Koncherry, V, M. Bisset (2021) Inline Graphene Coating, UK Patent Application No. 2117987.4 in the name of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) and University of Manchester Outputs in the form of Journal Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2021.108935 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2021.113676 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113325 DOI: 10.1002/adsu.202000228 DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108451 DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.112757 Outputs in the form of Conference publications: 1) S. Dhiman, P. Potluri, and K. B. Katnam, "Thermally induced residual stresses in orthogonal 3D woven composites: The role of binder architecture and cooling rate," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1422. 2) K. Sowrov, A. Fernando, V. Koncherry, P. Withers, and P. Potluri, "Damage Evaluation in 3D Woven Composites with Warp-way and Weft-way Binders," in AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, p. 1421. 3) Roy, S. S., Wu, Z., Atas, A. & Potluri, P. (2022). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Braided Box Section With Optimised Axial Reinforcement In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June, 2021 Porto, Portugal. 4) Roy, S. S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, b., Potluri, P. & Whitham, A. (2022). Structural Performance of Composite Tubes Developed Using 3D Complex Winding in Comparison to Braided and Filament Wound Architectures. In: International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS 24) 14 - 18 June (Presented online), 2021a Porto, Portugal. 5) Koncherry V., Park J.S., Sowrow K., Matveev M.Y., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Potluri P., Novel manufacturing techniques for optimised 3D multiaxial orthogonal preform ,22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 6) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Brown L.P., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A.C., Meso-scale optimisation of 3D composites and novel preforming techniques, 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019. 7) Matveev M.Y., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A., Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 406 (1), 2018. 8) Matveev M., Koncherry V., Roy S.S., Potluri P., Long A, Novel textile preforming for optimised fibre architectures, September 2018, Tex-Comp-13 Milan, Italy 7) Koncherry V., Patel D., Yusuf Z., Potluri P., Influence of 3d weaving parameters on preform compression and laminate mechanical properties, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. 9) Roy S.S., Yang D., Potluri P. Influence of Bending on Wrinkle Formation and Potential Method of Mitigation, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017. Outputs in the form of Journal Publications for EP/I033513/1 - EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Composites (CIMComp) (projects funded from 01st July 2011 to 31st Dec 2016) Peer-review papers: 1. Yan S., Zeng X., Long A.C., Meso-scale modelling of 3D woven composite T-joints with weave variations, Composite Science and Technology, Vol 171, pp.171-179, 2019. 2. Yan S., Zeng X., A.C. Long A.C., Experimental assessment of the mechanical behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composites Part B, Vol. 154, pp.108-113, 2018 3. Yan S., Zeng X., Brown L.P., Long A.C., Geometric modeling of 3D woven preforms in composite T-joints, Textile Research Journal, Vol.88(16),pp.1862-75, 2018 4. Yan,S., Zeng, X., Long, A.C., Effect of fibre architecture on tensile pull-off behaviour of 3D woven composite T-joints, Composite Structures 242 (2020). There is the potential insertion of optimised 3D woven structures into future airframes and automotive chassis systems. Also, the braid-winding technology with optimised architecture could be adopted for hydrogen storage.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects 
Organisation GKN
Department GKN Aerospace
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Southampton for the project 'Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects'.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'Inspection and in-process evaluation'. The overarching aim of the project was a system deployed alongside current inspection approaches in the production environment. When defects or subsurface artefacts including variability of fibre volume fraction and fibre orientation have been detected, the system would be deployed to determine if the component is fit for service, requires repair or is scrapped. Contributions: 1. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of evolving damage states in structutal applications of composites. 2. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of variability and heterogeneity in-situ in discontinuous compression moulded preforms. 3. Demonstration of simulateneous use and integration of DIC and TSA for quantitative assessment of evolving damage states, material heterogeneities and manufacturing defects. 4. Fundamental developments in the use of low cost cameras for TSA. 5. The groundwork to develop two successful high value EPSRC proposals, strongly supported by industry
Impact Conference papers and International seminars: 1. Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Thomsen, O.T, Butler, R., Rhead, A.T., Fletcher, T.A. and Potter, K.D., "Reshaping the testing pyramid: utilisation of data-rich NDT techniques as a means to develop a 'high fidelity' component and sub-structure testing methodology for composites", Proc 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017 2. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Invited presentation at International Symposium "Novel Composite Materials & Processes for Offshore Renewable Energy", Cork, September 2017 3. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Keynote presentation at 2nd International Symposium on Multiscale Experimental Mechanics (ISMEM 2017), DTU, Denmark, Nov 2017 4. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, June 2017 5. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Jiaotong University, August 2017 6. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Institute of Technology, August 2017 7. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an, August 2017. 8. Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Understanding heterogeneity in discontinuous compression moulded composite materials for high-volume applications", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 9. I. Jiménez-Fortunato, Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Towards integrating imaging techniques to assess manufacturing features and in-service damage in composite components ", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 10. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards developing a calibration technique to apply TSA with microbolometers", British Society for Strain Measurement 13th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Southampton, 2018, 2 pages. 11. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards combining imaging techniques to characterise defects and damage in composite structures", SAMPE Conference on Large Structures in Composite Engineering, Southampton, 2018, 8 pages. 12. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. " Damage characterisation of composite components using full-field imaging techniques", Proc 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019, 5 pages. Other relevant impacts: 1. EPSRC, 'Structures 2025', Strategic Equipment Grant (EP/R008787/1, £1.2M, 2017-2020) PI Barton) in collaboration with multiple industry partners that provide £1M of support. 2. EPSCR Programme Grant 'Certification for Design: Reshaping the Testing Pyramid' or 'CerTest' (EP/S017038/1, £6.9M, 2019-2024, PI Thomsen) in collaboration with the University of Bristol, University of Bath and University of Exeter, industrial partners Airbus, Rolls Royce, GKN Aerospace, CFMS, BAE Systems, the Alan Turing Institute, NCC as well as the European Aviation Safety Agency.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects 
Organisation Siemens AG
Department Siemens Energy Management
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Southampton for the project 'Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects'.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'Inspection and in-process evaluation'. The overarching aim of the project was a system deployed alongside current inspection approaches in the production environment. When defects or subsurface artefacts including variability of fibre volume fraction and fibre orientation have been detected, the system would be deployed to determine if the component is fit for service, requires repair or is scrapped. Contributions: 1. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of evolving damage states in structutal applications of composites. 2. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of variability and heterogeneity in-situ in discontinuous compression moulded preforms. 3. Demonstration of simulateneous use and integration of DIC and TSA for quantitative assessment of evolving damage states, material heterogeneities and manufacturing defects. 4. Fundamental developments in the use of low cost cameras for TSA. 5. The groundwork to develop two successful high value EPSRC proposals, strongly supported by industry
Impact Conference papers and International seminars: 1. Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Thomsen, O.T, Butler, R., Rhead, A.T., Fletcher, T.A. and Potter, K.D., "Reshaping the testing pyramid: utilisation of data-rich NDT techniques as a means to develop a 'high fidelity' component and sub-structure testing methodology for composites", Proc 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017 2. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Invited presentation at International Symposium "Novel Composite Materials & Processes for Offshore Renewable Energy", Cork, September 2017 3. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Keynote presentation at 2nd International Symposium on Multiscale Experimental Mechanics (ISMEM 2017), DTU, Denmark, Nov 2017 4. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, June 2017 5. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Jiaotong University, August 2017 6. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Institute of Technology, August 2017 7. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an, August 2017. 8. Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Understanding heterogeneity in discontinuous compression moulded composite materials for high-volume applications", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 9. I. Jiménez-Fortunato, Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Towards integrating imaging techniques to assess manufacturing features and in-service damage in composite components ", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 10. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards developing a calibration technique to apply TSA with microbolometers", British Society for Strain Measurement 13th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Southampton, 2018, 2 pages. 11. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards combining imaging techniques to characterise defects and damage in composite structures", SAMPE Conference on Large Structures in Composite Engineering, Southampton, 2018, 8 pages. 12. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. " Damage characterisation of composite components using full-field imaging techniques", Proc 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019, 5 pages. Other relevant impacts: 1. EPSRC, 'Structures 2025', Strategic Equipment Grant (EP/R008787/1, £1.2M, 2017-2020) PI Barton) in collaboration with multiple industry partners that provide £1M of support. 2. EPSCR Programme Grant 'Certification for Design: Reshaping the Testing Pyramid' or 'CerTest' (EP/S017038/1, £6.9M, 2019-2024, PI Thomsen) in collaboration with the University of Bristol, University of Bath and University of Exeter, industrial partners Airbus, Rolls Royce, GKN Aerospace, CFMS, BAE Systems, the Alan Turing Institute, NCC as well as the European Aviation Safety Agency.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects 
Organisation University of Bath
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Southampton for the project 'Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects'.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'Inspection and in-process evaluation'. The overarching aim of the project was a system deployed alongside current inspection approaches in the production environment. When defects or subsurface artefacts including variability of fibre volume fraction and fibre orientation have been detected, the system would be deployed to determine if the component is fit for service, requires repair or is scrapped. Contributions: 1. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of evolving damage states in structutal applications of composites. 2. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of variability and heterogeneity in-situ in discontinuous compression moulded preforms. 3. Demonstration of simulateneous use and integration of DIC and TSA for quantitative assessment of evolving damage states, material heterogeneities and manufacturing defects. 4. Fundamental developments in the use of low cost cameras for TSA. 5. The groundwork to develop two successful high value EPSRC proposals, strongly supported by industry
Impact Conference papers and International seminars: 1. Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Thomsen, O.T, Butler, R., Rhead, A.T., Fletcher, T.A. and Potter, K.D., "Reshaping the testing pyramid: utilisation of data-rich NDT techniques as a means to develop a 'high fidelity' component and sub-structure testing methodology for composites", Proc 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017 2. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Invited presentation at International Symposium "Novel Composite Materials & Processes for Offshore Renewable Energy", Cork, September 2017 3. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Keynote presentation at 2nd International Symposium on Multiscale Experimental Mechanics (ISMEM 2017), DTU, Denmark, Nov 2017 4. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, June 2017 5. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Jiaotong University, August 2017 6. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Institute of Technology, August 2017 7. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an, August 2017. 8. Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Understanding heterogeneity in discontinuous compression moulded composite materials for high-volume applications", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 9. I. Jiménez-Fortunato, Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Towards integrating imaging techniques to assess manufacturing features and in-service damage in composite components ", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 10. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards developing a calibration technique to apply TSA with microbolometers", British Society for Strain Measurement 13th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Southampton, 2018, 2 pages. 11. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards combining imaging techniques to characterise defects and damage in composite structures", SAMPE Conference on Large Structures in Composite Engineering, Southampton, 2018, 8 pages. 12. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. " Damage characterisation of composite components using full-field imaging techniques", Proc 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019, 5 pages. Other relevant impacts: 1. EPSRC, 'Structures 2025', Strategic Equipment Grant (EP/R008787/1, £1.2M, 2017-2020) PI Barton) in collaboration with multiple industry partners that provide £1M of support. 2. EPSCR Programme Grant 'Certification for Design: Reshaping the Testing Pyramid' or 'CerTest' (EP/S017038/1, £6.9M, 2019-2024, PI Thomsen) in collaboration with the University of Bristol, University of Bath and University of Exeter, industrial partners Airbus, Rolls Royce, GKN Aerospace, CFMS, BAE Systems, the Alan Turing Institute, NCC as well as the European Aviation Safety Agency.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Southampton for the project 'Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects'.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'Inspection and in-process evaluation'. The overarching aim of the project was a system deployed alongside current inspection approaches in the production environment. When defects or subsurface artefacts including variability of fibre volume fraction and fibre orientation have been detected, the system would be deployed to determine if the component is fit for service, requires repair or is scrapped. Contributions: 1. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of evolving damage states in structutal applications of composites. 2. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of variability and heterogeneity in-situ in discontinuous compression moulded preforms. 3. Demonstration of simulateneous use and integration of DIC and TSA for quantitative assessment of evolving damage states, material heterogeneities and manufacturing defects. 4. Fundamental developments in the use of low cost cameras for TSA. 5. The groundwork to develop two successful high value EPSRC proposals, strongly supported by industry
Impact Conference papers and International seminars: 1. Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Thomsen, O.T, Butler, R., Rhead, A.T., Fletcher, T.A. and Potter, K.D., "Reshaping the testing pyramid: utilisation of data-rich NDT techniques as a means to develop a 'high fidelity' component and sub-structure testing methodology for composites", Proc 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017 2. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Invited presentation at International Symposium "Novel Composite Materials & Processes for Offshore Renewable Energy", Cork, September 2017 3. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Keynote presentation at 2nd International Symposium on Multiscale Experimental Mechanics (ISMEM 2017), DTU, Denmark, Nov 2017 4. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, June 2017 5. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Jiaotong University, August 2017 6. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Institute of Technology, August 2017 7. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an, August 2017. 8. Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Understanding heterogeneity in discontinuous compression moulded composite materials for high-volume applications", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 9. I. Jiménez-Fortunato, Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Towards integrating imaging techniques to assess manufacturing features and in-service damage in composite components ", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 10. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards developing a calibration technique to apply TSA with microbolometers", British Society for Strain Measurement 13th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Southampton, 2018, 2 pages. 11. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards combining imaging techniques to characterise defects and damage in composite structures", SAMPE Conference on Large Structures in Composite Engineering, Southampton, 2018, 8 pages. 12. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. " Damage characterisation of composite components using full-field imaging techniques", Proc 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019, 5 pages. Other relevant impacts: 1. EPSRC, 'Structures 2025', Strategic Equipment Grant (EP/R008787/1, £1.2M, 2017-2020) PI Barton) in collaboration with multiple industry partners that provide £1M of support. 2. EPSCR Programme Grant 'Certification for Design: Reshaping the Testing Pyramid' or 'CerTest' (EP/S017038/1, £6.9M, 2019-2024, PI Thomsen) in collaboration with the University of Bristol, University of Bath and University of Exeter, industrial partners Airbus, Rolls Royce, GKN Aerospace, CFMS, BAE Systems, the Alan Turing Institute, NCC as well as the European Aviation Safety Agency.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The Hub awarded a £50,000 feasibility study grant to the University of Southampton for the project 'Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects'.
Collaborator Contribution The project contributed to the Hub priority research theme 'Inspection and in-process evaluation'. The overarching aim of the project was a system deployed alongside current inspection approaches in the production environment. When defects or subsurface artefacts including variability of fibre volume fraction and fibre orientation have been detected, the system would be deployed to determine if the component is fit for service, requires repair or is scrapped. Contributions: 1. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of evolving damage states in structutal applications of composites. 2. Proof-of-concept of the novel strain based NDE for assessment of variability and heterogeneity in-situ in discontinuous compression moulded preforms. 3. Demonstration of simulateneous use and integration of DIC and TSA for quantitative assessment of evolving damage states, material heterogeneities and manufacturing defects. 4. Fundamental developments in the use of low cost cameras for TSA. 5. The groundwork to develop two successful high value EPSRC proposals, strongly supported by industry
Impact Conference papers and International seminars: 1. Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M., Thomsen, O.T, Butler, R., Rhead, A.T., Fletcher, T.A. and Potter, K.D., "Reshaping the testing pyramid: utilisation of data-rich NDT techniques as a means to develop a 'high fidelity' component and sub-structure testing methodology for composites", Proc 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi'an, China, 2017 2. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Invited presentation at International Symposium "Novel Composite Materials & Processes for Offshore Renewable Energy", Cork, September 2017 3. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Keynote presentation at 2nd International Symposium on Multiscale Experimental Mechanics (ISMEM 2017), DTU, Denmark, Nov 2017 4. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, June 2017 5. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Jiaotong University, August 2017 6. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Beijing Institute of Technology, August 2017 7. Dulieu-Barton and Thomsen O.T., "Towards a new paradigm for high-fidelity testing and integrated multi-scale modelling of composite substructures and components". Seminar at Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an, August 2017. 8. Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Understanding heterogeneity in discontinuous compression moulded composite materials for high-volume applications", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 9. I. Jiménez-Fortunato, Bull, D.J., Thomsen, O.T and Dulieu-Barton, J.M., "Towards integrating imaging techniques to assess manufacturing features and in-service damage in composite components ", SEM Annual Conference, Greenville, 2018, USA. 10. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards developing a calibration technique to apply TSA with microbolometers", British Society for Strain Measurement 13th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Southampton, 2018, 2 pages. 11. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. "Towards combining imaging techniques to characterise defects and damage in composite structures", SAMPE Conference on Large Structures in Composite Engineering, Southampton, 2018, 8 pages. 12. Jiménez-Fortunato, I., Bull, D.J., Dulieu-Barton, J.M. and Thomsen, O.T. " Damage characterisation of composite components using full-field imaging techniques", Proc 22nd International Conference on Composite Materials, Melbourne, Australia, 2019, 5 pages. Other relevant impacts: 1. EPSRC, 'Structures 2025', Strategic Equipment Grant (EP/R008787/1, £1.2M, 2017-2020) PI Barton) in collaboration with multiple industry partners that provide £1M of support. 2. EPSCR Programme Grant 'Certification for Design: Reshaping the Testing Pyramid' or 'CerTest' (EP/S017038/1, £6.9M, 2019-2024, PI Thomsen) in collaboration with the University of Bristol, University of Bath and University of Exeter, industrial partners Airbus, Rolls Royce, GKN Aerospace, CFMS, BAE Systems, the Alan Turing Institute, NCC as well as the European Aviation Safety Agency.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Novel strain-based NDE for online inspection and prognostics of composite sub-structures with manufacturing induced defects 
Organisation Universit