Selective Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Carbon Capture with Gas Turbines: Integration, Intensification, Scale-up and Optimisation.

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

UK electricity generation still relies around 80% on fossil fuels, with a resulting carbon intensity - the amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere per unit of electricity generated - ten times higher than the level recommended to avoid dangerous climate change. Half of that electricity currently comes for natural gas and is expected to increase in the next decade as new gas-fired generation is commissioned to replace, along with renewables, old inefficient coal plants built in the 1960s. Over 20GW of gas capacity has been permitted since 2007, equivalent to a quarter of the current installed capacity for electricity generation.
Unabated (no carbon capture) gas plants produce six to seven the amount of carbon per unit of electricity compared to the levels recommended for UK electricity generation by 2030. They must be fitted with Carbon Capture and Storage to provide reliable low-carbon energy to fill-in gaps between inflexible nuclear and intermittent wind power generation and a fluctuating electricity demand.
Gas CCS R&D is an important emerging field, particularly to address the issue of rapidly increasing additional carbon in shale gas reserves, and many of the concepts and underlying scientific principles are still being 'invented'. Ongoing UK infrastructure investments and energy policy decisions are being made which would benefit from better information on relevant gas CCS technologies, making independent, fundamental studies by academic researchers a high priority.
The UK is leading Gas CCS deployment with the retrofit of Peterhead power station, as part of the UK CCS Commercialisation programme at the time of writing. Key engineering challenges remain for the second and third tranche of gas CCS projects to be rolled out in the 2020s and 2030s. Efficient and cost-effective integration of CCS with gas turbines would be enhanced and costs of electricity generation greatly reduced if the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the exhaust were much higher than the typical 3-4% value seen in modern Gas Turbine systems.
An innovative solution is to selectively recirculate CO2, upstream of the post-combustion CO2 capture process, from the Gas Turbine exhaust back through the inlet of the engine, thereby greatly increasing CO2 concentration and subsequently reducing the burden on the CCS plant.
The main result would be a more cost-effective plant with a significantly reduced visual impact. In order to achieve this concept, 3 main challenges must be overcome, which form the basis of the proposed work:
1. Plant Design and Optimisation. Based on advice from manufacturers and research data, a series of scenarios will be considered for the amount of exhaust recirculation through the engine. This will include results from other parts of the project, such as the engine performance tests.
2. GT-CCS Integration. Experimental testing will show how engines and CCS processes function when the two must work in a symbiotic fashion. This will include the measurement of gas turbine burner performance under operational conditions, engine testing, plus experiments on CCS columns to determine their effectiveness with this recirculated exhaust gas.
3. Scale-up and Intensification. Based on the research data gathered in the previous steps, the project will then publish findings on the viability of this concept, including application of this data to set design rules for future GT-CCS plants. Applying this idea further the project will estimate the impact on the UK's energy mix if these plants were considered economically viable.
This project has a strong practical basis, employing a variety of state-of-the-art research facilities from 3 well-established UK Universities. These will include measurement of combustion behaviour under high pressure and temperature conditions, performance testing of GT engine sets with recycled exhaust and fundamental studies of the behaviour of CCS columns.

Planned Impact

The SELECT project will provide tangible impact to the UK in the key sectors outlined below. This work can potentially deliver a technology that will solve an ongoing challenge for the future of the UK's energy mix: a reliable power generation system (gas turbine) operating in a cost-effective, integrated fashion with a low carbon technology (amine scrubbing carbon capture). If the recommendations of this projects findings were employed, benefit to the UK would ensue in the following areas.

Knowledge: The research has real opportunities for scientific advances in the fields of combustion experimentation, modelling, amine technologies and tomography. The integrated nature of the aims of the project will deliver new techniques, especially for the fundamental behaviour of thermo chemistry, carbon capture and gas turbines. These topics are currently of high impact in the academic community.

Society: Impact from this work will include potentially more cost-effective low-carbon fossil fuel derived power. Given that energy prices are consistently in the public domain and a cause of significant concern for the public, there is definite potential for quality of life impact. The research will likely be used as evidence for steering UK policy in terms of the potential uptake of capture technologies and improving policy. SELECT will bring continued international development, maintaining the UK's position as a leading provider of CCS research worldwide. This project addresses the challenge of combining these two essential technologies into a packaged solution, doing so in a way that will be more financially sustainable than simply joining the two as separate entities.

Economy: Industry impact will include the provision of useful data to gas turbine manufacturers, plant operators, such as utility companies and engineering sectors concerned with the development of CO2 capture processes. As evidenced by the letters of support, the direct application of this research will be in the continued development of integrated Gas Turbine - Carbon Capture processes. The data from the research will provide design rules allowing for wealth creation via the development of more compact and cost-effective power plants, which will be of great interest to the manufacturers and users of these technologies. Currently there is doubt within the industry as to the feasibility of these processes, but this doubt is based on economic factors and hence the sector is interested in academic projects that aim to intensify, optimise and examine scaling factors at the capture stage. New products and services will arise in the form of enhanced burner technologies, better designed capture columns and design rules for integrated CCS gas turbine engines. There is definite and real potential for exploitable intellectual property and new companies as a result of the proposed work. This would be of benefit to equipment manufacturers and the UK power sector.

People: The project will provide additional skills resource to allow for continued training of doctoral candidates in the CCS sector, plus given the integration focus of the research, this will also provide for technologists geared towards enabling truly 'capture ready' power plants. SELECT is focussed at the CO2 generation point, hence it will prime the pipeline for future scientists / engineers focused on integrating and intensifying a technology with real applicability for the future.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description At its current state, the research is investigating the impact of selective exhaust gas recycling on engines, combustion chambers and the capture plant. To date we have demonstrated:
The effect of CO2 as a comubstion moderator in gas turbine burners. The effect of selectively recycled CO2 on the performance of a small-scale gas turbine system. The preformance of componets within a a selective capture plant. Modelling and simulation of a scaled-up process, using the data gather thus far, plus publically available data relating to industrial processes. Estimation of likely LCOE modification.
Exploitation Route At this stage we plan to continue with the original project plan, outputs and findings. In the closing stages of the project we are preparing an impact handbook, which will be incorporated into the UKCCSRC. We now have design guidance from the experimental and modelling campaigns that will enable OEMs to provide selective exhaust gas recycling into future power generation, plus the data showing its economic impact.
Sectors Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description The industrial partners on the industrial steering committee, namely Uniper, Howden, Costain, SSE have benefitted from the findings of the research. The thorough and interdisciplinary nature of the work has allowed them to gain a useful insight into the feasibility of selective exhaust gas recycling. Since the start of the project, coal-fired power generation in the UK has effectively been given a short lifespan, implying that the future for grid resilience in the UK will be gas and must include CCS. Dissemination has come through the UKCCSRC, IFRF and our industrial partners. They are now more fully informed as to the future of this technology and this can be taken into account, provided government policy and appropriate subsidy is in place.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Energy
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training
Amount £5,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2025
 
Description NANOMEMC2
Amount € 4,200,000 (EUR)
Funding ID URMS number: 147326 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2021
 
Description PACT National Facility
Amount £2,476,327 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Energy and Climate Change 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2012 
End 06/2016
 
Description Welsh European Funding Office
Amount € 1,500,000 (EUR)
Funding ID FLEXIS 
Organisation European Commission 
Department European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 08/2016 
End 09/2022
 
Title GTRC CO2 delivery facility 
Description High pressure Carbon Dioxide delivery system for use in combustion studies 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The ability to provide CO2 into gas turbine combustion tests and thus evaluate the impact of exhuast gas recyling. 
URL http://www.cu-gtrc.co.uk/content/8
 
Title GTRC O2 delivery facility 
Description High pressure oxygen line for oxycombustion evaluation 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Publications demonstrating the impact of varying oxygen content in gas tubine combustion. 
URL http://www.cu-gtrc.co.uk/content/8
 
Title PACT CO2 delivry facility 
Description Facility to simulate CO2 recycling on the installed Turbec T100 Series 1 and Series 3 engines at PACT in Sheffiled. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This facility has shown the impact of CO2 addition into the insatlled T100 engine at PACT. Further testing is ongoing. Results have demonstrated the operational envelopes and emissions. 
URL http://www.pact.ac.uk/facilities/PACT-Core-Facilities/Gas-Turbine/gas-turbine-with-exhaust-gas-recyc...
 
Description Advanced Sulzer Packing for PACT Amine Captuer Plant 
Organisation Sulzer
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution To investigate performance of advanced packing during coal/gas/biomass fired
Collaborator Contribution Sulzer supplied and provided advice on advanced packing for the UKCCSRC amine capture plant
Impact Work ongoing
Start Year 2015
 
Description International CCS Test Centre Network 
Organisation E ON
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution UK CCS Research Centre's PACT Facilities joins CCS Test Centre Network chaired by TCM to expand international knowledge sharing capabilities and accelerate commercialisation of crucial CCS technologies. The addition of the PACT Facilities to the Network - which currently spans Norway, Canada, the United States and Italy - will extend its reach and bring UK research in carbon capture onto the international stage. The purpose of PACT is to support and catalyse industrial and academic R&D, by providing open-access testing facilities. This helps accelerate the development and commercialisation of technologies for carbon capture and clean power generation. The PACT facilities bring together a comprehensive range of integrated pilot-scale and accompanying specialist research and analytical facilities, supported by leading academic expertise.
Collaborator Contribution The International Test Centre Network was initiated by TCM in 2012 to enable carbon capture test facilities around the world to progress the technologies that will be a key component of our clean energy future. The network aims to share knowledge that can accelerate technology commercialisation, including, for example, next-generation technologies that can sharply reduce the costs of electricity generation (and industrial products) using CO2 capture. Since its launch, some of the world's leading CCS test centres have been sharing knowledge of construction and operation of large test facilities in order to establish a level playing field for technology vendors to reduce costs, as well as the technical, environmental and financial risks currently associated with CCS.
Impact Joint meetings every 6 months. Cost reduction for CCS technology
Start Year 2015
 
Description International CCS Test Centre Network 
Organisation SaskPower
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution UK CCS Research Centre's PACT Facilities joins CCS Test Centre Network chaired by TCM to expand international knowledge sharing capabilities and accelerate commercialisation of crucial CCS technologies. The addition of the PACT Facilities to the Network - which currently spans Norway, Canada, the United States and Italy - will extend its reach and bring UK research in carbon capture onto the international stage. The purpose of PACT is to support and catalyse industrial and academic R&D, by providing open-access testing facilities. This helps accelerate the development and commercialisation of technologies for carbon capture and clean power generation. The PACT facilities bring together a comprehensive range of integrated pilot-scale and accompanying specialist research and analytical facilities, supported by leading academic expertise.
Collaborator Contribution The International Test Centre Network was initiated by TCM in 2012 to enable carbon capture test facilities around the world to progress the technologies that will be a key component of our clean energy future. The network aims to share knowledge that can accelerate technology commercialisation, including, for example, next-generation technologies that can sharply reduce the costs of electricity generation (and industrial products) using CO2 capture. Since its launch, some of the world's leading CCS test centres have been sharing knowledge of construction and operation of large test facilities in order to establish a level playing field for technology vendors to reduce costs, as well as the technical, environmental and financial risks currently associated with CCS.
Impact Joint meetings every 6 months. Cost reduction for CCS technology
Start Year 2015
 
Description International CCS Test Centre Network 
Organisation Technology Centre Mongstad
Department CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution UK CCS Research Centre's PACT Facilities joins CCS Test Centre Network chaired by TCM to expand international knowledge sharing capabilities and accelerate commercialisation of crucial CCS technologies. The addition of the PACT Facilities to the Network - which currently spans Norway, Canada, the United States and Italy - will extend its reach and bring UK research in carbon capture onto the international stage. The purpose of PACT is to support and catalyse industrial and academic R&D, by providing open-access testing facilities. This helps accelerate the development and commercialisation of technologies for carbon capture and clean power generation. The PACT facilities bring together a comprehensive range of integrated pilot-scale and accompanying specialist research and analytical facilities, supported by leading academic expertise.
Collaborator Contribution The International Test Centre Network was initiated by TCM in 2012 to enable carbon capture test facilities around the world to progress the technologies that will be a key component of our clean energy future. The network aims to share knowledge that can accelerate technology commercialisation, including, for example, next-generation technologies that can sharply reduce the costs of electricity generation (and industrial products) using CO2 capture. Since its launch, some of the world's leading CCS test centres have been sharing knowledge of construction and operation of large test facilities in order to establish a level playing field for technology vendors to reduce costs, as well as the technical, environmental and financial risks currently associated with CCS.
Impact Joint meetings every 6 months. Cost reduction for CCS technology
Start Year 2015
 
Description International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF)-PACT National Facilities 
Organisation International Flame Research Foundation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaboration agreement between IFRF-UK and PACT national facilities: we will provide technical support to IFRF experimental projects. The partnership will include, our combustion/emission control expertise, intellectual input or the training of staff from industry. It also includes access to data, equipment or facilities.
Collaborator Contribution The members of International Flame Research Foundation will use the PACT national facilities to test their energy systems, fuels and new and novel low carbon devices.
Impact New collaboration
Start Year 2017
 
Description PSE Process Simulation 
Organisation Process Systems Enterprise Limited (PSE)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Research team is working with PSE software to develop virtual reality dynamic simulation of the power plants. In addition we provide data from pilot scale facility to validate the new models.
Collaborator Contribution Providing technical support, seminars and software.
Impact A number of journal publications joint submission of research proposals joint seminars, workshops and CPD courses
Start Year 2015
 
Description ASME Turbo Expo 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Marsh attended the ASME gas turbine conference in 2015, where the key findings were presented. This is an event attended by a significant number of key operators in the area of gas turbine development, research and operation. The findings stimulated further interest in the use of CCS with gas turbines. The data provided also changed some of the conventional opinion on the behaviour of oxyfuel flames.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.asmeconferences.org/TE2015
 
Description Attendance at ASME Turbo Expo 2017 in Charlotte, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ASME Turbo Expo is an international conference focused on the Gas Turbine Sector. Dr Diego De Paz and Dr Marsh attended the conference and discussed the project with a number of gas turbine specialists from across the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.asme.org/events/turbo-expo2017
 
Description Attendance at TCCS 2017 in Norway 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The 9th "Trondheim Conference on CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage" was held June 12 - 14, 2017, in Trondheim - Norway. The conference is organized by NCCS - International CCS Research Centre under auspices of NTNU and SINTEF.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sintef.no/projectweb/tccs-9/
 
Description Combustion Institute Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of a research paper on the effects of nitrogen and carbon dioxide dilution in gas turbines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.combustioninstitute.org/
 
Description Oral presentation at 8th Trondheim Conference on CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage, Trondheim, Norway, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Laura Herraiz presented findings from the SELECT project to the Trondheim Conference on CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sintef.no/Projectweb/TCCS-8
 
Description Oral presentation at The Annual CCUS Conference, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, April 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Laura Herraiz presented findings from the SELECT project at The Annual CCUS Conference, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.exchangemonitor.com/events/carbon-capture/
 
Description Oral presentation at the University of Texas 3rd Conference on Carbon Capture and Storage (UTCCS-3) Conference, Austin, Texas, February 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Laura Herraiz presented a research paper at a CCS conference in the UK, outlining the work completed to date on the SELECT project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Paper presented at 2016 International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, Province of China 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project team presented a research paper: Effect of Packing and Liquid Conductivity on Gas Distribution and Holdup in Reaction Column. / Wang, Huarui; Jia, Jiabin; Buschle, Bill; Lucquiaud, Mathieu.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://imtc2016.ieee-ims.org/
 
Description Paper presented at 8th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research team presented research paper: Effect of Packings on Gas Distribution and Holdup in a Bubble Column. / Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Huarui; Yang, Yunjie; Buschle, William; Lucquiaud, Mathieu.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.isipt.org/wcipt8.html
 
Description Paper presented at the 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Nick Syred presented a research paper entitled: Preliminary Results from a High Pressure Optical gas Turbine Combustor Model with 3D Viewing Capability, demonstrating how results for this project are captured.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/book/10.2514/MASM15
 
Description Presentation at the 8th International Gas Turbine Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of a paper describing the fundamentals of Selective Exhaust Gas Recycling, a description of the SELECT project, plus some data and results from the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.etn-gasturbine.eu/igtc16/
 
Description Technical conference presentation and paper at IGTC-16: 8th International Gas Turbine Conference - The Future Of Gas Turbine Technology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation in the technical session covering 'Innovative Low Carbon Cycles' - the talk explored the experimental work conducted at the UKCCSRC PACT Core facilities on exhaust gas recirculation and selective exhaust gas recirculation on a micro-gas turbine for enhanced CO2 capture performance. This also had an associated conference paper [IGTC-16 Paper 31-IGTC16, October 2016, Brussels, Belgium].
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.etn-gasturbine.eu/igtc16/
 
Description Visit to Ferrybridge power station 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dr Karen Finney visited the power station in Ferrybrdge (a potential future location for CCS) to discuss the concept of Selective EGR and the aims of the SELECT project. This was attended by station operators and other practitioners in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016