The Wearable Clinic: Connecting Health, Self and Care

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: School of Health Sciences

Abstract

An increasing number of people live with long term physical and mental health conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease or depression. Many of these people find that their symptoms fluctuate in severity over time, including periods of relative calm and episodes during which symptoms become much worse. However, patients with long term conditions typically see their doctor during pre-arranged visits at fixed intervals, rather than on the basis of their current symptoms. For instance, people with chronic kidney disease commonly have appointments every 3 months. These visits are often felt unnecessary during stable periods, during which patients could probably manage well by themselves, but irregular enough to spot worsening symptoms early enough and prevent more severe episodes of illness - what we call 'fall back episodes'.

We propose to develop a set of software tools for smartphones and tablets, called the "Wearable Clinic". This will help patients with long term conditions, together with their carers and doctors, to better manage their health in daily life, respond more quickly to changes in symptoms and prevent fall back episodes. This could prevent unplanned admissions to hospital, which are not only distressing and disruptive for patients and their families, but expensive for the NHS. Furthermore, it could make it easier to integrate care for patients with multiple long term conditions (e.g. both diabetes and chronic kidney disease), who are often treated by different doctors, at different places, and at different times.

For patients, using the Wearable Clinic starts with measuring symptoms in daily life using wearables. These data are then automatically combined with data held in NHS records on their diagnoses, lab results, and treatments in order to predict the likely future course of symptoms, and whether there is a risk of a fall back episode. Finally, the software will propose a modifiable care plan that takes account of the patient's range of existing conditions, current and predicted health status, availability of local care resources, and the patient's own preferences. Where it is possible and safe to do so, care plans will remove clinically unnecessary and unwanted appointments, saving time and money for both the patient and the NHS.

To achieve this vision, we propose to apply data science techniques to analyse data collected from a) medical records and b) wristband wearables and smartphone technologies ('wearables') worn by patients with long term conditions. While the Wearable Clinic concept could potentially be useful for managing a range of long term conditions, we will first test it out in two different conditions, where symptoms are known to fluctuate over time: schizophrenia and chronic kidney disease. Statistical techniques will be applied to see if data collected from patients using wearables can be used to a) predict changes in symptoms and b) produce tailored care plans for individual patients. We will trial methods that collect and use data in ways that take into account individual risk factors (e.g. age, ethnicity) and conserve the battery life of devices.

While the project primarily aims to develop new computer algorithms, statistical models and computer software, we will trial the technical aspects of the Wearable Clinic with a small number of healthy volunteers, people with schizophrenia and people with chronic kidney disease. We will also investigate costs, benefits, and potential risks of the Wearable Clinic in its earliest stages of development and, where necessary and feasible, integrate solutions during the lifetime of the project. A series of workshops open to the public will be held to explore cross-cutting issues such as trustworthy data use and privacy. This will pave the way for future studies and maximise the chances that the Wearable Clinic actually makes it into practice - thus improving the quality of care for patients with long term conditions.

Planned Impact

Economic: To quantify the potential value of the Wearable Clinic for the healthcare system and for patients, we will conduct an early economic evaluation and value of information analysis. This will assess the economic feasibility of the Wearable Clinic concept and inform future investment decisions as well as decisions to conduct further research to reduce the key (developmental and post-market) uncertainty.

The market size for wearable sensors is estimated to be £70B by 2025, giving substantial scope for commercialisation work. It is highly likely that patentable IP will be produced as part of the Wearable Clinic and the research team will work with UMIP (University of Manchester Intellectual Property) and Trustech (the North West's NHS innovation service) who have a strong track record in bringing innovative products to market. This make take the form of creating spin-out companies or licensing technologies as deemed most appropriate. To de-risk this process industrial support has been secured from a number of partners (see Letters of Support), including Cerner as major provider of healthcare IT systems and Withings as an SME in wearable health technology. This will be complemented by support from the Greater Manchester Connected Health Ecosystem, a partnership of >70 organisations, including NHS, social care, patient groups and industry.

Societal: Long-term conditions conditions place a major burden on health and social care services, coupled with significant reduction in quality of life for affected individuals. Half of GP appointments, and £7 in every £10 spent on health and social care, is spent on treating and caring for people with LTCs. The number of people affected, especially those with multiple coexisting conditions, increases steadily as a result of population ageing and lifestyle factors. The NHS faces the challenge of implementing £22bn of efficiency savings by 2020, and it is expected that important savings will have to come from the intelligent use of IT for patients with long-term conditions.

The Wearable Clinic has the potential to improve patient activation and stimulate self-management in patients with LTCs. Improved patient activation and better self-management are associated with improved health outcomes and lower care consumption, and generally lead to higher satisfaction with health services. The research team has established collaborations with the Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre (MAHSC) partnership between the University of Manchester and the NHS, the Greater Manchester Academic Health Science Network and Health Innovation Manchester to ensure future translation of the results of the project into the NHS.

Publications

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Adi SE (2021) Design and optimization of a TensorFlow Lite deep learning neural network for human activity recognition on a smartphone. in Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference

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Chiudinelli L (2020) Mining post-surgical care processes in breast cancer patients. in Artificial intelligence in medicine

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Dagliati A (2021) Sex and APOE genotype differences related to statin use in the aging population. in Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.)

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Fraccaro P (2019) Digital biomarkers from geolocation data in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review. in Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA

 
Title Wireloop game 
Description A bespoke wire loop game created by designer Jana Wendler (Playfuel). The wireloop frame (attractively designed using wood, metal and electronics) is paired with a blood pressure app to create an engaging game where players can test how cool they are under pressure and whether they can 'outsmart' our AI. The game is intended as an artwork and a conversation piece for use at conferences and events to trigger broader conversations about how the app works, why monitoring blood pressure is important and the role of wearables in healthcare. 
Type Of Art Artefact (including digital) 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact None yet. Engagament plans delays due to Covid-19. 
 
Description ? We have developed two new algorithms for predicting the risk of psychosis in patients with serious mental illness, using data that are collected in the community with their smartphones. This can help in the early detection and early intervention of psychosis. The first algorithm assesses the social functioning of these patients, based on measuring their geographical location through GPS. The algorithm would be running on their smartphone, to avoid that their GPS data would have to be shared with others. The second algorithm uses adaptive sampling of psychosis symptom data through short questionnaires on patients' smartphones. Our sampling algorithm adapts to the patient's risk of psychosis: when this risk is low, it asks few questions, whereas when the risk is higher, it asks questions more frequently.
? We have also created new algorithms for adaptive sampling of accelerometry data, decreasing the data rate whilst minimising the impact on classification performance. This is important for maximising battery life of wearable accelerometers. In this work we have deployed deep neural networks on mobile phones to allow the edge processing of data for the first time. Further we have created a new system for adaptive sampling in home blood pressure monitoring, using edge machine learning to ensure that readings are only taken at times when they are likely to be valid. This is intended to reduce the burden on the user, as fewer more valid readings are taken, and improve the data quality for clinicians. Validation of this system are still ongoing. Our software allows participants to capture heart rate and blood pressure simultaneously.
? We have developed methods to weave patient safety considerations into the design of digital health interventions in order to proactively assure the safety of the technology once deployed within complex community-based pathways. This has provided our project partners, specifically NHS Digital, with a concrete example of how a safety case for the design of an app-based intervention, utilising machine learnt capabilities, may be developed.
? Our early health technology assessment (HTA) suggested that, compared to usual care, a connected health intervention that supports self-management of patients with severe chronic kidney disease (Stage 3 or above) at home by measuring blood pressure and monitoring mobility has the potential to be cost-effective.
? All the above research was conducted by a multidisciplinary team that brought together researchers from electrical engineering, health economics, health informatics, computer science, safety science, software engineering, and social science as well as patient and healthcare professiorns. This has helped us to understand both the advantages and challenges of multidisciplinary research. We have discovered the need for clear and effective communication when working across disciplines, to ensure a shared understanding of terminology and overall project aims. We will report the important lessons that have been learned in the scientific literature and take them forward to strengthen future projects that cross disciplinary boundaries.
Exploitation Route ? We have created a new software infrastructure for working with the UK Biobank accelerometry data, allowing high performance computing not possible with previous tools. This infrastructure is freely available to all University of Manchester researchers.
? Our adaptive sampling methods can be used to (i) improve battery life of wearable devices and (ii) enhance engagement in patient reported outcomes, in digitally-enhanced care pathways for patients with long-term conditions.
? The risk prediction algorithms that have been developed for patients with serious mental illness and patients with chronic kidney disease can be deployed in digitally-enhanced care pathways for these patient groups, specifically for early detection of deterioration and relapse.
? The early health technology assessment of connected health technologies to support CKD self-management has provided valuable information for the further development of those technologies. It also provides a blueprint for performing early HTA of digital health interventions in general.
? Our wearable electronics approaches can be reapplied for sensors placed inside the body and to create custom wearables. We are exploring this in the recently awarded EPSRC project: "Digital health: On-organ sensing for bowel monitoring - A bottom up approach" (2021-2023, Co-I Casson).
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LPQwjYH4pBw&t=14s
 
Description ? Cultural. We have commissioned the Contact Theatre (contactmcr.com) to produce a creative public engagement piece that will encourage active reflection and conversations about the role of wearables in healthcare. The piece will take public audiences on physical, solo journeys accompanied by technology to explore the role and value of health data in profiling users. Performances are scheduled for May 2021. ? Education (Continuing Professional Development). Our work, as a use case, was used by NHS Digital as part of a Clinical Safety Course on the assurance of novel digital technologies within the NHS (attended by NHS Clinical Safety Officers) . ? Economic & Societal. There has been considerable interest in our wearables work. Based upon our outputs AJC is now a member of the University of Manchester - Health and Safety Executive framework consultancy agreement for as-needed consultancy services, and part of the Health and Safety Executive National Core Study on Covid Transmission.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Healthcare
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description A Master Class with NHS Digital - Safety Cases for Digital Health
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description CONSORT-AI Guidelines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Guideline Title CONSORT-AI Guidelines
Description CONSORT-AI Guidelines: took part in a study that generated a new reporting guideline for clinical trials evaluating interventions with an AI component
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in clinical guidelines
Impact improved transparency and completeness of reporting of clinical trials that aim to evaluate interventions involving artificial intelligence
URL https://www.bmj.com/content/370/bmj.m3164
 
Description Evidence Standards Framework for Digital Health Technologies
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL https://www.nice.org.uk/about/what-we-do/our-programmes/evidence-standards-framework-for-digital-hea...
 
Description Input on healthcare technologies from the IET into a Royal Academy of Engineering green paper on pillar 8 of the industrial strategy (Cultivating World Leading Sectors),
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Safety and ethics of autonomous systems in the health and care sector (Royal Academy of Engineering and the National Engineering Policy Centre)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description A multidisciplinary research network to tackle multimorbidity
Amount £37,000 (GBP)
Funding ID P123221 
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2020
 
Description An ounce of prevention, a pound of cure: Co-ordinating a digital health eco-system for community-based detection and intervention of multiple chronic diseases
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Funding ID P122809 
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2019
 
Description Application of machine learning to discover new multimorbidity phenotypes associated with poorer outcomes
Amount £693,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2020 
End 12/2023
 
Description Applied Research Collaboration Greater Manchester
Amount £9,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2024
 
Description Assembling the data jigsaw: powering robust population research in MSK disease
Amount £1,300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Nuffield Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 12/2023
 
Description CONNECT: Digital markers to predict psychosis relapse
Amount £6,300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 02/2026
 
Description Demonstrating the feasibility of a Learning Health System for cancer diagnosis in Primary Care
Amount £584,270 (GBP)
Funding ID 25310 
Organisation Cancer Research UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Developing and implementing Machine Learning driven analytics for quality improvement in healthcare
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Organisation Health Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2021
 
Description Dynamic Risk Assessment for Robotics and Autonomous Systems
Amount £10,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lloyd's Register Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Description Evaluating the safety and patient impact of an Artificial Intelligence Command Centre in the UK National Health Service
Amount £456,613 (GBP)
Funding ID NIHR129483 
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2021 
End 08/2022
 
Description Greater Manchester Patient Safety Translational Research Centre
Amount £6,700,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Institute for Health Research 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2022
 
Description Implementation of personalised risk prediction and prevention of sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction (PROFID)
Amount € 20,000,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 02/2019 
End 12/2024
 
Description Manchester/MCRC Early Recognition of Cancer And Decision Options
Amount £3,500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Cancer Research UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2024
 
Description PATCHS (Patient Automated Triage and Clinical Hub Scheduling)
Amount £989,000 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2024
 
Description Predictive Healthcare
Amount £211,000 (GBP)
Organisation Alan Turing Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2020
 
Description Reducing Medication Errors through Intelligent Safety Reasoning
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Bradford Royal Infirmary 
Sector Hospitals
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2020
 
Description University of Manchester - University of Toronto collaboration fund
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2019
 
Description University of Manchester Research Institute
Amount £34,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Manchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 07/2018
 
Title Software for high performance computing with the UK Biobank 
Description We have created software for processing the accelerometry data from the UK Biobank, on high performance Unix clusters, and on Windows. (Previous code was only compatible with Unix.) These have been released publicly under an open source license. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Code is currently being used by a number of groups 
URL https://github.com/CASSON-lab
 
Title Electronic Care Process Models Dataset 
Description Care Process Models are typically presented in natural language (and diagrams) in PDFs. Electronic (Digitally Structure) Care Process Models have been proposed as a means of streamlining dissemination, enforcing compliance, and improving care. While many formalisms have been proposed and many examples exist in the literature, there is no available corpus of naturally occurring Electronic CPMs. We started with a significant corpus of "Paper" CPMs from Intermountain Health in the US and are in the process of digitising them. There are about 140 algorithms that have been digitised to the first level (simple structural encoding). We plan to flesh out the encodings to be "complete" (i.e., capture all actionable information in the paper versions). We are building a repository for this corpus which will incorporate search, translation, and other services. (The repository is still under construction, hence the database is not yet available. We plan to make it so.) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have submitted our first paper which uses the digital versions to analyse the corpus as a whole. 
 
Description JKM care solutions 
Organisation JKM Care Solutions Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provided input on low power microprocessor/wireless platforms and the potential for integrating data into care records.
Collaborator Contribution Platform for discussions. Exchange was mainly us providing input to them.
Impact No direct outputs at this time. Information exchange has informed the company's engineering development.
Start Year 2017
 
Description John Rogers bioelectronics 
Organisation University of Illinois
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are exploring pop-up conformable electronics, electronics which attaches directly to the skin for very long term robust connections, which can also have a 3D structure. In particular we are exploring actuated 3D antennas. We have provided expertise into the potential applications of these structures, focus particularly on their potential use as acceleration sensors. We have provided some initial designs for suitable structures that can be fabricated.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners in Kent have provided expertise in antennas. This allows the 3D accelerometer to be applied directly as a sensing and transmission unit, eliminating the need for conventional collection electronics which add complexity and power consumption. Our partners at the University of Illinois have provided the manufacturing and characterization capability.
Impact This has led to follow on funding from the EPSRC (detailed in funding section).
Start Year 2016
 
Description John Rogers bioelectronics 
Organisation University of Kent
Department School of Engineering and Digital Arts
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are exploring pop-up conformable electronics, electronics which attaches directly to the skin for very long term robust connections, which can also have a 3D structure. In particular we are exploring actuated 3D antennas. We have provided expertise into the potential applications of these structures, focus particularly on their potential use as acceleration sensors. We have provided some initial designs for suitable structures that can be fabricated.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners in Kent have provided expertise in antennas. This allows the 3D accelerometer to be applied directly as a sensing and transmission unit, eliminating the need for conventional collection electronics which add complexity and power consumption. Our partners at the University of Illinois have provided the manufacturing and characterization capability.
Impact This has led to follow on funding from the EPSRC (detailed in funding section).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Novo Nordisk collaboration for advancing understanding of multimorbidity in metabolic disease 
Organisation Novo Nordisk
Country Denmark 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Novo Nordisk is a Danish multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bagsværd, Denmark, with production facilities in eight countries, and affiliates or offices in 5 countries. Novo Nordisk manufactures and markets pharmaceutical products and services specifically diabetes care medications and devices. Novo Nordisk is also involved with hemostasis management, growth hormone therapy and hormone replacement therapy. The company makes several drugs under various brand names, including Levemir, Tresiba, NovoLog, Novolin R, NovoSeven, NovoEight and Victoza. Novo Nordisk employs more than 40,000 people globally, and markets its products in 180 countries.
Collaborator Contribution Novo Nordisk works with the University of Manchester and the University of Oxford on innovation in statistical machine learning for advancing understanding of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in metabolic disease.
Impact None so far.
Start Year 2020
 
Description University of Toronto flexible and 3D printed sensors 
Organisation University of Toronto
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in sensing and in health and wellness applications of wearable devices. Data science/machine learning based analysis of materials characterization data
Collaborator Contribution Printed flexible sensors, particularly for pressure. Flexible batteries for powering flexible wearables
Impact None yet. Papers are in preparation.
Start Year 2019
 
Title ABPM demonstrator software 
Description As part of the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) use case, we have created a piece of software for a technical feasibility study with healthy volunteers. This use case utilises a smart watch, a custom-built mobile application, and blood pressure cuff. The watch is paired to the phone and provides raw accelerometry data as the user goes about their daily lives. Within the mobile application users can define a time window within which to take blood pressure readings (avoiding unnecessarily disturbing sleep). At each alarm time the app, using an algorithm built as part of the Wearable Clinic, analyses the accelerometry data and determines whether the user has been sedentary for a period of time. If the algorithm returns a response of True, the app prompts the user to take a blood pressure reading and enter it in to the app. The app also receives a heart rate at the same time. If the algorithm returns a False result, the user is not notified until a subsequent True result is returned from a future schedule. A web-based dashboard has also been produced to display the results to researchers. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact We had originally hoped to automate the triggering of, and response from, the blood pressure cuff. Unfortunately we were not able to achieve this with products currently on the market and are evaluating with manufacturers for potential future work. 
 
Title Software - SMI demonstrator 
Description We have built a mobile application to demonstrate the serious mental illness (SMI) use-case as part of the Wearable Clinic. The application combines symptom monitoring questionnaires (completed daily via reminders) which builds on the research performed as part of the Careloop trial, and GPS data collected by a user's mobile device. The symptom monitoring work captures responses to questionnaires and feeds into a newly-developed (as part of the Wearable Clinic) risk-prediction algorithm, outputting a series of expected states for the user. The states could be used in a future study to determine the accuracy in predicting relapse of participants. We also collect GPS data at a rate of once-per-minute. Our software was developed based on the PEGLOG application provided by the University of Bath. The application allows users to provide their permission for the collection of GPS data and also allows them to withdraw this permission, which will also then remove any previously collected GPS information from the mobile application and from the UoM servers. The software has been developed for use on Android devices only. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact As part of this work a new risk-prediction model has been produced and successfully integrated within our architecture. We have also further developed the PEGLOG application to improve the user flow through the application and to improve areas of vulnerability e.g. if the user revokes permission but does not have signal, this request may previously have been lost. We have ensured there is a check any time the application is used. 
 
Description A software engineer adventures in healthcare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk, similar to TED talks, about my experience, as a software engineer, working in healthcare (attended by around 250 people, mainly generic public).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.york.ac.uk/research/events/yorktalks/
 
Description AI and Us: The future of health and social care 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact With the number of over-65s needing 24-hour care likely to rise by third over the next 20 years, adult social care is high on both political and personal agendas.

Could Artificial Intelligence (AI) be the key to solving this growing crisis? Will it give us increased independence - or fuel the 'loneliness epidemic'? Do robot carers preserve our dignity or undermine our humanity?

As part of our special Festival Focus Day on Artificial Intelligence, our expert speakers discuss what AI might mean for our future health. Speakers include Praminda Caleb-Solly of the University of the West of England, Claire Jepson of Sheffield Health and Social Care NHS Foundation Trust and Helen Weatherly of the University of York. Thes session is chaired by Ibrahim Habli of the University of York.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://yorkfestivalofideas.com/2019/events/ai-focus-day-4/
 
Description Artificial Intelligence for Health, Public Event: York Festival of Ideas - Dr Ibrahim Habli 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Would you choose to be looked after by a robotic carer? How about using autonomous systems to help give early diagnoses by analysing health records? Could AI be used to support those with mental health issues?

Join us as we discuss what AI might mean for our future health. Is the potential for AI to revolutionise healthcare overhyped or could it transform the NHS? Our expert speakers include Ibrahim Habli, Lecturer in the Department of Computer Science, University of York; Pali Hungin, Head of the School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health at Durham University; Jess Morley, Technology Adviser with the Department of Health and Social Care; Gurch Randhawa, Director of the Institute for Health Research at the University of Bedfordshire; and Charlotte Stix, a Research Associate with the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence. The session will be chaired by Tim Adlam, Head of Mechanical Engineering at Designability, who will also deliver the keynote speech.

Brought to you in collaboration with the Assuring Autonomy International Programme, which is supported by the Lloyd's Register Foundation and the University of York.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://yorkfestivalofideas.com/2018/talks/ai-for-health/
 
Description Awards committee, IEEE International Conference on Electronic Circuits and Systems, Glasgow, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Awards committee, IEEE International Conference on Electronic Circuits and Systems, Glasgow, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Blog post for EPSRC on "Sleep disturbance in dementia - a better night's sleep for all." 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited blog post for the EPSRC during national dementia week.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Chair of the IET Healthcare Technologies network, September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Chair of the IET Healthcare Technologies network, September 2019 onwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Contributor to Health Innovation Manchester dementia care roadmap. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Scoping of potential future care pathways for dementia in the Manchester region. Contributed to the wearable sensing aspect.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Digital Health Safety Conference 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Digital Health Safety Conference with a focus on AI safety in healthcare
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.york.ac.uk/assuring-autonomy/news/events/nhs-digital-conference-2019/
 
Description Digital Health and Patient Safety Conference - Dr Ibrahim Habli 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact NHS Digital and the University of York are hosting a dedicated digital health and patient safety conference that is to be held at The Leeds Met Hotel on 22nd March 2018. King Street, Leeds, LS1 2HQ.

This boutique event is free of charge and is aimed at health and social care professionals, safety engineers, managers and policy makers, focusing on current and emergent trends and challenges in digital health and safety (health IT clinical risk) management.

The motivation for the conference is to continue to build the community of interest within our domain and provide an opportunity for people and organisations to share their successes, views and challenges. It is hoped that this event will be the first of many. We are venturing out smaller and sharing good guidance, practises etc; and hope by this method that we can grow the community.

The day will consist of a number of talks covering practical tools for safety management, human factors, standards for Health IT and medical devices, lessons from an acute system deployment, apps, machine learning and close with a panel session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://digital.nhs.uk/news-and-events/events/digital-health-and-patient-safety-conference
 
Description Interviewed as of the University of Manchester MSc on public health highlighting new developments in wearable devices, September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Interviewed as of the University of Manchester MSc on public health highlighting new developments in wearable devices, September 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Invited presentation at the IET "IoT in Healthcare" meeting, Liverpool UK, November 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the IET "IoT in Healthcare" meeting, Liverpool UK, November 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited presentation at the IEEE UK Circuits and Systems society meeting (IEEE UKCAS), London UK, December 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the IEEE UK Circuits and Systems society meeting (IEEE UKCAS), London UK, December 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited presentation at the University of Liverpool Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, February 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the University of Liverpool Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, February 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited presentation at the University of Toronto, September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the University of Toronto, September 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited presentation to IBM Research in Yorktown USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation to IBM Research in Yorktown USA, June 2017. Focus was on our "wearable clinic" work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited presentation to the Army Research Laboratory 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation to the Army Research Laboratory. Specifically invited based upon our EPSRC funded work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited presentation to the Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health "Digital Health domain" on wearable devices, May 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation to the Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health "Digital Health domain" on wearable devices, May 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited special session presentation at the 2019 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society conference in Germany, July 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited special session presentation at the 2019 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society conference in Germany, July 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Keynote presentation, ICTC conference, South Korea. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Keynote presentation at a particularly business focused conference in communications and ICT.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Leader of a Royal Institution Engineering masterclass - an computer science outreach event for 14 year olds focusing on computer architecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dr Alex Casson lead a Royal Institution Engineering masterclass - an computer science outreach event for 14 year olds focusing on computer architecture, July 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Live with Scientists Q&A event: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zp0xYd1Pus. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Live with Scientists Q&A event: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zp0xYd1Pus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Manchester Medical Society Schools Xmas Lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Gave the 2020 Hon Dorothy Wedgwood OBE Annual Christmas Lecture for Young People (delivered via Zoom and live streamed to schools on YouTube this year due to Covid), alongside Prof Niels Peek. Our talk was entitled: 'AI: Hope, Hype or Horror' and included interactive polls, live chatbots and a Q&A. Feedback indicated the talk was well received, increased awareness of the use of AI in medicines (and its promises and pitfalls), and gave useful information on career pathways in health data science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Ma5usIL_l4
 
Description Meeting with NHS Digital to discuss apps safety regulation and assessment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A meeting with Assurance Services at NHS Digital to discuss the regulation of apps and AI-based systems in healthcare (NHS)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Mobile Monday presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation on mobile healthcare as part of 'Mobile Monday' organised at PwC Manchester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Organiser of joint EPSRC-Alzheimer's Society workshop on technologies for sleep disturbance in dementia. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Workshop discussing potential research into sleep disturbances in dementia. Output was a plan for potential activities in this space. Led to an invited EPSRC blog post.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PHG Foundation Roundtable on Citizen Generated Data 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Personal invitation from the PHG Foundation (a non-profit think tank) to participate in a round-table of selected experts and cross-sector representatives with a shared interest in citizen-generated data and its potential for informing individual health and healthcare. Resulted in a PHG policy briefing on citizen generated data: https://www.phgfoundation.org/briefing/an-opportunity-for-public-health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://www.phgfoundation.org/briefing/an-opportunity-for-public-health
 
Description Part of a panel discussion on healthcare innovation for the Manchester Innovation Forum, August 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Part of a panel discussion on healthcare innovation for the Manchester Innovation Forum, August 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at Pro-Manchester "mobile technology in devolved healthcare" panel event, PWC Manchester, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation on the future healthcare landscape in Manchester. Some follow on discussions had.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on nanoelectronics to year 12 students as part of an outreach event organised by the NanoWoW Centre for Doctorial Training, December 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presentation on nanoelectronics to year 12 students as part of an outreach event organised by the NanoWoW Centre for Doctorial Training, December 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation to Antennas group, University of Kent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Discussion on future collaborations, particularly with a visiting researcher from Japan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to Bioelectronics researchers, University of Toronto, Canada. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Resulted in seed funding to form an international collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to EEG research group, Fudan University, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Discussions of potential collaboration opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to Royal College of Anaesthetists, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk, cancelled due to COVID.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Public engagement presentation as part of the Pint of Science festival, May 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public engagement presentation as part of the Pint of Science festival, May 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Schools engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 40 students aged 16/17 attended a schools event to promote careers in health data science. As part of this I ran a health data science-themed game and talked about my research. Highly positive feedback as a result, indicating students increased their awareness of health data science as a study/career option - see teachers' comments below:

"I thought it all worked really well and it made for a very enjoyable day for us as well as the kids. Thanks for all your efforts both developing the materials and also then delivering them so fantastically well on the day."

"Lots of the S6 have come to find me this afternoon to tell me how much they enjoyed the day and are also very keen to fill in feedback sheets... Thanks again for offering this great experience, the kids seem to have really benefited and are all raving about it."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://intheloop.newsweaver.com/intheloop/qzlc4so882ajn8av8q7r72?email=true&a=1&p=427063&t=18030
 
Description Sharing health and care records: designing IT systems around your local population's needs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This conference explored the different models for sharing healthcare records that have been developed over the past few years and provided delegates with the opportunity to learn how local areas are overcoming these challenges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/events/sharing-health-and-care-records
 
Description Special session, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology conference, Canada. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project PDRA spoke in a special session on time series modelling at this international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Support for electrical engineering teaching (Tahmina Zebin) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Tahmina Zebin conducted a session on Common-Emitter Amplifiers and its design, January 2018 at Trinity High School, Manchester
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Table top demo at the "Clean air for Manchester" launch event, showing our work on wearable devices, September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Table top demo at the "Clean air for Manchester" launch event, showing our work on wearable devices, September 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Tahmina Zebin volunteered and judged 'IET Faraday Challenge Day' for BBC Microbit Coding with Year 8 pupils from different schools(February 2018 @UoM). 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Volunteered and judged 'IET Faraday Challenge Day' for BBC Microbit Coding with pupils from different schools (February 2018 @UoM).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://faraday-secondary.theiet.org/faraday-challenge-days/
 
Description Talk and stand at Exhale, a public event on mental health and well-being 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Co-investigators (including a public collaborator) gave a short talk about the Wearable Clinic and the public involvement aspects at the 'Exhale' event, an open public exhibition on mental health and well-being held in Manchester on January 21st. The talk attracted an audience of approximately 10 members of the public, several of whom approached our drop-in stand for further information about the project and to invite us to visit local patient groups with a mental health focus to advertise future research participation and public involvement opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.facebook.com/ExhaleEventsExpo/
 
Description The Wearable Clinic Launch Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact We held an event to formally launch the project. This brought together researchers involved in the project, which are spread across different faculties and schools at The University of Manchester and the University of York. Also in attendance were interested parties from across the University, as well as from business, NHS Digital and two representatives from our patient engagement group. A series of presentations introduced The Wearable Clinic programme and the group were given the opportunity to ask questions and provide comment.
The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the project were then debated. The event was rounded off with informal networking. We have had several requests for more information from NICE and we have made the slides available on a website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.herc.ac.uk/research_project/wearable-clinic-connecting-health-self-care/
 
Description The Wearable Clinic seminar - Challenges and Opportunities in Assistive, Wearable and Precision Health Technologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Sandra Woolley from Keele University gave a talk on her research including the development of the 'AllergiSense' platform which aims to assist in training patients and clinicians in the use of adrenaline injections (so-called 'Epi-Pens'). Also of interest to The Wearable Clinic, Sandra introduced her research in activity monitoring in patients with Dementia and developments of the 'CircadianSense' system. This sparked interesting debate from the audience around many of the aspects relevant to The Wearable Clinic, such as safety, health economics and technical constraints.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.herc.ac.uk/events/wearable-clinic-seminar-challenges-opportunities-assistive-wearable-pr...
 
Description Wearable Clinic Twitter account, blog series and newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We have set up a public facing Twitter account (@Wearable_Clinic), blog series (2 editions to date) and an accompanying newsletter to disseminate concepts, outputs and participation opportunities associated with the Wearable Clinic. The Twitter account has 171 followers (as of 11th March 2019) and links to monthly blog posts (e.g. https://www.herc.ac.uk/2019/03/01/what-is-wearable-clinic/), study updates, research outputs, participation opportunities (e.g. study recruitment, job adverts) and other relevant news from the team and wider media. In particular, these activites have supported the recruitment of people with chronic kidney disease to take part in focus groups and interviews to elicit patient preferences in relation to using digital technologies, which is part of work package 4.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/wearable_clinic
 
Description Wearable clinic video series 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A video series posted on YouTube of three videos introducing the wearable clinic project, use cases and the team behind it. Includes: What is the Wearable Clinic? (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LPQwjYH4pBw) and 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGpJCPEo9Zc). Videos have been circulated on social media, online and used at events to engage the public, industry, policymakers and clinicians. Over 3,000 views as of 1st Feb 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGpJCPEo9Zc